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Encyclopedia > Soil
Loess field in Germany
Loess field in Germany
Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland
Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland

Soil is the naturally occurring, unconsolidated or loose covering of broken rock particles and decaying organic matter (humus) on the surface of the Earth, capable of supporting life.[1] In simple terms, soil has three components: solid, liquid, and gas. The solid phase is a mixture of mineral and organic matter. Soil particles pack loosely, forming a soil structure filled with voids.[2] The solid phase occupies about half of the soil volume. The remaining void space contains water (liquid) and air (gas).[3] Soil is also known as earth: it is the substance from which our planet takes its name. Image File history File links Lössacker. ... Image File history File links Lössacker. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 768 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1511 × 1179 pixel, file size: 862 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This picture of a stagnogley soil was taken by me and I make it avaiable to everyone to use I, the creator of this work, hereby... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 768 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1511 × 1179 pixel, file size: 862 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This picture of a stagnogley soil was taken by me and I make it avaiable to everyone to use I, the creator of this work, hereby... Gley soils have grey and yellow patches where the soil is watterlogged, the oxygen supply is reduced, and anaerobic micro-organisms flourish by extracting oxygen from chemical compounds. ... Categories: Geology stubs | Glaciology | Sedimentary rocks ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Soil life or soil biota is a collective term for all the organisms living within the soil. ... Organic matter (or organic material) is matter which has come from a recently living organism; is capable of decay, or the product of decay; or is composed of organic compounds. ...

Contents

Characteristics

Darkened topsoil and reddish subsoil layers are typical in some regions.
Darkened topsoil and reddish subsoil layers are typical in some regions.

Soil color is the first impression one has when viewing soil. Striking colors and contrasting patterns are especially memorable. The Red River in Louisiana carries sediment eroded from extensive reddish soils like Port Silt Loam in Oklahoma. Image File history File links Soil_profile. ... Image File history File links Soil_profile. ... Specific layers in the soil. ... The humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and chilly to mild winters. ... Soil color often indicates soil moisture status and is used for determining hydric soils. ... The Red River is one of several rivers with that name, and of two rivers with that name in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Port Silt Loam is the state soil of Oklahoma. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ...


Soil color results from chemical and biological weathering. As the primary minerals in parent material weather, the elements combine into new and colorful compounds. Iron forms secondary minerals with a yellow or red color; organic matter decomposes into brown compounds; and manganese, sulfur and nitrogen can form black mineral deposits. [4] Parent material, in soil science, means the underlying bedrock from which soil horizons form. ...


Soil structure is the arrangement of soil particles into aggregates. These may have various shapes, sizes and degrees of development or expression.[5] Soil structure is determined by how individual soil granules clump or bind together and aggregate. ...


Soil texture refers to sand, silt and clay composition. Sand and silt are the product of physical weathering while clay is the product of chemical weathering. Clay content is particularly influential on soil behavior due to a high retention capacity for nutrients and water.[6] Soil texture triangle, showing the 12 major textural classes, and particle size scales. ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ...


Formation

Soil formation, or pedogenesis, is the combined effect of physical, chemical, biological, and anthropogenic processes on soil parent material resulting in the formation of soil horizons. Soil is always changing. The long periods over which change occurs and the multiple influences of change mean that simple soils are rare. While soil can achieve relative stability in properties for extended periods of time, the soil life cycle ultimately ends in soil conditions that leave it vulnerable to erosion. Little of the soil continuum of the earth is older than Tertiary and most no older than Pleistocene.[7] Despite the inevitability of soils retrogression and degradation, most soil cycles are long and productive. How the soil "life" cycle proceeds is influenced by at least five classic soil forming factors: regional climate, biotic potential, topography, parent material, and the passage of time. Pedogenesis or soil evolution (formation) is the process by which soil is created. ... Soil samples illustrating horizons (subsoil on right) A soil horizon is a specific layer in the soil which parallels the soil surface and possesses physical characteristics which differ from the layers above and beneath. ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil. ...


An example of soil development from bare rock occurs on recent lava flows in warm regions under heavy and very frequent rainfall. In such climates plants become established very quickly on basaltic lava, even though there is very little organic material. The plants are supported by the porous rock becoming filled with nutrient bearing water, for example carrying dissolved bird droppings or guano. The developing plant roots themselves gradually breaks up the porous lava and organic matter soon accumulates but, even before it does, the predominantly porous broken lava in which the plant roots grow can be considered a soil. Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Basalt Basalt is an extrusive igneous rock, sometimes porphyritic, and is often both fine-grained and dense. ... The Chincha guano islands in Peru. ...


In nature

Geologists have a particular interest in the patterns of soil on the surface of the earth. Soil texture, color and chemistry often reflect the underlying geologic parent material and soil types often change at geologic unit boundaries. Buried paleosols mark previous land surfaces and record climatic conditions from previous eras. Geologists use this paleopedological record to understand the ecological relationships in past ecosystems. According to the theory of biorhexistasy, prolonged conditions conducive to forming deep, weathered soils result in increasing ocean salinity and the formation of limestone. In agriculture, soil type usually refers to the different sizes of mineral particles in a particular sample. ... In soil science, paleosols (spelt palaeosols in Great Britain and Australia) can have two meanings. ... There is a billion year gap in the geologic record where this 500 million year old dolomite unconformably overlays 1. ... Paleoclimatology is the study of climate change taken on the scale of the entire history of the Earth. ... A geologic era is a subdivision of geologic time that is a separate classification that divides the Phanerozoic Eon into three parts timeframes. ... The paleopedological record is, essentially, the fossil record of soils. ... The Theory of Biorhexistasy describes climatic conditions necessary for periods of soil formation (pedogenesis) separated by periods of soil erosion. ...


Geologists use soil profile features to establish the duration of surface stability in the context of geologic faults or slope stability. An offset subsoil horizon indicates rupture during soil formation and the degree of subsequent subsoil formation is relied upon to establish time since rupture. A soil profile is a cross section through the soil which reveals its horizons (layers). ... Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ... Figure 1: Simple slope slip section The field of slope stability encompasses the analysis of static and dynamic stability of slopes of earth and rock-fill dams, slopes of other types of embankments, excavated slopes, and natural slopes in soil and soft rock. ... Óģ Ķ ķ Ļ ļ Ņ ņ Ŗ ŗ Ş ş Ţ ţ Ć ć Ĺ ĺ Ń ń Ŕ ŕ Ś ś Ý ý Ź ź Đ đ Ů ů Č č Ď ď Ľ ľ Ň ň Ř ř Š š Ť ť Ž ž Ǎ ǎ Ě ě Ǐ ǐ Ǒ ǒ Ǔ ǔ Ā ā Ē ē Ī ī Ō ō Ū ū ǖ ǘ ǚ ǜ Ĉ ĉ Ĝ ĝ Ĥ ĥ Ĵ ĵ Ŝ ŝ Ŵ ŵ Ŷ ŷ Ă ă Ğ ğ Ŭ ŭ Ċ ċ Ė ė Ġ ġ İ ı Ż ż Ą ą Ę ę Į į Ų ų Ł ł Ő ő Ű ű Ŀ ŀ Ħ ħ Ð ð Þ þ Œ œ Æ æ Ø ø Å å Ə ə – — … [] [[]] {{}} ~ | ° § → ≈ ± − × ¹ ² ³ ‘ “ ’ ” £ € Α α Β β Γ γ Δ δ Ε ε Ζ ζ Η η Θ θ Ι ι Κ κ Λ λ Μ μ Ν ν Ξ ξ Ο ο Π π Ρ ρ Σ σ ς Τ τ Υ υ Φ φ Χ χ Ψ ψ Ω ω ...


Soil examined in shovel test pits is used by archaeologists for relative dating based on stratigraphy (as opposed to absolute dating). What is considered most typical is to use soil profile features to determine the maximum reasonable pit depth than needs to be examined for archaeological evidence in the interest of cultural resources management. It has been suggested that Shovel test be merged into this article or section. ... Absolute dating is the process of determining a specific archaeological date. ... In the broadest sense, Cultural Resources Management (CRM) is the vocation and practice of managing cultural resources, such as the arts and heritage. ...


Soils altered or formed by man (anthropic and anthropogenic soils) are also of interest to archaeologists. An example is Terra preta do Indio. Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Terra preta (which means dark soil in Portuguese), refers to expanses of very dark soils found in the Amazon Basin. ...


Uses

A homeowner tests soil to apply only the nutrients needed.
A homeowner tests soil to apply only the nutrients needed.
Due to their thermal mass, rammed earth walls fit in with environmental sustainability aspirations.
Due to their thermal mass, rammed earth walls fit in with environmental sustainability aspirations.
A homeowner sifts soil made from his compost bin in background. Composting is an excellent way to recycle household and yard wastes.
A homeowner sifts soil made from his compost bin in background. Composting is an excellent way to recycle household and yard wastes.

Soil material is a critical component in the mining and construction industries. Soil serves as a foundation for most construction projects. Massive volumes of soil can be involved in surface mining, road building, and dam construction. Earth sheltering is the architectural practice of using soil for external thermal mass against building walls. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1498x2032, 3448 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soil ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1498x2032, 3448 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soil ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (928x1208, 292 KB) A rammed earth wall forming part of the entrance building to the Eden Project in Cornwall, England. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (928x1208, 292 KB) A rammed earth wall forming part of the entrance building to the Eden Project in Cornwall, England. ... Church of the Holy Cross (Episcopal) Stateburg or Holy Cross Episcopal Church in Stateburg, South Carolina, built of rammed earth in 1850–1852 Rammed earth walls form part of the entrance building for the Eden Project in Cornwall, England. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1474x2167, 5379 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soil ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1474x2167, 5379 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soil ... A handful of compost A double-width bin with compost at different stages of decomposition First step of compost Compost (pronounced or US ) also known as brown manure, is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic matter. ... Earth covered farm houses in Keldur, Iceland. ... Thermal mass, in the most general sense, is any mass that absorbs and holds heat. ...


Soil resources are critical to the environment, as well as to food and fiber production. Soil provides minerals and water to plants. Soil absorbs rainwater and releases it later thus preventing floods and drought. Soil cleans the water as it percolates. Soil is the habitat for many organisms.


Waste management often has a soil component. Septic drain fields treat septic tank effluent uses aerobic soil processes. Landfills use soil for daily cover. For the company, see Waste Management, Inc. ... Septic drain fields are used to remove contaminants and impurities from the liquid that emerges from the septic tank. ... A septic tank, the key component of a septic system, is a small scale sewage treatment system common in areas with no connection to main sewerage pipes provided by private corporations or local governments. ... Look up Dump in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Daily cover is the name given to the layer of compressed soil or earth which is laid on top of a days deposition of waste on an operational landfill site. ...


Organic soils, especially peat, serve as a significant fuel resource. Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ...


Both humans in many cultures and animals occasionally eat soil. Geophagy is a practice of eating earthy substances such as clay, chalk, and laundry starch, often to augment a mineral-deficient diet. ...


See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Soil
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Soil

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Geohumus is a commercial product, made in Germany, which is used for soil improvement. ... The terms geoponic and geoponics refer to growing plants in a normal soil. ... -1... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... This article is about a type of online computer game. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil pollution comprises the pollution of soils with materials, mostly chemicals, that are out of place or are present at concentrations higher than normal which may have adverse effects on humans or other organisms. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ... Soil functions are general capabilities of soils that are important for various agricultural, environmental, nature protection, landscape architecture and urban applications. ... Soil mechanics is a discipline that applies the principles of engineering mechanics to soil to predict the mechanical behavior of soil. ...

References

  1. ^ Voroney, R. P., 2006. The Soil Habitat in Soil Microbiology, Ecology and Biochemistry, Eldor A. Paul ed. ISBN=0125468075
  2. ^ James A. Danoff-Burg, Columbia University The Terrestrial Influence: Geology and Soils
  3. ^ Taylor, S. A., and G. L. Ashcroft. 1972. Physical Edaphology
  4. ^ The Color of Soil. United States Department of Agriculture - Natural Resources Conservation Service. Retrieved on 2007-11-25.
  5. ^ Soil Survey Division Staff (1993). Soil Structure. Handbook 18. Soil survey manual. Retrieved on 2006-04-11.
  6. ^ R. B. Brown (September 2003). Soil Texture. Fact Sheet SL-29. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved on 2007-12-02.
  7. ^ Buol, S. W.; Hole, F. D. and McCracken, R. J. (1973). Soil Genesis and Classification, First, Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. ISBN 0-8138-1460-X. .

USDA redirects here. ... The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) is a relatively small government agency in the United States Department of Agriculture currently comprised of about 12,000 employees. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Adams, J.A. 1986. Dirt. College Station, Texas : Texas A&M University Press ISBN 0890963010
  • Soil Survey Staff. (1975) Soil Taxonomy: A basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. USDA-SCS Agric. Handb. 436. U.S. Gov. Print. Office. Washington, DC.
  • Soil Survey Division Staff. (1999) Soil survey manual. Soil Conservation Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook 18.
  • Logan, W. B., Dirt: The ecstatic skin of the earth. 1995 ISBN 1-57322-004-3
  • Faulkner, William. Plowman's Folly. New York, Grosset & Dunlap. 1943. ISBN 0-933280-51-3
  • Jenny, Hans, Factors of Soil Formation: A System of Quantitative Pedology 1941
  • Why Study Soils?
  • Soil notes
  • 97 Flood. USGS. Retrieved on 2006-05-31. Photographs of sand boils.
  • Oregon State University's Soils (wiki)
  • Soil-Net.com A free schools-age educational site teaching about soil and its importance.
  • LandIS Soils Data for England and Wales a pay source for GIS data on the soils of England and Wales and soils data source; they charge a handling fee to researchers.
  • LandIS Free Soilscapes Viewer Free interactive viewer for the Soils of England and Wales
  • Geo-technological Research Paper, IIT Kanpur, Dr P P Vitkar - Strip footing on weak clay stabilized with a granular pile http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/cgi-bin/rp/rp2_abst_e?cgj_t78-066_15_ns_nf_cgj4-78

Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Soil Science Society of America
  • Percolation Test Learn about Soil, Percolation, Perc and Perk Tests.
  • USDA-NRCS Web Soil Survey Inventory of the soil resource across the U.S.
  • European Soil Portal EUSOILS (wiki)
  • OpenAg.info's Soil Science Encyclopedia (wiki)
  • Wossac the world soil survey archive and catalogue.
Bostons Big Dig presented geotechnical challenges in an urban environment. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as , is a property of vascular plants, soil or rock, that describes the ease with which water can move through pore spaces or fractures. ... Soil composition Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, or wood on a volumetric or gravimetric basis. ... Void ratio, in materials science, is defined as the volume of voids in a mixture divided by the volume of solids. ... Bulk density a property of particulate materials. ... Thixotropy is the property of some non-newtonian pseudoplastic fluids to show a time-dependent change in viscosity; the longer the fluid undergoes shear, the lower its viscosity. ... Reynolds dilatancy is the observed tendency of a compacted granular material to dilate (expand in volume) as it is sheared. ... The angle of repose, also referred to as angle of friction, is an engineering property of granular materials. ... Cohesion is the component of shear strength of a rock or soil that is independent of interparticle friction. ... Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material, and is measured as a fraction, between 0–1, or as a percentage between 0–100%. The term porosity is used in multiple fields including manufacturing, earth sciences and construction. ... In the earth sciences, permeability (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a material (typically, a rock or unconsolidated material) to transmit fluids. ... Specific storage (Ss), storativity (S), specific yield (Sy) and specific capacity are aquifer properties; they are measures of the ability of an aquifer to release groundwater from storage, due to a unit decline in hydraulic head. ... Soil mechanics is a discipline that applies the principles of engineering mechanics to soil to predict the mechanical behavior of soil. ... Effective stress (σ) is a value reflecting the strength of a soil. ... Pore water pressure refers to the pressure of groundwater held within a soil or rock, in gaps between particles (pores). ... Shear strength in reference to soil is a term used to describe the maximum strength of soil at which point significant plastic deformation or yielding occurs due to an applied shear stress. ... Consolidation is a process by which soils decrease in volume. ... Soil compaction occurs when weight of livestock or heavy machinery compresses the soil, causing it to lose pore space. ... Soil classification deals with the systematic categorization of soils based on distinguishing characteristics as well as criteria that dictate choices in use. ... A type of seismic wave, the S-wave moves in a shear or transverse wave, so motion is perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation. ... An example of lateral earth pressure overturning a retaining wall. ... A drill rig operator advances a direct push soil sampler. ... The (Dutch) Cone Penetration Test (CPT) is a test to measure the strength or bearing capacity of (soft) soils. ... The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is an in-situ dynamic penetration test designed to provide information on the geotechnical properties of soils. ... Exploration geophysics is the applied branch of geophysics which uses deep and primarily near surface methods to probe or image the earth. ... Village pump redirects here, for information on Wikipedia project-related discussions, see Wikipedia:Village pump. ... Water borehole in northern Uganda A borehole is a deep and narrow shaft in the ground used for abstraction of fluid or gas reserves below the earths surface. ... The Liquid Limit, also known as the upper plastic limit, and the Atterberg limit, is the water content at which a soil changes from the liquid state to a plastic state. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A direct shear test is a laboratory test used by Professional Engineer Mohamed Fazlin to find the shear strength parameters of soil. ... A hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the specific gravity (or relative density) of liquids; that is, the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water. ... The Proctor compaction test, and the related Modified Proctor compaction test, are tests to determine the maximum practically-achievable density of soils and aggregates, and are frequently used in geotechnical engineering. ... The R-Value test, California Test 301, measures the response of a compacted sample of soil or aggregate to a vertically applied pressure under specific conditions. ... A sieve analysis is a practice or procedure used to assess the particle size distribution of a granular material. ... A triaxial shear test is a common method to measure the mechanical properties of many deformable solids, especially soil, sand, clay, and other granular materials or powders. ... Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as , is a property of vascular plants, soil or rock, that describes the ease with which water can move through pore spaces or fractures. ... Soil composition Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, or wood on a volumetric or gravimetric basis. ... Crosshole sonic logging is a method to verify the integrity of drilled shafts and other concrete piles. ... Shallow foundations of a house A foundation is a structure that transfers loads to the ground. ... In geotechnical engineering, bearing capacity is the capacity of soil to support the loads applied to the ground. ... A shallow foundation is a type of foundation which transfers building loads to the earth very near the surface, rather than to a subsurface layer or a range of depths as does a deep foundation. ... A deep foundation installation for a bridge in Napa, California. ... Dynamic load testing is a fast and effective method of assessing foundation bearing capacity that requires instrumenting a deep foundation with accelerometers and strain transducers and analyzing data collected by these sensors. ... Wave equation analysis is a numerical method of analysis for the behavior of driven foundation piles. ... A gravity-type stone retaining wall A retaining wall is a structure that holds back soil or rock from a building, structure or area. ... A diagram of a mechanically stabilized earth wall as it would be modeled in a finite element analysis. ... Soil nailing is a technique in which soil slopes, excavations or retaining walls are reinforced by the insertion of relatively slender elements - normally steel reinforcing bars. ... A tieback is a horizontal wire used to reinforce retaining walls for stability. ... Historically, Gabions were round cages with open tops and bottoms, made from wicker and filled with earth for use as fortifications. ... Slurrywall excavator A slurry wall is a type of wall used to build tunnels, open cuts and foundations in areas of soft earth close to open water or with a high ground water table. ... Figure 1: Simple slope slip section The field of slope stability encompasses the analysis of static and dynamic stability of slopes of earth and rock-fill dams, slopes of other types of embankments, excavated slopes, and natural slopes in soil and soft rock. ... Mass wasting, also known as mass movement or slope movement, is the geomorphic process by which soil, regolith, and rock move downslope under the force of gravity. ... This article is about geological phenomenon. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Soil liquefaction describes the behavior of water saturated soil when its behavior changes from that of a solid to that of a liquid. ... A series of mixed vertical oscillators A plot of the peak acceleration for the mixed vertical oscillators A response spectrum is simply a plot of the peak or steady-state response (displacement, velocity or acceleration) of a series of oscillators of varying natural frequency, that are forced into motion by... If you want to build a house and need to know where the best (or the worst) place to locate for earthquake shaking, then you need to dig up the regional seismic hazard maps. ... // The interaction between ground and structure consists of an exchange of mutual stress between the structure itself and the foundations ground. ... Geosynthetics is the term used to describe a range of generally synthetic products used to solve geotechnical problems. ... Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain. ... Geomembranes are a kind of geosynthetic material. ... A geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) is a woven fabric like material primarily used for the lining of landfills. ... Also referred to as Deformation Survey. ... An automatic deformation monitoring system is a group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent software and hardware elements forming a complex whole for deformation monitoring that, once set up, does not require human input to function. ...

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