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Encyclopedia > Solar energy
Heat and light from the Sun fuels life on Earth.
Heat and light from the Sun fuels life on Earth.
Nellis Solar Power Plant, the largest photovoltaic power plant in North America
Nellis Solar Power Plant, the largest photovoltaic power plant in North America
Solar energy reaching the earth's surface (left) greatly exceeds both total wind energy (center) and global energy consumption (right), although only a small portion of each is recoverable.
Solar energy reaching the earth's surface (left) greatly exceeds both total wind energy (center) and global energy consumption (right), although only a small portion of each is recoverable.[1]
Renewable energy
Wind Turbine
Biofuels
Biomass
Geothermal
Hydro power
Solar power
Tidal power
Wave power
Wind power

Solar energy is the heat and light radiated from the Sun that drives Earth's climate and supports life. Solar technologies make controlled use of this energy resource. Solar power is a synonym of solar energy or refers specifically to the conversion of sunlight into electricity by photovoltaics, concentrating solar thermal devices or various experimental technologies. The Nellis Solar Power Plant will be the largest solar photovoltaic system ever to be built in North America and is located at Nellis Air Force Base in Clark County, Nevada, on the northeast side of Las Vegas. ... Photovoltaic tree in Styria, Austria Photovoltaics, or PV for short, is a solar power technology that uses solar cells or solar photovoltaic arrays to convert light from the sun directly into electricity. ... North American redirects here. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Bio-energy redirects here. ... Simple use of biomass fuel (Combustion of wood for heat). ... The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Plant in Iceland Geothermal power (from the Greek words geo, meaning earth, and thermal, meaning heat) is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface or the collection of absorbed heat in the atmosphere and oceans. ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... Tidal power, sometimes called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into electricity or other useful forms of power. ... Wave power refers to the energy of ocean surface waves and the capture of that energy to do useful work - including electricity generation, desalination, and the pumping of water (into reservoirs). ... An example of a wind turbine. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... Light (a form of radiant energy) observed in a forest Radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic waves, or sometimes of other forms of radiation. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about life in general. ... Technology (Gr. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... Photovoltaic tree in Styria, Austria Photovoltaics, or PV for short, is a solar power technology that uses solar cells or solar photovoltaic arrays to convert light from the sun directly into electricity. ...


The controlled use of solar energy is an important consideration in building design. Thermal mass is used to conserve the heat that sunshine delivers to all buildings. Daylighting techniques optimize the use of light in buildings. Solar water heaters heat swimming pools and provide domestic hot water. In agriculture, greenhouses grow specialty crops and photovoltaic-powered pumps bring water to grazing animals. Evaporation ponds find applications in the commercial and industrial sectors where they are used to harvest salt and clean waste streams of contaminants. Thermal mass, in the most general sense, is any mass that absorbs and holds heat. ... Daylighting is the practice of placing windows, or other transparent media, and reflective surfaces so that, during the day, natural light provides effective internal illumination. ... Solar hot water refers to water heated by solar energy. ... The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ...


Solar distillation and disinfection techniques produce potable water for millions of people worldwide. Family-scale solar cookers and larger solar kitchens concentrate sunlight for cooking, drying and pasteurization. More sophisticated concentrating technologies magnify the rays of the Sun for high temperature material testing, metal smelting and industrial chemical production. A range of prototype solar vehicles provide ground, air and sea transportation. Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Disinfection is the destruction of pathogenic and other kinds of microorganisms by physical or chemical means. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pasteurization (or pasteurisation) is the process of heating liquids for the purpose of destroying viruses and harmful organisms such as bacteria, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942) Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of extractive metallurgy. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... For other uses, see Prototype (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Energy from the Sun

Main articles: Insolation and Solar radiation
About half the incoming solar energy is absorbed by water and land; the rest is reradiated back into space.
Average insolation showing land area (small black dots) required to replace the total world energy supply with solar electricity
Average insolation showing land area (small black dots) required to replace the total world energy supply with solar electricity

Earth continuously receives 174 PW of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the upper atmosphere.[2] Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by the atmosphere, oceans and land masses. After passing through the atmosphere, the insolation spectrum is mostly split between the visible and infrared ranges with a small part in the ultraviolet.[3] Not to be confused with insulation. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... Image File history File links Solar_land_area. ... Image File history File links Solar_land_area. ... Not to be confused with insulation. ... This page lists examples of the power in watts produced by various different sources of energy. ... Not to be confused with insulation. ... Air redirects here. ... Although some radiations are marked as N for no in the diagram, some waves do in fact penetrate the atmosphere, although extremely minimally compared to the other radiations The electromagnetic (EM) spectrum is the range of all possible electromagnetic radiation. ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ...


The absorption of solar energy by atmospheric convection (sensible heat transport) and evaporation and condensation of water vapor (latent heat transport) powers the water cycle and drives the winds.[4] Sunlight absorbed by the oceans and land masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of 14 °C.[5] The conversion of solar energy into chemical energy via photosynthesis produces food, wood and the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived.[6] Sensible heat is heat energy that is transported by a body that has a temperature higher than its surroundings via conduction, convection, or both. ... In thermochemistry, latent heat is the amount of energy in the form of heat released or absorbed by a substance during a change of phase (i. ... The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle. ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Simple use of biomass fuel (Combustion of wood for heat). ...


Solar radiation along with secondary solar resources such as wind and wave power, hydroelectricity and biomass account for over 99.9% of the available flow of renewable energy on Earth.[7][8] The flows and stores of solar energy in the environment are vast in comparison to current human energy needs. Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... Wave power refers to the energy of ocean surface waves and the capture of that energy to do useful work - including electricity generation, desalination, and the pumping of water (into reservoirs). ... Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. ... Simple use of biomass fuel (Combustion of wood for heat). ... The Earth can be considered as a physical system with an energy budget that includes all gains of incoming energy and all losses of outgoing energy. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ...

  • The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceans and land masses is approximately 3,850 zettajoules (ZJ) per year.[9]
  • Global wind energy at 80 m is estimated at 2.25 ZJ per year.[10]
  • Photosynthesis captures approximately 3 ZJ per year in biomass.[11]
  • Worldwide electricity consumption was approximately 0.0567 ZJ in 2005.[12]
  • Worldwide primary energy consumption was 0.487 ZJ in 2005.[13]

The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... Primary energy is energy contained in raw fuels and any other forms of energy received by a system as input to the system. ...

Applications of solar energy technology

Solar radiation spectrum
Solar radiation spectrum

Solar energy technologies use solar radiation for practical ends. Technologies that use secondary solar resources such as biomass, wind, waves and ocean thermal gradients can be included in a broader description of solar energy but only primary resource applications are discussed here. Because the performance of solar technologies varies widely between regions, solar technologies should be deployed in a way that carefully considers these variations.[14] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ...


Solar technologies such as photovoltaics and water heaters increase the supply of energy and may be characterized as supply side technologies.[citation needed] Technologies such as passive design and shading devices reduce the need for alternate resources and may be characterized as demand side. Optimizing the performance of solar technologies is often a matter of controlling the resource rather than simply maximizing its collection.[citation needed]


Architecture and urban planning

Darmstadt University of Technology won the 2007 Solar Decathlon with this passive house designed specifically for the humid and hot subtropical climate in Washington, D.C.
Darmstadt University of Technology won the 2007 Solar Decathlon with this passive house designed specifically for the humid and hot subtropical climate in Washington, D.C.[15]

Sunlight has influenced building design since the beginning of architectural history.[16] Fully developed solar architecture and urban planning methods were first employed by the Greeks and Chinese who oriented their buildings toward the south to provide light and warmth.[17] Passive solar buildings aim to maintain interior thermal comfort throughout the suns daily and annual cycles whilst reducing the requirement for active heating and cooling systems. ... Tokyo, a case of Urban Heat Island. ... Old main building in the city centre. ... The Solar Decathlon is an international architectural and engineering competition sponsored by the United States Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). ...


The elemental features of passive solar architecture are Sun orientation, compact proportion (a low surface area to volume ratio), selective shading (overhangs) and thermal mass.[16] When these features are tailored to the local climate and environment they can produce well-lit spaces that stay in a comfortable temperature range. Socrates' Megaron House is a classic example of passive solar design.[16] The most recent approaches to solar design use computer modeling to tie together solar lighting, heating and ventilation systems in an integrated solar design package. Active solar equipment such as pumps, fans and switchable windows can also complement passive design and improve system performance. Solar panels are used in passive and active solar hot water systems Passive solar technologies convert sunlight into usable heat, cause air-movement for ventilation or cooling, or store heat for future use, without the assistance of other energy sources. ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... Daylighting is the practice of placing windows, or other transparent media, and reflective surfaces so that, during the day, natural light provides effective internal illumination. ... Solar heating is the usage of solar energy to provide process, space or water heating. ... It has been suggested that Portable air conditioner be merged into this article or section. ... The goal of solar design is to incorporate passive solar design features into buildings, to help keep a structure warm in the winter and cool in the summer. ... Active solar is a term which refers to the use of solar energy to actively convert the energy in sunlight into other forms. ...


Urban heat islands (UHI) are metropolitan areas with higher temperatures than the surrounding environment. These higher temperatures are the result of urban materials such as asphalt and concrete that have lower albedos and higher heat capacities than the natural environment. A straightforward method of counteracting the UHI effect is to paint buildings and roads white and plant trees. Using these methods, a hypothetical "cool communities" program in Los Angeles has projected that urban temperatures could be reduced by approximately 3 °C at an estimated cost of US$1 billion, giving estimated total annual benefits of US$530 million from reduced air-conditioning costs and healthcare savings.[18] For other uses, see Albedo (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


Agriculture and horticulture

Main articles: Agriculture, Horticulture, and Greenhouse
Greenhouses like these in the Netherland's Westland municipality grow a wide variety of vegetables, fruits and flowers.
Greenhouses like these in the Netherland's Westland municipality grow a wide variety of vegetables, fruits and flowers.

Agriculture inherently seeks to optimize the capture of solar energy, and thereby plant productivity. Techniques such as timed planting cycles, tailored row orientation, staggered heights between rows and the mixing of plant varieties can improve crop yields.[19][20] While sunlight is generally considered a plentiful resource, there are exceptions which highlight the importance of solar energy to agriculture. During the short growing seasons of the Little Ice Age, French and English farmers employed fruit walls to maximize the collection of solar energy. These walls acted as thermal masses and accelerated ripening by keeping plants warm. Early fruit walls were built perpendicular to the ground with a south facing orientation but over time sloping walls were developed to make better use of sunlight. In 1699, Nicolas Fatio de Duillier even suggested using a tracking mechanism which could pivot to follow the Sun.[21] Solar energy is also used in many areas of agriculture aside from growing crops. Applications include pumping water, drying crops, brooding chicks and drying chicken manure.[22][23] Horticulture (pronounced or US [1]) is the art and science of the cultivation of plants. ... The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ... As of 2007, solar power in the United Kingdom (photovoltaic electricity generation) is relatively commercially unattractive due to the moderate level of insolation, cheap grid electricity (compared to other European countries), and low financial incentives from government. ... Nicolas Fatio de Duillier (1664-1753) was a Swiss mathematician and a Fellow of the Royal Society. ... A backyard installation of passive single–axis trackers, DC rated at 2340 watts. ...


Greenhouses control the use of solar heat and light to grow plants in enclosed environments, enabling year-round production and the growth of specialty crops and other plants not naturally suited to the local climate. Primitive greenhouses were first used during Roman times to grow cucumbers year-round for the Roman emperor Tiberius.[24] The first modern greenhouses were built in Europe in the 16th century to conserve exotic plants brought back from explorations abroad.[25] Greenhouses remain an important part of horticulture today, while plastic transparent materials have also been used to similar effect in polytunnels and row covers. The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A polytunnel is a tunnel made of polyethylene used to grow plants that require a higher temperature and/or humidity than what is available in the environment. ... In agriculture, row cover is any material used as a protective covering to shield plants, usually vegetables, primarily from the undesirable effects of cold and wind, and also from insect damage. ...


Solar lighting

Daylighting features such as this oculus at the top of the Pantheon in Rome have been in use since antiquity.
Daylighting features such as this oculus at the top of the Pantheon in Rome have been in use since antiquity.

The history of lighting is dominated by the use of natural light. The Romans recognized the Right to Light as early as the 6th century and English law echoed these judgments with the Prescription Act of 1832.[26][27] In the 20th century artificial lighting became the main source of interior illumination. Oculus is the Latin word for eye. ... In English Law a right to light is a form of easement. ... Justinian I depicted on a mosaic in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy The Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) is the modern name[1] for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor. ... Not to be confused with lightning. ...


Daylighting systems collect and distribute sunlight to provide interior illumination. These systems directly offset energy use by replacing artificial lighting, and indirectly offset non-solar energy use by reducing the need for air-conditioning.[28] Although difficult to quantify, the use of natural lighting also offers physiological and psychological benefits compared to artificial lighting.[28] Daylighting design carefully selects window type, size and orientation and may also consider exterior shading devices. Individual features include sawtooth roofs, clerestory windows, light shelves, skylights and light tubes. These features may be incorporated into existing structures but are most effective when integrated in a solar design package that accounts for factors such as glare, heat flux and time-of-use. When daylighting features are properly implemented they can reduce commercial lighting-related energy requirements by 25%.[29] Daylighting is the practice of placing windows, or other transparent media, and reflective surfaces so that, during the day, natural light provides effective internal illumination. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts that remove air from return-air grilles Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... Not to be confused with lightning. ... Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... The word skylight, when used alone, has several possible meanings in the English language. ... Light tubes or light pipes are used for transporting or distributing natural or artificial light. ... Passive solar buildings aim to maintain interior thermal comfort throughout the suns daily and annual cycles whilst reducing the requirement for active heating and cooling systems. ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ... Power meter redirects here. ...


Hybrid solar lighting (HSL) is an active solar method of using sunlight to provide illumination. HSL systems collect sunlight using focusing mirrors that track the Sun and use optical fibers to transmit the light into a building's interior to supplement conventional lighting. In single-story applications, these systems are able to transmit 50% of the direct sunlight received.[30] Active solar is a term which refers to the use of solar energy to actively convert the energy in sunlight into other forms. ... A backyard installation of passive single–axis trackers, DC rated at 2340 watts. ... Optical fibers An optical fiber (or fibre) is a glass or plastic fiber designed to guide light along its length. ...


Although daylight saving time is promoted as a way to use sunlight to save energy, recent research is limited and reports contradictory results: several studies report savings, but just as many suggest no effect or even a net loss, particularly when gasoline consumption is taken into account. Electricity use is greatly affected by geography, climate and economics, making it hard to generalize from single studies.[31] Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Petrol redirects here. ...


Solar thermal

Main article: Solar thermal energy

Solar thermal technologies can be used for water heating, space heating, space cooling and process heat generation.[32] Solar thermal energy is a technology for harnessing solar energy for practical applications from solar heating to electrical power generation. ...


Water heating

Solar water heaters face the equator and are angled according to latitude to maximize solar gain.
Solar water heaters face the equator and are angled according to latitude to maximize solar gain.

Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water. When sited in low latitudes (below 40 degrees), solar heating system can provide around 60 to 70% of domestic hot water use with temperatures up to 60 °C.[33] The most common types of solar water heaters are evacuated tube collectors (44%) and glazed flat plate collectors (34%) generally used for domestic hot water; and unglazed plastic collectors (21%) used mainly to heat swimming pools.[34] Solar hot water refers to water heated by solar energy. ... A solar combisystem is a solar heating system that provides both space heating and hot water from a common array of solar thermal collectors, normally linked to an auxiliary non-solar heat source. ...


As of 2007, the total installed capacity of solar hot water systems is approximately 154 GW.[35] China is the world leader in the deployment of solar hot water with 70 GW installed as of 2006 and a long term goal of 210 GW by 2020.[36] Israel is the per capita leader in the use of solar hot water with 90% of homes using this technology.[37] In the United States, Canada and Australia, heating swimming pools is the dominant application of solar hot water, with an installed capacity of 18 GW as of 2005.[38] For other uses, see Watt (disambiguation). ...


Heating, cooling and ventilation

MIT's Solar House#1 built in 1939 used seasonal thermal storage for year-round heating.
MIT's Solar House#1 built in 1939 used seasonal thermal storage for year-round heating.

In the United States, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for 30% (4.65 EJ) of the energy used in commercial buildings and nearly 50% (10.1 EJ) of the energy used in residential buildings.[39][29] Solar heating, cooling and ventilation technologies can be used to offset a portion of this energy. Solar heating is the usage of solar energy to provide process, space or water heating. ... Thermal mass, in the most general sense, is any mass that absorbs and holds heat. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solar Tower. ... It has been suggested that Portable air conditioner be merged into this article or section. ... A seasonal thermal store (also known as a seasonal heat store or inter-seasonal thermal store) is a store designed to retain heat deposited during the hot summer months for use during colder winter weather. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts that remove air from return-air grilles Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC...


Thermal mass, in the most general sense, is any material that has the capacity to store heat. In the context of solar energy, thermal mass materials are used to store heat from the Sun. Common thermal mass materials include stone, cement and water. These materials have historically been used in arid climates or warm temperate regions to keep buildings cool by absorbing solar energy during the day and radiating stored heat to the cooler atmosphere at night, but they can also be used in cold temperate areas to maintain warmth. The size and placement of thermal mass should consider several factors such as climate, daylighting and shading conditions. When properly incorporated, thermal mass maintains space temperatures in a comfortable range and reduces the need for auxiliary heating and cooling equipment.[40]


A solar chimney (or thermal chimney) is a passive solar ventilation system composed of a vertical shaft connecting the interior and exterior of a building. As the chimney warms, the air inside is heated causing an updraft that pulls air through the building. Performance can be improved by using glazing and thermal mass materials in a way that mimics greenhouses. These systems have been in use since Roman times and remain common in the Middle East.[citation needed] An Updraft or Downdraft is refers to the vertical movement of air as a weather related phenomenom. ...


Deciduous trees and plants can be used to provide heating and cooling. When planted on the southern elevation of the building, the leaves can provide shade during the summer while the bare limbs allow light and warmth to pass during the winter.[41] For other uses, see Deciduous (disambiguation). ...


Desalination and disinfection

A SODIS application in Indonesia demonstrates the simplicity of this approach to water disinfection.
A SODIS application in Indonesia demonstrates the simplicity of this approach to water disinfection.

Solar distillation is the production of potable water from saline or brackish water using solar energy. The first recorded use was by 16th century Arab alchemists.[42] The first large-scale solar distillation project was constructed in 1872 in the Chilean mining town of Las Salinas.[43] This 4,700 m² still could produce up to 22,700 L per day and operated for 40 years.[43] Individual still designs include single-slope, double-slope (or greenhouse type), vertical, conical, inverted absorber, multi-wick and multiple effect.[42] These stills can operate in passive, active or hybrid modes. Double slope stills are the most economical for decentralized domestic purposes while active multiple effect units are more suitable to large-scale applications.[42] Solar still built into a pit in the ground A solar still is a very simple device for distilling water, powered by the heat of the sun. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Brackish redirects here. ... The term still is a contraction of the verb to distill. A still is an apparatus used to distill miscible or immiscible (eg. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ...


Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a method of disinfecting water by exposing water-filled plastic PET bottles to several hours of sunlight.[44] Exposure times vary according weather and climate from a minimum of six hours to two days during fully overcast conditions.[45] SODIS is recommended by the World Health Organization as a viable method for household water treatment and safe storage.[46] Over two million people in developing countries use SODIS for their daily drinking water needs.[45] Disinfection is the destruction of pathogenic and other kinds of microorganisms by physical or chemical means. ... PETE redirects here. ... WHO redirects here. ...


Cooking

Main article: Solar cooker
The Solar Bowl in Auroville, India, concentrates sunlight on a movable receiver to produce steam for cooking.
The Solar Bowl in Auroville, India, concentrates sunlight on a movable receiver to produce steam for cooking.

Solar cookers use sunlight for cooking, drying and pasteurization. Solar cooking offsets fuel costs, reduces demand for fuel or firewood, and improves air quality by reducing the generation of smoke. The simplest type of solar cooker is the box cooker first built by Horace de Saussure in 1767. A basic box cooker consists of an insulated container with a transparent lid. These cookers can be used effectively with partially overcast skies and will typically reach temperatures of 50-100 °C.[47][48] Concentrating solar cookers use reflectors to focus light on a cooking container. The most common reflector geometries are flat plate, disc and parabolic trough type. These designs reach temperatures up to 315 °C but require direct light to function properly and must be repositioned to track the Sun.[48] The CooKit solar panel cooker in use in Africa A solar cooker is a way of using the suns power to cook. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 509 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 651 pixels, file size: 81 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This picture was sent to me from India. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 509 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 651 pixels, file size: 81 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This picture was sent to me from India. ... Pasteurization (or pasteurisation) is the process of heating liquids for the purpose of destroying viruses and harmful organisms such as bacteria, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. ... Horace-Benedict de Saussure was a French-Swiss naturalist who constructed the first known western solar oven in 1767. ... A backyard installation of passive single–axis trackers, DC rated at 2340 watts. ...


The solar bowl is a unique concentrating technology employed by the Solar Kitchen in Auroville, India. The solar bowl is a stationary spherical reflector that focuses light along a line perpendicular to the sphere's interior surface and a computer control system moves the receiver to intersect this line. Steam is produced in the receiver at temperatures reaching 150 °C and then used for process heat in the kitchen.[49] , Auroville (City of Dawn) is an experimental township in Viluppuram district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India near Puducherry in South India, whose stated purpose is to realize human unity in diversity. ...


A reflector developed by Wolfgang Scheffler in 1986 is used in many solar kitchens. Scheffler reflectors are flexible parabolic dishes that combine aspects of trough and power tower concentrators. Polar tracking is used to follow the Sun's daily course and the curvature of the reflector is adjusted for seasonal variations in the incident angle of sunlight. These reflectors can reach temperatures of 450-650 °C and have a fixed focal point which improves the ease of cooking.[50] The world's largest Scheffler reflector system in Abu Road, Rajasthan, India is capable of cooking up to 35,000 meals a day.[51] By early 2008, over 2,000 large Scheffler cookers had been built worldwide.[citation needed] A backyard installation of passive single–axis trackers, DC rated at 2340 watts. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ...


Process heat

STEP parabolic dishes used for steam production and electrical generation
STEP parabolic dishes used for steam production and electrical generation

Concentrating solar technologies such as parabolic dish, trough and Scheffler reflectors can provide process heat for commercial and industrial applications. The first commercial system was the Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) in Shenandoah, Georgia where a field of 114 parabolic dishes provided 50% of the process heating, air conditioning and electrical requirements for a clothing factory.[52] This cogeneration system generated 400 kW of electricity and 3 MW of thermal energy in the form of steam, and had a thermal storage system that allowed for peak-load shaving.[citation needed] A Solar pond is large-scale solar energy collector with integral heat storage for supplying thermal energy. ... San Francisco Bay salt ponds Salt evaporation pond in Ile de Ré, France. ... solar oven A solar oven or solar furnace is a way of harnessing the suns power to cook food. ... Shenandoah (daughter of the stars) is: a 1965 movie starring Jimmy Stewart: see Shenandoah_(movie) a river (see Shenandoah River) in the United States of America the valley through which that river runs: see Shenandoah Valley a national park in the Shenandoah Valley: see Shenandoah National Park a borough in...


Evaporation ponds are shallow pools that concentrate dissolved solids through evaporation. The use of evaporation ponds to obtain salt from sea water is one of the oldest applications of solar energy. Modern uses include concentrating brine solutions used in leach mining and removing dissolved solids from waste streams.[53] Vaporization redirects here. ...


Clothes lines, clotheshorses, and clothes racks dry clothes through evaporation. These devices use wind and sunlight instead of electricity or natural gas. Florida legislation specifically protects the 'right to dry' and similar solar rights legislation has been passed in Utah and Hawaii.[54] For the professional wrestling move, see Professional wrestling attacks#Clothesline. ... A clothes horse A clotheshorse (often written as two words, ie clothes horse) refers to a frame (usually wooden, metal or plastic) upon which clothes are hung after washing to enable them to dry. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Unglazed transpired collectors (UTC) are perforated sun-facing walls used for preheating ventilation air. UTCs can raise the incoming air temperature up to 22 °C and deliver outlet temperatures of 45-60 °C.[55] The short payback period of transpired collectors (3 to 12 years) makes them a more cost-effective alternative than glazed collection systems.[55] As of 2003, over 80 systems with a combined collector area of 35,000  had been installed worldwide, including an 860 m² collector in Costa Rica used for drying coffee beans and a 1,300 m² collector in Coimbatore, India used for drying marigolds.[23] A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... , Coimbatore (Tamil: ), also known as Kovai (Tamil: ), is a major industrial city in India and the second largest city in the state of Tamil Nadu. ...


Solar electricity

Solar power technologies convert sunlight into electricity using photovoltaics, concentrating solar thermal devices, or various experimental technologies. PV has mainly been used to generate power for small and medium-sized applications, from the calculator powered by a single solar cell, the solar powered watch to off-grid homes powered by a photovoltaic array. For large-scale generation, concentrating solar thermal power plants like SEGS have been the norm but multi-megawatt PV plants are becoming more common. Completed in 2007, the 14 MW power station in Clark County, Nevada and the 20 MW site in Beneixama, Spain are characteristic of the trend toward larger photovoltaic power stations in the US and Europe.[56] For other uses, see Calculator (disambiguation). ... A solar powered watch is a watch that is powered entirely or partly by a solar panel. ... A photovoltaic module that is composed of individual PV cells. ... Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS) operates nine solar power plants which use parabolic trough solar thermal electric technology along with natural gas to generate electricity in the Mojave Desert. ... Clark County is a county located in the U.S. state of Nevada. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... Several large photovoltaic power stations have been built, mainly in Europe. ...


Photovoltaics

Main article: Photovoltaics
Solar cells power the International Space Station.
Solar cells power the International Space Station.

A solar cell (or photovoltaic cell) is a device that converts light into direct current using the photoelectric effect. The first solar cell was constructed by Charles Fritts in the 1880s.[57] Although the prototype selenium cells converted less than 1% of incident light into electricity, both Ernst Werner von Siemens and James Clerk Maxwell recognized the importance of this discovery.[58] Following the fundamental work of Russell Ohl in the 1940s, researchers Gerald Pearson, Calvin Fuller and Daryl Chapin created the silicon solar cell in 1954.[59] These early solar cells cost 286 USD/watt and reached efficiencies of 4.5-6%.[60] Photovoltaic tree in Styria, Austria Photovoltaics, or PV for short, is a solar power technology that uses solar cells or solar photovoltaic arrays to convert light from the sun directly into electricity. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (4000 × 4000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (4000 × 4000 pixel, file size: 3. ... ISS redirects here. ... A solar cell, made from a monocrystalline silicon wafer A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts solar energy into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... A diagram illustrating the emission of electrons from a metal plate, requiring energy gained from an incoming photon to be more than the work function of the material. ... Charles Fritts (believed 1869–?)in Livingston, Columbia, NY was an American inventor credited with creating the first working solar cell in 1884. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Werner von Siemens Ernst Werner von Siemens (known as Werner von Siemens) (December 13, 1816 – December 6, 1892) was a German inventor and industrialist. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. ... Russell Ohl is generally recognized for patenting the modern solar cell (US2402662, Light sensitive device). Ohl was a notable semiconductor researcher prior to the invention of the transistor. ... Calvin Souther Fuller (May 25, 1902 – October 28, 1994) was a physical chemist at AT&T Bell Laboratories where he worked for 37 years. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ...


The earliest significant application of solar cells was as a back-up power source to the Vanguard I satellite, which allowed the satellite to continue transmitting for over a year after its chemical battery was exhausted.[61] The successful operation of solar cells on this mission was duplicated in many other Soviet and American satellites, and by the late 1960s PV had become the established source of power for satellites.[62] Photovoltaics went on to play an essential part in the success of early commercial satellites such as Telstar and continue to remain vital to the telecommunications infrastructure today.[63] Vanguard 1 is the oldest still orbiting artificial satellite, though there is no longer communication with it. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The original Telstar had a roughly spherical shape. ...


The high cost of solar cells limited terrestrial uses throughout the 1960s. This changed in the early 1970s when prices reached levels that made PV generation competitive in remote areas without grid access. Early terrestrial uses included powering telecommunication stations, off-shore oil rigs, navigational buoys and railroad crossings.[64] These and other off-grid applications have proven very successful and accounted for over half of worldwide installed capacity until 2004.[36] Transmission towers Transmission lines in Lund, Sweden Electric power transmission, or more accurately Electrical energy transmission, is the second process in the delivery of electricity to consumers. ... Natural gas drilling rig A drilling rig or oil rig is a structure housing equipment used to drill for and extract oil or natural gas from underground reservoirs. ... Buoys redirects here. ... The term off the grid refers to a method of construction that relies on renewable energy sources rather than traditional public utility sources provided by the utility grid. ...

Building-integrated photovoltaics cover the roofs of an increasing number of homes.
Building-integrated photovoltaics cover the roofs of an increasing number of homes.

The 1973 oil crisis stimulated a rapid rise in the production of PV during the 1970s and early 1980s.[65] Economies of scale which resulted from increasing production along with improvements in system performance brought the price of PV down from 100 USD/watt in 1971 to 7 USD/watt in 1985.[66] Steadily falling oil prices during the early 1980s led to a reduction in funding for photovoltaic R&D and a discontinuation of the tax credits associated with the Energy Tax Act of 1978. These factors moderated growth to approximately 15% per year from 1984 through 1996.[67] The CIS Tower, Manchester, England, was clad in PV panels at a cost of £5. ... The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship oil to nations... The increase in output from Q to Q2 causes a decrease in the average cost of each unit from C to C1. ... The Energy Tax Act (Pub. ...


Since the mid-1990s, leadership in the PV sector has shifted from the US to Japan and Germany. Between 1992 and 1994 Japan increased R&D funding, established net metering guidelines, and introduced a subsidy program to encourage the installation of residential PV systems.[68] As a result, PV installations in the country climbed from 31.2 MW in 1994 to 318 MW in 1999,[69] and worldwide production growth increased to 30% in the late 1990s.[70] Net metering is a electricity policy for consumers who own, generally small, renewable energy facilities, such as wind or solar power, or uses vehicle-to-grid systems. ...


Germany has become the leading PV market worldwide since revising its Feed-in tariff system as part of the Renewable Energy Sources Act. Installed PV capacity has risen from 100 MW in 2000 to approximately 4,150 MW at the end of 2007.[71][72] Spain has become the third largest PV market after adopting a similar feed-in tariff structure in 2004, while France, Italy, South Korea and the US have also seen rapid growth recently due to various incentive programs and local market conditions.[73] Feed-in electricity tariffs have been introduced in Germany to encourage the use of new energy technologies such as wind power, biomass, hydropower, geothermal power and solar photovoltaics. ...


Concentrating solar power

Main article: Concentrating solar energy
Dish engine systems eliminate the need to transfer heat to a boiler by placing a Stirling engine at the focal point.
Dish engine systems eliminate the need to transfer heat to a boiler by placing a Stirling engine at the focal point.

Concentrated sunlight has been used to perform useful tasks since the time of ancient China. A legend claims Archimedes used polished shields to concentrate sunlight on the invading Roman fleet and repel them from Syracuse. In 1866, Auguste Mouchout used a parabolic trough to produce steam for the first solar steam engine, and subsequent developments led to the use of concentrating solar-powered devices for irrigation, refrigeration and locomotion.[74] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cut away diagram of a rhombic drive beta configuration Stirling engine design. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... For other uses, see Archimedes (disambiguation). ... Clinton Square in Downtown Syracuse Syracuse is an American city in Central New York. ...


Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. The concentrated light is then used as a heat source for a conventional power plant. A wide range of concentrating technologies exist; the most developed are the solar trough, parabolic dish and solar power tower. These methods vary in the way they track the Sun and focus light. In all these systems a working fluid is heated by the concentrated sunlight, and is then used for power generation or energy storage.[75] Working mass is a mass against which a system operates in order to produce acceleration. ...

The PS10 concentrates sunlight from a field of heliostats on a central tower.
The PS10 concentrates sunlight from a field of heliostats on a central tower.

A solar trough consists of a linear parabolic reflector that concentrates light onto a receiver positioned along the reflector's focal line. The reflector is made to follow the Sun during the daylight hours by tracking along a single axis. Trough systems are the most developed CSP technology.[citation needed] The SEGS plants in California and Acciona's Nevada Solar One near Boulder City, Nevada are representatives of this technology.[citation needed] Europes first commercial concentrating PS10 solar power tower is operating near the sunny southern Spanish city of Seville. ... Sketch of a Parabolic Trough Collector Aerial view showing portions of four of the five SEGS III-VII plants located at Kramer Junction Close-up of the Kramer Junction mirrors. ... Nevada Solar One is the third largest solar power plant in the world, generating 64MW, as of June 2007, and is the second (Arizona Public Services Saguoro Solar Trough opened in 2006) solar thermal power plant built in the United States in more than 16 years. ... Boulder City is a city in Clark County, Nevada, United States. ...


A parabolic dish system consists of a stand-alone parabolic reflector that concentrates light onto a receiver positioned at the reflector's focal point. The reflector tracks the Sun along two axes. Parabolic dish systems give the highest efficiency among CSP technologies.[citation needed] The Big Dish in Canberra, Australia is an example of this technology.[citation needed] A parabolic reflector (also known as a parabolic dish or a parabolic mirror) is a reflective device formed in the shape of a paraboloid of revolution. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ...


A solar power tower uses an array of tracking reflectors (heliostats) to concentrate light on a central receiver atop a tower. Power towers are less advanced than trough systems but offer higher efficiency and better energy storage capability.[citation needed] The Solar Two in Daggett, California and the Planta Solar 10 in Sanlucar la Mayor, Spain are representatives of this technology.[citation needed] A Heliostat is a device that tracks the movement of the sun. ... Solar One is a pilot solar-thermal project in the Mojave Desert near Barstow, California. ... Daggett is a town located in San Bernardino County, California. ... Europes first commercial concentrating PS10 solar power tower is operating near the sunny southern Spanish city of Seville. ...


Experimental solar power

An artist's depiction of a solar satellite, which could send energy wirelessly to a space vessel or planetary surface.
An artist's depiction of a solar satellite, which could send energy wirelessly to a space vessel or planetary surface.

A solar updraft tower (also known as a solar chimney or solar tower) consists of a large greenhouse that funnels into a central tower. As sunlight shines on the greenhouse, the air inside is heated and expands. The expanding air flows toward the central tower where a turbine converts the air flow into electricity. A 50 kW prototype was constructed in Ciudad Real, Spain and operated for eight years before decommissioning in 1989.[76] Schematic presentation of a Solar updraft tower This article is about a type of power plant. ... A Solar pond is large-scale solar energy collector with integral heat storage for supplying thermal energy. ... Thermogenerators are current sources which convert heat (temperature differences) directly into electrical energy. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 191 KB)The Sun Tower in Vancouver, British Columbia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 191 KB)The Sun Tower in Vancouver, British Columbia. ... An artists depiction of a solar satellite, which could send energy wirelessly to a space vessel or planetary surface. ... Ciudad Real (Spanish for: Royal City) is a city in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. ...


A solar pond is a pool of salt water (usually 1-2 m deep) that collects and stores solar energy. Solar ponds were first proposed by Dr. Rudolph Bloch in 1948 after he came across reports of a lake in Hungary in which the temperature increased with depth. This effect was due to salts in the lake's water, which created a "density gradient" that prevented convection currents. A prototype was constructed in 1958 on the shores of the Dead Sea near Jerusalem.[77] The pond consisted of layers of water that successively increased from a weak salt solution at the top to a high salt solution at the bottom. This solar pond was capable of producing temperatures of 90 °C in its bottom layer and had an estimated solar-to-electric efficiency of two percent. A Solar pond is large-scale solar energy collector with integral heat storage for supplying thermal energy. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... Convection is the transfer of heat by the motion of or within a fluid. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ...


Thermoelectric devices convert a temperature difference between dissimilar materials into an electric current. First proposed as a method to store solar energy by solar pioneer Mouchout in the 1800s,[78] thermoelectrics reemerged in the Soviet Union during the 1930s. Under the direction of Soviet scientist Abram Ioffe a concentrating system was used to thermoelectrically generate power for a 1 hp engine.[79] Thermogenerators were later used in the US space program as an energy conversion technology for powering deep space missions such as Cassini, Galileo and Viking. Research in this area is focused on raising the efficiency of these devices from 7–8% to 15–20%.[80] Thermogenerators are current sources which convert heat (temperature differences) directly into electrical energy. ... Abram Fedorovich Ioffe (Russian: , October 29, 1880 [O.S. October 17] – October 14, 1960) was a prominent Soviet/Russian physicist born in the Ukraine. ... hp redirects here. ... Cassini–Huygens is a joint NASA/ESA/ASI unmanned space mission intended to study Saturn and its moons. ... Galileo is prepared for mating with the IUS booster Galileo and Inertial Upper Stage being deployed after being launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-34 mission Galileo was an unmanned spacecraft sent by NASA to study the planet Jupiter and its moons. ... Viking mission profile. ...


Space solar power systems use a large solar array in geosynchronous orbit to collect sunlight and beam this energy in the form of microwave radiation to receivers (rectennas) on Earth for distribution. This concept was first proposed by Dr. Peter Glaser in 1968 and since then a wide variety of systems have been studied with both photovoltaic and concentrating solar thermal technologies being proposed. Although still in the concept stage, these systems offer the possibility of delivering power approximately 96% of the time.[81] Space-based solar power (SSP) is the conversion of solar energy into power, usable either in space or on earth, from a location no closer to Earth than Low Earth Orbit (LEO). ... A rectenna is a rectifying antenna, a special type of antenna that is used to directly convert microwave energy into DC electricity. ... Dr. Peter Glaser, creator of the Solar Power Satellite concept Photo courtesy National Space Society Dr. Peter Glaser, Vice President, Advanced Technology (retired), was associated with Arthur D. Little, Inc. ...


Solar chemical

Main article: Solar chemical

Solar chemical processes use solar energy to drive chemical changes. These processes offset energy that would otherwise be required from an alternate source and can convert solar energy into a storable and transportable fuel. Solar chemical reactions are diverse but can generically be described as either thermochemical or photochemical. Solar chemical refers to a number of possible processes that harness solar energy by absorbing sunlight in a chemical reaction in a way similar to photosynthesis in plants but without using living organisms. ... Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light and chemicals. ...


Hydrogen production technologies have been a significant area of solar chemical research since the 1970s. Aside from electrolysis driven by photovoltaic or photochemical cells, several thermochemical processes have also been explored. The seemingly most direct of these routes uses concentrators to split water at high temperatures (2300-2600 °C), but this process has been limited by complexity and low solar-to-hydrogen efficiency (1-2%).[82] A more conventional approach uses process heat from solar concentrators to drive the steam reformation of natural gas thereby increasing the overall hydrogen yield. Thermochemical cycles characterized by the decomposition and regeneration of reactants present another avenue of hydrogen production. The Solzinc process under development at the Weizmann Institute is one such method. This process uses a 1 MW solar furnace to decompose zinc oxide (ZnO) at temperatures above 1200 °C. This initial reaction produces pure zinc which can subsequently be reacted with water to produce hydrogen.[83] Hydrogen production is commonly completed from hydrocarbon fossil fuels via a chemical path. ... Steam reforming, hydrogen reforming or catalytic oxidation, is a method of producing hydrogen from hydrocarbons. ... The Koffler accelerator, one of the best-known buildings on campus. ... Zinc oxide is a chemical compound with formula ZnO. It is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalis. ...


Sandia's Sunshine to Petrol (S2P) technology uses the high temperatures generated by concentrating sunlight along with a zirconia/ferrite catalyst to break down atmospheric carbon dioxide into oxygen and carbon monoxide (CO). The CO may then be used to synthesize fuels such as methanol, gasoline and jet fuel.[84] It has been suggested that Sandia Base be merged into this article or section. ... Zirconia (ZrO2) is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium. ... Ferrite may refer to: Ferrite (magnet)s (e. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ...


Photoelectrochemical cells or PECs consist of a semiconductor, typically titanium dioxide or related titanates, immersed in an electrolyte. When the semiconductor is illuminated an electrical potential develops. There are two types of photoelectrochemical cells: photoelectric cells that convert light into electricity and photochemical cells that use light to drive chemical reactions such as electrolysis.[85] In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ...


A photogalvanic device is a type of battery in which the cell solution (or equivalent) forms energy-rich chemical intermediates when illuminated. These chemical intermediates then react at the electrodes to produce an electric potential. The ferric-thionine chemical cell is an example of this technology.[86]


Solar vehicles

Main articles: Solar vehicle, Electric boat, and Solar balloon
Australia hosts the World Solar Challenge where solar cars like the Nuna3 race through a 3,021 km (1,877 mi) course from Darwin to Adelaide.
Australia hosts the World Solar Challenge where solar cars like the Nuna3 race through a 3,021 km (1,877 mi) course from Darwin to Adelaide.

Development of a solar powered car has been an engineering goal since the 1980s. The center of this development is the World Solar Challenge, a biannual solar-powered car race in which teams from universities and enterprises compete over 3,021 kilometres (1,877 mi) across central Australia from Darwin to Adelaide. In 1987, when it was founded, the winner's average speed was 67 kilometres per hour (42 mph).[87] The 2007 race included a new challenge class using cars which could be a practical proposition for sustainable transport with little modification. The winning car averaged 90.87 kilometres per hour (56.46 mph).[citation needed] The North American Solar Challenge and the planned South African Solar Challenge are comparable competitions that reflect an international interest in the engineering and development of solar powered vehicles.[citation needed] While most boats on the water today are powered by diesel engines, and sail power and gasoline engines are also popular, it is perfectly feasible to power boats by electricity too. ... A solar balloon is a black balloon that is filled with air. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3896x3543, 1439 KB) description: The Nuon Solar Team at the Zandvoort racing track during the presentation of Nuna 3 to the press source: Nuon Hans-Peter van Velthoven File links The following pages link to this file: Nuna ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (3896x3543, 1439 KB) description: The Nuon Solar Team at the Zandvoort racing track during the presentation of Nuna 3 to the press source: Nuon Hans-Peter van Velthoven File links The following pages link to this file: Nuna ... The Nuna 3 of the hattrick winning Dutch Nuna team The World Solar Challenge is a solar powered-car race over 3021 km through central Australia from Darwin to Adelaide. ... The Nuna 3 of the hattrick winning Dutch Nuna team The World Solar Challenge is a solar powered-car race over 3021 km through central Australia from Darwin to Adelaide. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Darwin most commonly refers to: Charles Darwin (1809–1882), renowned naturalist and thinker associated with the theory of evolution by natural selection Darwin, Northern Territory, Australian city and the capital of the Northern Territory Darwin (operating system), a low level computer operating system used as the lower layer of Apple... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... Kilometres per hour (American spelling: kilometers per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... American Solar Challenge is a solar car race across North America. ... The South African Solar Challenge is a Alternative Energy Challenge with classes for Hybrids, Bio-fuel, Electric and Solar Powered vehicles. ...


In 1975, the first practical solar boat was constructed in England.[88] By 1995, passenger boats incorporating PV panels began appearing and are now used extensively.[89] In 1996, Kenichi Horie made the first solar powered crossing of the Pacific Ocean, and the sun21 catamaran made the first solar powered crossing of the Atlantic Ocean in the winter of 2006–2007.[90] Plans to circumnavigate the globe in 2009 are indicative of the progress solar boats have made. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

Helios UAV in solar powered flight
Helios UAV in solar powered flight

In 1974, the unmanned Sunrise II inaugurated the era of solar flight. In 1980, the Gossamer Penguin made the first piloted flights powered solely by photovoltaics. This was quickly followed by the Solar Challenger which demonstrated a more airworthy design with its crossing of the English Channel in July 1981. Developments then turned back to unmanned aerial vehicles with the Pathfinder (1997) and subsequent designs, culminating in the Helios which set the altitude record for a non-rocket-propelled aircraft at 29,524 metres (96,860 ft) in 2001.[91] The Zephyr, developed by BAE Systems, is the latest in a line of record-breaking solar aircraft, making a 54-hour flight in 2007, and month-long flights are envisioned by 2010.[92] Image File history File links Helios_in_flight. ... Image File history File links Helios_in_flight. ... The Gossamer Albatross II in flight. ... Helios UAV in flight NASAs Pathfinder and Helios were a series of solar- and fuel cell system-powered unmanned aircraft. ... Helios Prototype UAV in flight Helios Prototype is the name of a solar- and fuel cell system-powered unmanned aerial vehicle that NASA tested. ... , BAE Systems plc (BAE) is a British defence and aerospace company headquartered at Farnborough, England, UK, that has worldwide interests, particularly in North America through its subsidiary BAE Systems Inc. ...


A solar balloon is a black balloon that is filled with ordinary air. As sunlight shines on the balloon, the air inside is heated and expands, causing an upward buoyancy force, much like an artificially-heated hot air balloon. Some solar balloons are large enough for human flight, but usage is limited to the toy market as the surface-area to payload-weight ratio is relatively high.[citation needed] A solar balloon is a black balloon that is filled with air. ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ... This article is about hot air balloons themselves. ...


Solar sails are a proposed form of spacecraft propulsion using large membrane mirrors to exploit radiation pressure from the sun. Unlike rockets, solar sails require no fuel. Although the thrust is small compared to rockets, it continues as long as the Sun shines onto the deployed sail and in the frictionless vacuum of space significant speeds can eventually be achieved.[93] A artists depiction of a Cosmos 1 type spaceship in orbit Solar sails (also called light sails or photon sails, especially when they use light sources other than the Sun) are a proposed form of spacecraft propulsion using large membrane mirrors. ...


Energy storage methods

Solar Two's thermal storage system allowed it to generate electricity during cloudy weather and at night.
Solar Two's thermal storage system allowed it to generate electricity during cloudy weather and at night.

Storage is an important issue in the development of solar energy because modern energy systems usually assume continuous availability of energy. Solar energy is not available at night, and the performance of solar power systems is affected by unpredictable weather patterns; therefore, storage media or back-up power systems must be used. Thermal mass, in the most general sense, is any mass that absorbs and holds heat. ... Thermal energy storage can refer to a number of technologies that store energy in a thermal reservoir for later reuse. ... A Phase Change Material (PCM) is a substance with a high heat of fusion which, melting and solidifying at certain temperatures, is capable of storing or releasing large amounts of energy. ... Ffestiniog pumped storage power station upper reservoir Grid energy storage lets energy producers send excess electricity over the electricity transmission grid to temporary electricity storage sites that become energy producers when electricity demand is greater. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Thermal mass systems can store solar energy in the form of heat at domestically useful temperatures for daily or seasonal durations. Thermal storage systems generally use readily available materials with high specific heat capacities such as water, earth and stone. Well-designed systems can lower peak demand, shift time-of-use to off-peak hours and reduce overall heating and cooling requirements.[citation needed] A seasonal thermal store (also known as a seasonal heat store or inter-seasonal thermal store) is a store designed to retain heat deposited during the hot summer months for use during colder winter weather. ... The specific heat capacity (symbol c or s, also called specific heat) of a substance is defined as heat capacity per unit mass. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Phase change materials such as paraffin wax and Glauber's salt are another thermal storage media. These materials are inexpensive, readily available, and can deliver domestically useful temperatures (approximately 64 °C). The "Dover House" (in Dover, Massachusetts) was the first to use a Glauber's salt heating system, in 1948.[94] Paraffin is a common name for a group of high molecular weight alkane hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2, where n is greater than about 20. ... Sodium sulfate is an important compound of sodium. ... Dover is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States. ...


Solar energy can be stored at high temperatures using molten salts. Salts are an effective storage medium because they are low-cost, have a high specific heat capacity and can deliver heat at temperatures compatible with conventional power systems. The Solar Two used this method of energy storage, allowing it to store 1.44 TJ in its 68  storage tank with an annual storage efficiency of about 99%.[95] // Solar Two Power Tower Project. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ...


Off-grid PV systems have traditionally used rechargeable batteries to store excess electricity. With grid-tied systems, excess electricity can be sent to the transmission grid. Net metering programs give these systems a credit for the electricity they deliver to the grid. This credit offsets electricity provided from the grid when the system cannot meet demand, effectively using the grid as a storage mechanism.[citation needed] Rechargeable batteries are batteries that can be restored to full charge by the application of electrical energy. ... A Grid-tied electrical system, also called Tied to grid or Grid tie system, is a semi autonomous electrical generation system which links to the mains to feed excess generation capacity back to the local mains electrical grid. ... Net metering is a electricity policy for consumers who own, generally small, renewable energy facilities, such as wind or solar power, or uses vehicle-to-grid systems. ...


Pumped-storage hydroelectricity stores energy in the form of water pumped when energy is available from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation one. The energy is recovered when demand is high by releasing the water to run through a hydroelectric power generator.[citation needed] Pumped storage hydroelectricity is a method of storing and producing electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. ...


Development, deployment and economics

11 MW Serpa solar power plant in Portugal
Solar troughs are the most widely deployed and cost-effective CSP technology.
Solar troughs are the most widely deployed and cost-effective CSP technology.

Beginning with the surge in coal use which accompanied the Industrial Revolution, energy consumption has steadily transitioned from wood and biomass to fossil fuels. The early development of solar technologies starting in the 1860s was driven by an expectation that coal would soon become scarce, but solar development stagnated in the early 20th century in the face of the increasing availability, economy, and utility of fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum.[96] Deployment of solar power depends largely upon local conditions and requirements. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 930 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Solar power plant (Serpa, Portugal) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 930 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Solar power plant (Serpa, Portugal) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... Petro redirects here. ...


The 1973 oil embargo and 1979 energy crisis caused a reorganization of energy policies around the world and brought renewed attention to developing solar technologies. Deployment strategies focused on incentive programs such as the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program in the US and the Sunshine Program in Japan. Other efforts included the formation of research facilities in the US (SERI, now NREL), Japan (NEDO), and Germany (Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE).[97] The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship oil to nations... Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ... The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), located in Golden, Colorado, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, is the United Statess primary laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development. ... The Fraunhofer Society (German: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft) is a German research organization with 58 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science (as opposed to the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, which works primarily on basic science). ...


Between 1970 and 1983, photovoltaic installations grew rapidly, but dropping oil prices in the early 1980s moderated the growth of PV from 1984 to 1996. Since 1997, PV development has accelerated due to supply issues with oil and natural gas, global warming concerns (see Kyoto Protocol), and the improving economic position of PV relative to other energy technologies. Photovoltaic production growth has averaged 40% per year since 2000 and installed capacity reached 10.6 GW at the end of 2007.[36] Since 2006 it has been economical for investors to install photovoltaics for free in return for a long term power purchase agreement. 50% of commercial systems were installed in this manner in 2007 and it is expected that 90% will by 2009.[98] Nellis Air Force Base is receiving photoelectric power for about 2.2 ¢/kWh and grid power for 9 ¢/kWh.[99][100] The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing greenhouse gases that cause climate change. ... Map showing the locations of Nellis AFB and the NTTR Nellis Air Force Base (IATA: LSV, ICAO: KLSV) is a United States Air Force base, in Clark County, Nevada, on the northeast side of Las Vegas. ...


Commercial solar water heaters began appearing in the United States in the 1890s.[101] These systems saw increasing use until the 1920s but were gradually replaced by cheaper and more reliable heating fuels.[102] As with photovoltaics, solar water heating attracted renewed attention as a result of the oil crises in the 1970s but interest subsided in the 1980s due to falling petroleum prices. Development in the solar water heating sector progressed steadily throughout the 1990s and growth rates have averaged 20% per year since 1999.[35] Although generally underestimated, solar water heating is by far the most widely deployed solar technology with an estimated capacity of 154 GW as of 2007.[35]


Commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) plants were first developed in the 1980s. CSP plants such as SEGS project in the United States have a LEC of 12-14 ¢/kWh.[103] The 11 MW PS10 power tower in Spain, completed in late 2005, is Europe's first commercial CSP system and a total capacity of 300 MW is expected to be installed in the same area by 2013.[104] Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS) operates nine solar power plants which use parabolic trough solar thermal electric technology along with natural gas to generate electricity in the Mojave Desert. ... The 11 megawatt PS10 solar power tower produces electricity from the sun using 624 large movable mirrors called heliostats. ...


See also

Sustainable development Portal
Energy Portal

Image File history File links Sustainable_development. ... Image File history File links Crystal_128_energy. ... Carbon finance is the general term applied to resources provided to a project to purchase greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions. ... The Crookes radiometer, also known as the light mill or solar engine, consists of an airtight glass bulb, containing a partial vacuum. ... Energy storage is the storing of some form of energy that can be drawn upon at a later time to perform some useful operation. ... Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earths surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in 1950s. ... Green energy is a term used by some environmentalists to describe what they deem to be environmentally friendly sources of power. ... The list of conservation topics is a link page for the conservation of both the natural environment and the built environment. ... (solar activity: see) solar variation Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (solar array) solar panel solar azimuth angle solar balloon solar box cooker (solar cooking box) solar car (solar panel car) solar cell solar chimney solar collector solar constant (solar cooker) solar oven solar cosmic ray (Solar Cycle: see) sunspot solar cycle... This is a List of Solar thermal power stations which are operating or are under construction: Andasol 1 solar power station (Spain) Nevada Solar One (USA) PS10 solar power tower (Spain) Solar Energy Generating Systems (USA) Solar Tres Power Tower (Spain) Category: ... Several large photovoltaic power stations have been built, mainly in Europe. ... // Renewable heat is an application of renewable energy, namely the generation of heat from renewable sources. ... An artists depiction of a solar satellite, which could send energy wirelessly to a space vessel or planetary surface. ... Timeline of solar energy // Timeline 1900 1901 - Nikola Tesla receives the patent US685957, Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy, and US685958, Method of Utilizing of Radiant Energy. 1902 - Philipp von Lenard observes the variation in electron energy with light frequency. ... Thin films are material layers of about 1 µm thickness. ... Passive solar design using an unvented trombe wall and summer shading A Trombe wall is a sun-facing wall built from material that can act as a thermal mass (such as stone, concrete, adobe or water tanks), combined with an air space, insulated glazing and vents to form a large... It has been suggested that Wafer prober be merged into this article or section. ... World power usage in terawatts (TW), 1965-2005. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The volume of each cube represents the amount of energy available and consumed. The amount of solar energy available to the earth in one hour exceeds global energy demand for a year.Energy and Inspiration: Inventing the Future in Time
  2. ^ Smil (1991), p. 240
  3. ^ Natural Forcing of the Climate System. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  4. ^ Radiation Budget. NASA Langley Research Center (2006-10-17). Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  5. ^ Somerville, Richard. Historical Overview of Climate Change Science. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  6. ^ Vermass, Wim. An Introduction to Photosynthesis and Its Applications. Arizona State University. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  7. ^ Scheer (2002), p. 8
  8. ^ Plambeck, James. Energy on a Planetary Basis. University of Alberta. Retrieved on 2008-05-21.
  9. ^ Smil (2006), p. 12
  10. ^ Archer, Cristina. Evaluation of Global Wind Power. Stanford. Retrieved on 2008-06-03.
  11. ^ Energy conversion by photosynthetic organisms. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved on 2008-05-25.
  12. ^ World Total Net Electricity Consumption, 1980-2005. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved on 2008-05-25.
  13. ^ World Consumption of Primary Energy by Energy Type and Selected Country Groups, 1980-2004. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
  14. ^ Butti and Perlin (1981), p. 15
  15. ^ Darmstadt University of Technology solar decathlon home design. Darmstadt University of Technology. Retrieved on 2008-04-25.
  16. ^ a b c Schittich (2003), p. 14
  17. ^ Butti and Perlin (1981), p. 4, 159
  18. ^ Rosenfeld, Arthur; Lloyd, Alan. Painting the Town White -- and Green. Heat Island Group. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  19. ^ Jeffrey C. Silvertooth. Row Spacing, Plant Population, and Yield Relationships. University of Arizona. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
  20. ^ Kaul (2005), p. 169–174
  21. ^ Butti and Perlin (1981), p. 42–46
  22. ^ Bénard (1981), p. 347
  23. ^ a b Leon (2006), p. 62
  24. ^ Butti and Perlin (1981), p. 19
  25. ^ Butti and Perlin (1981), p. 41
  26. ^ Prescription Act (1872 Chapter 71 2 and 3 Will 4). Office of the Public Sector Information. Retrieved on 2008-05-18.
  27. ^ Noyes, WM. "The Law of Light", The New York Times, 1860-03-31. Retrieved on 2008-05-18. 
  28. ^ a b Tzempelikos (2007), p. 369
  29. ^ a b Apte, J. et al.. Future Advanced Windows for Zero-Energy Homes. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Retrieved on 2008-04-09.
  30. ^ Muhs, Jeff. Design and Analysis of Hybrid Solar Lighting and Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Systems. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  31. ^ Myriam B.C. Aries; Guy R. Newsham (2008). "Effect of daylight saving time on lighting energy use: a literature review". Energy Policy 36 (6): 1858–1866. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2007.05.021. 
  32. ^ Solar Energy Technologies and Applications. Canadian Renewable Energy Network. Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
  33. ^ Renewables for Heating and Cooling. International Energy Agency. Retrieved on 2008-05-26.
  34. ^ Weiss, Werner. Solar Heat Worldwide (Markets and Contributions to the Energy Supply 2005). International Energy Agency. Retrieved on 2008-05-30.
  35. ^ a b c Weiss, Werner. Solar Heat Worldwide - Markets and Contribution to the Energy Supply 2006. International Energy Agency. Retrieved on 2008-06-09.
  36. ^ a b c Renewables 2007 Global Status Report. Worldwatch Institute. Retrieved on 2008-04-30.
  37. ^ Del Chiaro, Bernadette. Solar Water Heating (How California Can Reduce Its Dependence on Natural Gas). Environment California Research and Policy Center. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  38. ^ Philibert, Cédric. The Present and Future use of Solar Thermal Energy as a Primary Source of Energy. International Energy Agency. Retrieved on 2008-05-05.
  39. ^ Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems Volume III: Energy Savings Potential 2-2. United States Department of Energy. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
  40. ^ Mazria(1979), p. 29–35
  41. ^ Mazria(1979), p. 255
  42. ^ a b c Tiwari (2003), p. 368–371
  43. ^ a b Daniels (1964), p. 6
  44. ^ SODIS solar water disinfection. EAWAG (The Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology). Retrieved on 2008-05-02.
  45. ^ a b Household Water Treatment Options in Developing Countries: Solar Disinfection (SODIS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on 2008-05-13.
  46. ^ Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage. World Health Organization. Retrieved on 2008-05-02.
  47. ^ Butti and Perlin (1981), p. 54–59
  48. ^ a b Design of Solar Cookers. Arizona Solar Center. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
  49. ^ The Solar Bowl. Auroville Universal Township. Retrieved on 2008-04-25.
  50. ^ Scheffler-Reflector. Solare Bruecke. Retrieved on 2008-04-25.
  51. ^ Solar Steam Cooking System. Gadhia Solar. Retrieved on 2008-04-25.
  52. ^ Poche, A.. Solar total energy project at Shenandoah, Georgia system design. SAO/NASA ADS Physics Abstract Service. Retrieved on 2008-05-20.
  53. ^ Bartlett (1998), p.393-394
  54. ^ Thomson-Philbrook, Julia. Right to Dry Legislation in New England and Other States. Connecticut General Assembly. Retrieved on 2008-05-27.
  55. ^ a b Solar Buildings (Transpired Air Collectors - Ventilation Preheating). National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-09-29.
  56. ^ Large-scale photovoltaic power plants. pvresources. Retrieved on 2008-06-27.
  57. ^ Perlin (1999), p. 147
  58. ^ Perlin (1999), p. 18–20
  59. ^ Perlin (1999), p. 29
  60. ^ Perlin (1999), p. 29–30, 38
  61. ^ Perlin (1999), p. 45–46
  62. ^ Perlin (1999), p. 49–50
  63. ^ Perlin (1999), p. 49–50, 190
  64. ^ Perlin (1999), p. 57–85
  65. ^ Photovoltaic Milestones. Energy Information Agency - Department of Energy. Retrieved on 2008-05-20.
  66. ^ Perlin (1999), p. 50, 118
  67. ^ World Photovoltaic Annual Production, 1971-2003. Earth Policy Institute. Retrieved on 2008-05-29.
  68. ^ Policies to Promote Non-hydro Renewable Energy in the United States and Selected Countries. Energy Information Agency - Department of Energy. Retrieved on 2008-05-29.
  69. ^ Foster, Robert. Japan Pholtovoltaics Market Overview. Department of Energy. Retrieved on 2008-06-05.
  70. ^ Handleman, Clayton. An Experience Curve Based Model for the Projection of PV Module Costs and Its Policy Implications. Heliotronic. Retrieved on 2008-05-29.
  71. ^ Renewable energy sources in figures - national and international development. Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Germany). Retrieved on 2008-05-29.
  72. ^ Marketbuzz 2008: Annual World Solar Pholtovoltaic Industry Report. solarbuzz. Retrieved on 2008-06-05.
  73. ^ Trends in Photovoltaic Applications - Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2006. International Energy Agency. Retrieved on 2008-06-05.
  74. ^ Butti and Perlin (1981), p. 60–100
  75. ^ Martin and Goswami (2005), p. 45
  76. ^ Mills (2004), p. 19–31
  77. ^ Halacy (1973), p. 181
  78. ^ Perlin and Butti (1981), p. 73
  79. ^ Halacy (1973), p. 76
  80. ^ Tritt (2008), p. 366–368
  81. ^ Space Solar Power Satellite Technology Development at the Glenn Research Center — An Overview. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved on 2008-06-27.
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  83. ^ Solar Energy Project at the Weizmann Institute Promises to Advance the use of Hydrogen Fuel. Weizmann Institute of Science. Retrieved on 2008-06-25.
  84. ^ Sandia’s Sunshine to Petrol project seeks fuel from thin air. Sandia Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-05-02.
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  88. ^ Electrical Review Vol 201 No 7 12 August 1977
  89. ^ Schmidt, Theodor. Solar Ships for the new Millennium. TO Engineering. Retrieved on 2007-09-30.
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  101. ^ Butti and Perlin (1981), p. 117
  102. ^ Butti and Perlin (1981), p. 139
  103. ^ DOE Concentrating Solar Power 2007 Funding Opportunity Project Prospectus. Department of Energy. Retrieved on 2008-06-12.
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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Energy Information Administration (EIA), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, collects and disseminates data on energy reserves, production, consumption, distribution, prices, technology, and related international, economic, and financial matters. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Energy Information Administration (EIA), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, collects and disseminates data on energy reserves, production, consumption, distribution, prices, technology, and related international, economic, and financial matters. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

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Solar energy
  • Energy Education a2z from the Energy Education Foundation
  • Build It Solar, The Renewable Energy site for Do-It-Yourselfers
  • NASA photovoltaic info
  • US Solar calculator
  • Jimmy Carter solar panels on the west wing of the White House in 1980 (removed by Ronald Reagan)
  • National Park Service installed 8.75 kW solar panels on a maintenance building of the White House in 2002
  • portable solar chargers
Not to be confused with insulation. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... Passive solar buildings aim to maintain interior thermal comfort throughout the suns daily and annual cycles whilst reducing the requirement for active heating and cooling systems. ... Tokyo, a case of Urban Heat Island. ... Horticulture (pronounced or US [1]) is the art and science of the cultivation of plants. ... A greenhouse in Saint Paul, Minnesota. ... A polytunnel is a tunnel made of polyethylene used to grow plants that require a higher temperature and/or humidity than what is available in the environment. ... In agriculture, row cover is any material used as a protective covering to shield plants, usually vegetables, primarily from the undesirable effects of cold and wind, and also from insect damage. ... Solar thermal energy is a technology for harnessing solar energy for practical applications from solar heating to electrical power generation. ... Light tubes or light pipes are used for transporting or distributing natural or artificial light. ... Daylighting is the practice of placing windows, or other transparent media, and reflective surfaces so that, during the day, natural light provides effective internal illumination. ... Solar hot water refers to water heated by solar energy. ... A solar combisystem is a solar heating system that provides both space heating and hot water from a common array of solar thermal collectors, normally linked to an auxiliary non-solar heat source. ... Solar heating is the usage of solar energy to provide process, space or water heating. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solar Tower. ... It has been suggested that Portable air conditioner be merged into this article or section. ... Thermal mass, in the most general sense, is any mass that absorbs and holds heat. ... Solar still built into a pit in the ground A solar still is a very simple device for distilling water, powered by the heat of the sun. ... Shevchenko BN350 desalination unit situated on the shore of the Caspian Sea. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The CooKit solar panel cooker in use in Africa A solar cooker is a way of using the suns power to cook. ... A Solar pond is large-scale solar energy collector with integral heat storage for supplying thermal energy. ... solar oven A solar oven or solar furnace is a way of harnessing the suns power to cook food. ... San Francisco Bay salt ponds Salt evaporation pond in Ile de Ré, France. ... A solar forge is a device that uses the power of the sun to melt materials, such as asphalt. ... Photovoltaic tree in Styria, Austria Photovoltaics, or PV for short, is a solar power technology that uses solar cells or solar photovoltaic arrays to convert light from the sun directly into electricity. ... A solar cell, made from a monocrystalline silicon wafer A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a device that converts solar energy into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. ... Polymer solar cells are a type of solar cell: they produce electricity from sunlight. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A photovoltaic module is composed of individual PV cells. ... A photovoltaic module that is composed of individual PV cells. ... A Heliostat is a device that tracks the movement of the sun. ... Thermal mass, in the most general sense, is any mass that absorbs and holds heat. ... A backyard installation of passive single–axis trackers, DC rated at 2340 watts. ... Arrays of parabolic troughs A diagram of a parabolic trough solar farm (top), and an end view of how a parabolic collector focuses sunlight onto its focal point. ... Schematic presentation of a Solar updraft tower This article is about a type of power plant. ... A Solar pond is large-scale solar energy collector with integral heat storage for supplying thermal energy. ... Thermogenerators are current sources which convert heat (temperature differences) directly into electrical energy. ... Solar chemical refers to a number of possible processes that harness solar energy by absorbing sunlight in a chemical reaction in a way similar to photosynthesis in plants but without using living organisms. ... Photovoltaic power is used in many forms of transport either for demonstration as motive power or in limited commercial use as auxiliary power. ... The Nuna 3 of the hattrick winning Dutch Nuna team The World Solar Challenge is a solar powered-car race over 3021 km through central Australia from Darwin to Adelaide. ... While most boats on the water today are powered by diesel engines, and sail power and gasoline engines are also popular, it is perfectly feasible to power boats by electricity too. ... Pathfinder or pathfinders may refer to: In astronomy: Mars Pathfinder, NASA exploration probe Space Shuttle Pathfinder, space shuttle mockup known as OV-098 In the military: Pathfinders (military), specialized elite airborne soldiers who perform many dangerous assignments Pathfinder Badge (U.S.), military badge of the United States Army awarded to... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... Look up zephyr in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A solar balloon is a black balloon that is filled with air. ... Solar sails (also called light sails, especially when they use light sources other than the Sun) are a proposed form of spacecraft propulsion. ... A magnetic sail or magsail is a proposed method of spacecraft propulsion. ... Space-based solar power (SSP) is the conversion of solar energy into power, usable either in space or on earth, from a location no closer to Earth than Low Earth Orbit (LEO). ... An artists depiction of a solar satellite, which could send energy wirelessly to a space vessel or planetary surface. ... Solar thermal propulsion is a form of spacecraft propulsion that makes use of solar power to directly heat reaction mass, and therefore does not require an electrical generator as most other forms of solar-powered propulsion do. ... Thermal mass, in the most general sense, is any mass that absorbs and holds heat. ... Thermal energy storage can refer to a number of technologies that store energy in a thermal reservoir for later reuse. ... A Phase Change Material (PCM) is a substance with a high heat of fusion which, melting and solidifying at certain temperatures, is capable of storing or releasing large amounts of energy. ... Ffestiniog pumped storage power station upper reservoir Grid energy storage lets energy producers send excess electricity over the electricity transmission grid to temporary electricity storage sites that become energy producers when electricity demand is greater. ... Deployment of solar power depends largely upon local conditions and requirements. ... A Feed-in Tariff (FiT, FiL, Feed-in Law or Solar Premium) is a procurement mechanism designed to promote the uptake off renewable energy through government legislation. ... Net metering is a electricity policy for consumers who own, generally small, renewable energy facilities, such as wind or solar power, or uses vehicle-to-grid systems. ... The political purpose of PV financial incentives is to grow the photovoltaics industry even where the cost of PV is significantly above grid parity, to allow it to achieve the economies of scale necessary to reach grid parity. ... This is a List of renewable energy topics by country: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... Wind power in Asia has a total generating capacity of 10,600 MW. The strongest market is India with 6,270 MW of installed capacity and Tamil Nadu is the Indian state with most wind generating capacity: 3216 MW at the end of 2006. ... The market for European wind power capacity grew in 2006, according to statistics from the European Wind Energy Association. ... South Asia has the ideal combination of both high solar insolation [1] and a potentially big consumer base density. ... The Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Plant in Iceland Geothermal power (from the Greek words geo, meaning earth, and thermal, meaning heat) is energy generated by heat stored beneath the Earths surface or the collection of absorbed heat in the atmosphere and oceans. ... The potential for exploiting geothermal energy in the United Kingdom on a commercial basis was initially examined by the Department of Energy in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Solar power - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3804 words)
Energy obtained from methane (natural gas) may be derived from solar energy either as a biofuel or fossil fuel, but some methane derives from the primeval gas cloud which formed the Solar system and is therefore not solar in origin.
Solar design is the use of architectural features to replace the use of grid electricity and fossil fuels with the use of solar energy and decrease the energy needed in a home or building with insulation and efficient lighting and appliances.
Solar heating systems are generally composed of solar thermal collectors, a fluid system to move the heat from the collector to its point of usage, and usually a reservoir to stock the heat for subsequent use.
AllRefer.com - solar energy (Technology: Terms And Concepts) - Encyclopedia (429 words)
Solar energy is needed by green plants for the process of photosynthesis, which is the ultimate source of all food.
Solar batteries, which operate on the principle that light falling on photosensitive substances causes a flow of electricity, play an important part in space satellites and, as they become more efficient, are finding increasing use on the earth (see solar cell).
Solar heating systems can supply heat and hot water for domestic use; heat collected in special plates on the roof of a house is stored in rocks or water held in a large container.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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