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Encyclopedia > Solar wind
The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause
The plasma in the solar wind meeting the heliopause

The solar wind is a stream of charged particles (i.e., a plasma) which are ejected from the upper atmosphere of the sun. It consists mostly of high-energy electrons and protons (about 1 keV) that are able to escape the sun's gravity in part because of the high temperature of the corona and the high kinetic energy particles gain through a process that is not well understood at this time. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2500x1687, 1789 KB) original description: This still shows the locations of Voyagers 1 and 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2500x1687, 1789 KB) original description: This still shows the locations of Voyagers 1 and 2. ... A plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. ... The heliopause is the boundary between the heliosphere and the interstellar medium outside the solar system. ... A plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. ... Photo taken during the French 1999 eclipse The stellar atmosphere is the outer region of the volume of a star, lying above the stellar core, radiation zone and convection zone. ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... Properties The electron (also called negatron, commonly represented as e−) is a subatomic particle. ... In physics, the proton (Greek proton = first) is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit (1. ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A corona is a type of plasma atmosphere of the Sun or other celestial body, extending millions of kilometres into space, most easily seen during a total solar eclipse, but also observable in a coronagraph. ...


Many phenomena are directly related to the solar wind, including geomagnetic storms that can knock out power grids on Earth, auroras (e.g. Northern Lights) and the plasma tail of a comet always pointing away from the sun. While early models of the solar wind used primarily thermal energy to accelerate the material, by the 1960s it was clear that thermal acceleration alone cannot account for the high speed solar wind. Some additional acceleration mechanism is required, but is not currently known, but most likely relates to magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere. A geomagnetic storm is a temporary disturbance of the Earths magnetosphere. ... Aurora borealis Aurora borealis The aurora is a glow observed in the night sky, usually in the polar zone. ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... Example of a thermal column between the ground and a cumulus This article is about the atmospheric phenomenon. ...

Contents

History

Laboratory simulation of the magnetosphere's influence on the Solar Wind; these auroral-like Birkeland currents were created in a terrella, a magnetised anode globe in an evacuated chamber.
Laboratory simulation of the magnetosphere's influence on the Solar Wind; these auroral-like Birkeland currents were created in a terrella, a magnetised anode globe in an evacuated chamber.

In 1916, Norwegian researcher Kristian Birkeland was probably the first person to successfully predict that in the Solar Wind, "From a physical point of view it is most probable that solar rays are neither exclusively negative nor positive rays, but of both kinds"; in other words, the solar wind consists of both negative electrons and positive ions. [1] Image File history File links Birkeland-anode-globe-fig259. ... Image File history File links Birkeland-anode-globe-fig259. ... The aurora on Jupiter, powered by Jovian Birkeland currents [Ref. ... Kristian Birkelands magnetised terrella. ... Kristian Birkeland Kristian Birkeland (December 13, 1867 - June 15, 1917) was born in Christiania (Oslo today) and wrote his first scientific paper at the age of 18. ...


Three years later in 1919, Frederick Lindemann also suggested that particles of both polarities, protons as well as electrons, come from the Sun. [2] Professor Frederick Alexander Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell (April 5, 1886 - July 3, 1957) was a physicist who became an influential scientific adviser to the British government and a close associate of Winston Churchill. ...


Around the 1930s, scientists had determined that the temperature of the solar corona must be a million degrees Celsius because of the way it stood out into space (as seen during total eclipses). Some very clever spectroscopic detective work confirmed this extraordinary temperature. In the mid-1950s the British mathematician Sydney Chapman calculated the properties of a gas at such a temperature and determined it was such a superb conductor of heat that it must extend way out into space, beyond the orbit of Earth. Also in the 1950s, a German scientist named Ludwig Biermann became interested in the fact that no matter whether a comet is headed towards or away from the sun, its tail always points away from the Sun. Biermann postulated that this happens because the Sun emits a steady stream of particles that pushes the comet's tail away[3] Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... A corona is a type of plasma atmosphere of the Sun or other celestial body, extending millions of kilometres into space, most easily seen during a total solar eclipse, but also observable in a coronagraph. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Sydney Chapman (January 29, 1888 – June 16, 1970) was a British astronomer and geophysicist. ... Ludwig Franz Benedict Biermann (March 13, 1907 – January 12, 1986) was a German astronomer. ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ...


Eugene Parker realised that the heat flowing from the sun in Chapman's model and the comet tail blowing away from the sun in Biermann's hypothesis had to be the result of the same phenomenon, which he termed the "solar wind".[4][5] Parker showed that even though the sun's corona is strongly attracted by solar gravity, it is such a good conductor of heat that it is still very hot at large distances. Since gravity weakens as distance from the sun increases, the outer coronal atmosphere escapes supersonically into interstellar space. Furthermore, Parker was the first person to notice that the weakening effect of the gravity has the same effect on hydrodynamic flow as a de Laval nozzle: it incites a transition from subsonic to supersonic flow[6] Eugene N. Parker (1927 - ) is a solar astrophysicist. ... Hydrodynamics is fluid dynamics applied to liquids, such as water, alcohol, oil, and blood. ... Diagram of a de Laval nozzle, showing approximate flow velocity increasing from green to red A de Laval nozzle (or convergent-divergent nozzle, CD nozzle or con-di nozzle) is a tube that is pinched in the middle, making an hourglass-shape. ... Subsonic has two possible meanings: A speed lower than the speed of sound is called subsonic. ... A United States Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet in transonic flight. ...


Opposition to Parker's hypothesis on the solar wind was strong. The paper he submitted to the Astrophysical Journal in 1958 was rejected by two reviewers. It was saved by the editor Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (who later received the 1983 Nobel Prize in physics). The Astrophysical Journal is one of the foremost research journals devoted to recent developments, discoveries, and theories in astronomy and astrophysics. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chandrasekhar redirects here. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Nobel Prize medal. ...


In January 1959, the first ever direct observations and measurements of strength of the solar wind were made by the Soviet satellite Luna 1.[7] They were performed using scintillation counters and gaseous ionization detectors. [8] Three years later its measurement was performed by the Americans, Neugebauer and collaborators using the Mariner 2 spacecraft [9]. 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Soviet redirects here. ... An Earth observation satellite, ERS 2 For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... Luna 1 is the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and the first of the Luna programme of Soviet automatic interplanetary stations successfully launched in the direction of the Moon. ... A scintillation counter measures ionizing radiation. ... In particle physics, gaseous ionization detectors are particle detectors which detect the presence of particles. ... -1...


However, the acceleration of the fast wind is still not understood and cannot be fully explained by Parker's theory. The first numerical simulation of the solar wind in the solar corona including closed and open field lines was performed by Pneuman and Knopp in 1971. The magnetohydrodynamics equations in steady state were solved iteratively starting with an initial dipolar configuration [10]. A corona is a type of plasma atmosphere of the Sun or other celestial body, extending millions of kilometres into space, most easily seen during a total solar eclipse, but also observable in a coronagraph. ... Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (magnetofluiddynamics or hydromagnetics) is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. ... HELLO EVERYONE!! Steady state is a more general situation than Dynamic equilibrium. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ...


In the late 1990s the Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer (UVCS) instrument on board the SOHO spacecraft observed the acceleration region of the fast solar wind emanating from the poles of the sun, and found that the wind accelerates much faster than can be accounted for by thermodynamic expansion alone. Parker's model predicted that the wind should make the transition to supersonic flow at an altitude of about 4 solar radii from the photosphere; but the transition (or "sonic point") now appears to be much lower, perhaps only 1 solar radius above the photosphere, suggesting that some additional mechanism accelerates the solar wind away from the sun. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a spacecraft that was launched on an Atlas IIAS launch vehicle on 2 December 1995 to study the Sun, and began normal operations in May 1996. ... A United States Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet in transonic flight. ... The photosphere of an astronomical object is the region at which the optical depth becomes one for a photon of wavelength equal to 5000 angstroms. ...


Properties

Composition

Coronal mass ejections sending material out into the heliosphere.

In the heliosphere, the composition of the solar wind is identical to the sun's corona: These components are present as a plasma, consisting of about 95% singly ionized hydrogen, 4% doubly ionized helium, and less than 0.5% other ions (often called minor ions). Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, silicon and iron are the dominant minor ions. The exact composition has been routinely measured on Ulysses and ACE, two spacecraft carrying a Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer. Unexpectedly, the solar wind composition shows substantial variation, likely directly reflecting the physics of the underlying corona. The first detailed composition measurements were performed by Geiss on the moon, which was part of the first Moon-landing. Solar wind was collected using a specially prepared metal-foil and then brought back for analysis. A similar technique was recently pursued using a robotic approach: A sample return mission, Genesis, returned to Earth in 2004 and is undergoing analysis, but it was damaged by crash-landing when its parachute failed to deploy on re-entry to Earth's atmosphere, possibly contaminating the solar samples. Image File history File linksMetadata I_screenimage_30579. ... Image File history File linksMetadata I_screenimage_30579. ... The heliosphere is a bubble in space produced by the solar wind. ... The heliosphere is a bubble in space produced by the solar wind. ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... A corona is a type of plasma atmosphere of the Sun or other celestial body, extending millions of kilometres into space, most easily seen during a total solar eclipse, but also observable in a coronagraph. ... A plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. ... Ulysses spacecraft Ulysses is an unmanned probe designed to study the Sun at all latitudes. ... Advanced Composition Explorer Advanced Composition Explorer Advanced Composition Explorer Advanced Composition Explorer Advanced Composition Explorer Advanced Composition Explorer Advanced Composition Explorer Advanced Composition Explorer Advanced Composition Explorer Advanced Composition Explorer Advanced Composition Explorer Advanced Composition Explorer Advanced Composition Explorer Advanced Composition Explorer Advanced Composition Explorer Advanced Composition Explorer Advanced Composition... In its collecting configuration, the Genesis spacecraft exposed collecting wafers to the solar wind. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Apollo 15 capsule landed safely despite a parachute failure. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[3] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ...


Velocity and Mass Loss Rate

Near Earth, the velocity of the solar wind varies from 200 to 889 km/s. The average is 450 km/s. Approximately 1×109 kg/s [1] of material is lost by the Sun as ejected solar wind, about one-fifth that lost due to fusion, which is equivalent to about 4.5 Tg (4.5×109 kg) of mass converted to energy every second. The total mass loss is equivalent to a lump of Earth-density rock about 125 m across every second, and at that rate the Sun would last for 10 million million (1×1013) years. However, our current understanding of star formation implies that the Sun's solar wind may have been about 1000 times more massive in the distant past, which would seriously affect the history of planetary atmospheres and that of the martian atmosphere in particular. To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various speed levels between 1. ... kilometre per second is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), signified by the symbol km/s or km s-1. ... (Redirected from 1 E9 kg) Categories: Orders of magnitude (mass) ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... tera- (symbol: T) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1012, or 1 000 000 000 000. ... (Redirected from 1 E9 kg) Categories: Orders of magnitude (mass) ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ...

The heliospheric current sheet results from the influence of the Sun's rotating magnetic field on the plasma in the interplanetary medium http://quake.stanford.edu/~wso/gifs/HCS.html
The heliospheric current sheet results from the influence of the Sun's rotating magnetic field on the plasma in the interplanetary medium http://quake.stanford.edu/~wso/gifs/HCS.html

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 768 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (866 × 676 pixel, file size: 172 KB, MIME type: image/gif) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 768 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (866 × 676 pixel, file size: 172 KB, MIME type: image/gif) (All user names refer to en. ... Heliospheric current sheet The Heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is the surface within the Solar System where the polarity of the Suns magnetic field changes from north to south. ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... A plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. ... Heliospheric current sheet, the largest structure in the Solar System, results from the influence of the Suns rotating magnetic field on the plasma in the interplanetary medium (Solar Wind) [1]. (click to enlarge) The interplanetary medium is the material which fills the solar system and through which all the...

Interplanetary Magnetic Field

Since the solar wind is a plasma, it has the characteristics of a plasma, rather than a simple gas. For example, it is highly electrically conductive so that magnetic field lines from the sun are carried along with the wind. The dynamic pressure of the wind dominates over the magnetic pressure through most of the solar system (or heliosphere), so that the magnetic field is pulled into an Archimedean spiral pattern (the Parker spiral) by the combination of the outward motion and the Sun's rotation. Depending on the hemisphere and phase of the solar cycle, the magnetic field spirals inward or outward; the magnetic field follows the same shape of spiral in the northern and southern parts of the heliosphere, but with opposite field direction. These two magnetic domains are separated by a two current sheet (an electric current that is confined to a curved plane). This heliospheric current sheet has a similar shape to a twirled ballerina skirt, and changes in shape through the solar cycle as the Sun's magnetic field reverses about every 11 years. A plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. ... Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (magnetofluiddynamics or hydromagnetics) is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In science and engineering, conductors are materials that contain movable charges of electricity. ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings In physics, a magnetic field is a solenoidal vector field in the space surrounding moving electric charges, such as those in electric currents and bar magnets. ... The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin in Canberra, Australia. ... Magnetic Pressure is the pressure applied by a magnetic field on to the container that is containing the magnetic field. ... The heliosphere is a bubble in space produced by the solar wind. ... An Archimedean spiral is a curve which in polar coordinates (r, θ) can be described by the equation with real numbers a and b. ... Heliospheric current sheet, the largest structure in the Solar System, is the three-dimensional form of the Parker spiral, that results from the influence of the Suns rotating magnetic field on the plasma in the interplanetary medium (Solar Wind) [1]. (click to enlarge) The Parker spiral is the shape... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Schwabe-Wolf cycle. ... A current sheet is an electrical current that is confined to a surface, rather than being spread through a volume of space. ... Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... Heliospheric current sheet The Heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is the surface within the Solar System where the polarity of the Suns magnetic field changes from north to south. ... Maya Plisetskaya, prima ballerina of the Bolshoi Ballet from 1943 to 1960 and prima ballerina assoluta from 1960 to 1990. ...


The plasma in the interplanetary medium is also responsible for the strength of the Sun's magnetic field at the orbit of the Earth being over 100 times greater than originally anticipated. If space were a vacuum, then the Sun's 10-4 tesla magnetic dipole field would reduce with the cube of the distance to about 10-11 tesla. But satellite observations show that it is about 100 times greater at around 10-9 tesla. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory predicts that the motion of a conducting fluid (e.g. the interplanetary medium) in a magnetic field, induces electric currents which in turn generates magnetic fields, and in this respect it behaves like a MHD dynamo. A plasma lamp, illustrating some of the more complex phenomena of a plasma, including filamentation. ... Heliospheric current sheet, the largest structure in the Solar System, results from the influence of the Suns rotating magnetic field on the plasma in the interplanetary medium (Solar Wind) [1]. (click to enlarge) The interplanetary medium is the material which fills the solar system and through which all the... MHD Simulation of Solar Wind Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), or magnetofluiddynamics, is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically-conducting fluids. ... The MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) dynamo is a fluid example of a dynamo, or electrical generator. ...


Fast and slow solar wind

Outside the plane of the ecliptic the solar wind is steady and rapid, at speeds between 600-800 km/s; this is called the fast solar wind and it is known to emanate from solar coronal holes. In the plane of the ecliptic, near the heliospheric current sheet, the wind is slower, denser, and more variable, with typical speeds between 200 and 600 km/s and daily fluctuations by a factor of two or more. This is called the slow solar wind and its location of origin on the sun is less well known. This dichotomy is particularly true during or near solar minimum. During solar maximum, slow and fast winds are more mixed and can emanate from any latitude [11]. The plane of the ecliptic is well seen in this picture from the 1994 lunar prospecting Clementine spacecraft. ... Relatively dark regions of the corona having low density; they result from open field lines    This article is a stub. ... Solar minimum is the period of least solar activity in the solar cycle of the sun. ... Solar maximum or solar max is the period of greatest solar activity in the solar cycle of the sun. ...


Effects on the planets

Mercury

Mercury, the nearest planet to the Sun, bears the full brunt of the solar wind. Any atmosphere that this moon-like world may once have had has long been swept away, leaving its surface bathed in radiation. This article is about the planet. ... This article is about the planet. ...


Venus

Main article: Atmosphere of Venus

Venus, the nearest planet to the Earth, has an atmosphere 100 times thicker than our own. Modern space probes have discovered a comet-like tail that stretches back to the orbit of the Earth (Grünwaldt 1997.) The clouds on Venus are also being eroded by the solar wind. Venus, the second planet from the Sun, has an atmosphere very different from that of Earth. ... Adjectives: Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean Atmosphere Surface pressure: 9. ...


Earth

Main article: Magnetosphere

Earth itself is nominally protected from the solar wind by its magnetic field, which deflects charged particles but also serves as an electromagnetic energy transmission line to the Earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere in the auroral zones. We only notice the solar wind when it is strong enough for this energy to produce phenomena such as the aurora and geomagnetic storms. Bright auroras strongly heat the ionosphere, causing its plasma to expand into the magnetosphere, increasing the size of the plasma geosphere, and causing escape of atmospheric matter into the solar wind. Geomagnetic storms result when the pressure of plasmas contained inside the magnetosphere is sufficiently large to inflate and thereby distort the geomagnetic field. A magnetosphere is the region around an astronomical object in which phenomena are dominated or organized by its magnetic field. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The magnetosphere shields the surface of the Earth from the charged particles of the solar wind. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ... The Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, shines above Bear Lake Aurora Borealis as seen over Canada at 11,000m (36,000 feet) Red and green Aurora in Fairbanks,Alaska For other uses, see Aurora (disambiguation). ... A geomagnetic storm is a temporary disturbance of the Earths magnetosphere. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ... In the most general sense, the geosphere is the region of space that is dominated by geogenic matter (originating from and bound to the Earth). ... A geomagnetic storm is a temporary disturbance of the Earths magnetosphere. ...


Mars

Main article: Atmosphere of Mars

Mars is larger than Mercury and four times farther from the sun, and yet even here it is thought that the solar wind has stripped away up to a third of its original atmosphere, leaving a layer 100 times thinner than the earth's. Mars, the fourth planet from the Sun, has a very different atmosphere from that of Earth. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...


Variability and space weather

Main article: Space weather

The solar wind is responsible for the overall shape of Earth's magnetosphere, and fluctuations in its speed, density, direction, and entrained magnetic field strongly affect Earth's local space environment. For example, the levels of ionizing radiation and radio interference can vary by factors of hundreds to thousands; and the shape and location of the magnetopause and bow shock wave upstream of it can change by several Earth radii, exposing geosynchronous satellites to the direct solar wind. These phenomena are collectively called space weather. Aurora australis observed by Discovery, May 1991. ... A magnetosphere is the region around an astronomical object in which phenomena are dominated or organized by its magnetic field. ... Introduction The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. ... A geosynchronous orbit is a geocentric orbit that has the same orbital period as the sidereal rotation period of the Earth. ... Aurora australis observed by Discovery, May 1991. ...

Main article: Coronal Mass Ejection

Both the fast and slow solar wind can be interrupted by large, fast-moving bursts of plasma called interplanetary coronal mass ejections, or ICMEs. ICMEs are the interplanetary manifestation of solar coronal mass ejections, which are caused by release of magnetic energy at the sun. ICMEs are often called "solar storms" or "space storms" in the popular media. They are sometimes, but not always, associated with solar flares, which are another manifestation of magnetic energy release at the Sun. ICMEs cause shock waves in the thin plasma of the heliosphere, launching electromagnetic waves and accelerating particles (mostly protons and electrons) to form showers of ionizing radiation) that precede the ICME. A composite image showing two CMEs (at 2 oclock and 8 oclock), with the sun at center. ... A composite image showing two CMEs (at 2 oclock and 8 oclock), with the sun at center. ... A solar coronal mass ejection blasts plasma throughout the Solar System. ... A Solar Flare and CME, courtesy NASA A solar flare is a violent explosion in the Suns atmosphere with an energy equivalent to a billion megatons, traveling normally at about 1 million km per hour (about 0. ... A WAVES Photographer 3rd Class The WAVES were a World War II era division of the U.S. Navy that consisted entirely of women. ... For alternative meanings see proton (disambiguation). ... Properties The electron (also called negatron, commonly represented as e−) is a subatomic particle. ... Radiation hazard symbol. ...


When an ICME impacts the Earth's magnetosphere, it temporarily deforms the Earth's magnetic field, changing the direction of compass needles and inducing large electrical ground currents in Earth itself; this is called a geomagnetic storm and it is a global phenomenon. ICME impacts can induce magnetic reconnection in Earth's magnetotail (the midnight side of the magnetosphere); this launches protons and electrons downward toward Earth's atmosphere, where they form the aurora. A magnetosphere is the region around an astronomical object in which phenomena are dominated or organized by its magnetic field. ... Magnetic field lines shown by iron filings In physics, a magnetic field is a solenoidal vector field in the space surrounding moving electric charges, such as those in electric currents and bar magnets. ... Compass in a wooden box A compass (or mariners compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the Earth. ... A geomagnetic storm is a temporary disturbance of the Earths magnetosphere. ... Magnetic reconnection is the process whereby magnetic field lines from different magnetic domains are spliced to one another, changing the overall topology of a magnetic field. ... Aurora borealis Aurora borealis The aurora is a glow observed in the night sky, usually in the polar zone. ...


ICMES are not the only cause of space weather. Different patches on the Sun are known to give rise to slightly different speeds and densities of wind depending on local conditions. In isolation, each of these different wind streams would form a spiral with a slightly different angle, with fast-moving streams moving out more directly and slow-moving streams wrapping more around the sun. Faster-moving streams tend to overtake slower streams that originate westward of them on the sun, forming turbulent corotating interaction regions that give rise to wave motions and accelerated particles, and that affect Earth's magnetosphere in the same way as, but more gently than, ICMEs. A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ...


Outer limits

Main article: Heliopause

The solar wind blows a "bubble" in the interstellar medium (the rarefied hydrogen and helium gas that permeates the galaxy). The point where the solar wind's strength is no longer great enough to push back the interstellar medium is known as the heliopause, and is often considered to be the outer "border" of the solar system. The distance to the heliopause is not precisely known, and probably varies widely depending on the current velocity of the solar wind and the local density of the interstellar medium, but it is known to lie far outside the orbit of Pluto. Scientists hope to gain more perspective on the heliopause from data acquired through the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission, to be launched in 2008. The heliopause is the boundary between the heliosphere and the interstellar medium outside the solar system. ... The interstellar medium (or ISM) is the name astronomers give to the tenuous gas and dust that pervade interstellar space. ... The heliopause is the boundary between the heliosphere and the interstellar medium outside the solar system. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 0. ... IBEX is a satellite that will make the first map of the boundary between the Solar System and interstellar space. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

A magnetopause flows along the boundary between a magnetic field, (see: magnetosphere) and surrounding plasma. ... A magnetosphere is the region around an astronomical object in which phenomena are dominated or organized by its magnetic field. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ... In the most general sense, the geosphere is the region of space that is dominated by geogenic matter (originating from and bound to the Earth). ... The heliosphere is a bubble in space produced by the solar wind. ... A Helium Focusing Cone is a concentration of heavy atoms that passed through the Suns heliosphere and are concentrated in a conical region on the opposite side of where the particles entered. ... The plasmasphere is a layer of the Earths magnetosphere that is rich in plasma. ... Introduction The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Electromagnetic waves can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. ... Heliospheric current sheet, the largest structure in the Solar System, is the three-dimensional form of the Parker spiral, that results from the influence of the Suns rotating magnetic field on the plasma in the interplanetary medium (Solar Wind) [1]. (click to enlarge) The Parker spiral is the shape... The Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) is the term for the Sun’s magnetic field among the planets of the Solar System. ... A solar wind is a stream of particles (mostly high-energy protons ~ 500 keV) which are ejected from the upper atmosphere of a star (in the case of a star other than the Earths Sun, it may be called a stellar wind instead). ...

References

  1. ^ Kristian Birkeland, "Are the Solar Corpuscular Rays that penetrate the Earth's Atmosphere Negative or Positive Rays?" in Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter, I Mat -- Naturv. Klasse No.1, Christiania, 1916.
  2. ^ Philosophical Magazine, Series 6, Vol. 38, No. 228, December, 1919, 674 (on the Solar Wind)
  3. ^ Ludwig Biermann, "Kometenschweife und solare Korpuskularstrahlung" in "Zeitschrift für Astrophysik", Vol. 29, p.274, 1951.
  4. ^ CHRISTOPHER T. RUSSELL. THE SOLAR WIND AND MAGNETOSPHERIC DYNAMICS. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  5. ^ Roach, John. "Astrophysicist Recognized for Discovery of Solar Wind", National Geographic News, 2003-08-27. Retrieved on 2006-06-13. 
  6. ^ Eugene Parker, "Dynamics of the Interplanetary Gas and Magnetic Fields" in the "Astrophysical Journal", vol. 128, p.664 , 1958.
  7. ^ Luna 1 at NASA
  8. ^ (Russian)40th Anniversary of the Space Era in the Nuclear Physics Scientific Research Institute of the Moscow State University, contains the graph showing particle detection by Luna 1 at various altitudes
  9. ^ M. Neugebauer and C. W. Snyder, Solar Plasma Experiment in Science, vol. 138, p.1095-1097 , 1962
  10. ^ G. W. Pneuman and R. A. Kopp Gas-magnetic field interactions in the solar corona in Solar Physics, vol. 18, 258, 1971
  11. ^ Solar wind at solar maximum Spaceflight now

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... Luna 1 is the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon and the first of the Luna programme of Soviet automatic interplanetary stations successfully launched in the direction of the Moon. ...

Sources


  Results from FactBites:
 
Solar Wind (1088 words)
The solar magnetic fields embedded in the plasma are carried into space by the solar wind to form the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF).
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As the solar wind expands, its density decreases as the inverse of the square of its distance from the Sun.
solar wind: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (3187 words)
In the heliosphere, the composition of the solar wind is identical to the Sun's corona: By mass, 73% ionized hydrogen and 25% doubly ionized helium with the remainder as trace impurities.
Outside the plane of the ecliptic the solar wind is steady and rapid, at speeds between 600-800 km/s; this is called the fast solar wind and it is known to emanate from solar coronal holes.
The solar wind blows a "bubble" in the interstellar medium (the rarefied hydrogen and helium gas that permeates the galaxy).
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