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Encyclopedia > Sogdiana
Sogdiana

Sogdiana, ca. 300 BC.
Languages Sogdian language
Religions Zoroastrianism, Manicheism, Christianity
Capitals Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Kesh
Area Between the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya
Existed
Sogdians, depicted on a Chinese Northern Qi stela, circa 550 AD.
Sogdians, depicted on a Chinese Northern Qi stela, circa 550 AD.

Sogdiana or Sogdia (Tajik: Суғд - Old Persian: Suguda-; Persian: سغد; Ancient Greek: Σογδιανῆ) was the ancient civilization of an Iranian people and a province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire, the eighteenth in the list in the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great (i. 16). Sogdiana is "listed" as the second of the "good lands and countries" that Ahura Mazda was believed to have created. This region is listed after the first, Airyana Vaeja, Land of the Aryans, in the Zoroastrian book of Vendidad, hence one can see how ancient this region is considered.[1] Sogdiana, at different periods of time, included territories around Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand and Kesh in modern Uzbekistan. Image File history File links Sogdiana-300BCE.png‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sogdiana Sogdian Rock ... The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language spoken in Sogdiana (Zarafshan River Valley) in the modern day republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (chief cities: Samarkand, Panjikent, Ferghana). ... Major world religions have been distinguished from minor religions using a variety of methods, though any such division naturally reflects a particular bias, since many adherent of a religion are likely to consider their own faith major. Two methods are mentioned in this article, number of adherents and the definitions... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article concerns places that serve as centers of government and politics. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Khujand (Tajik Хуҷанд or خجند, also transliterated as Khudzhand, Russian: , formerly Khodjend or Khodzhent until 1939 and Leninabad until 1992), is the second largest city of Tajikistan. ... Shahrisabz or Shahr-e Sabz (from the Persian meaning green city), also known as Kesh, is a city in Uzbekistan approximately 50 mi. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 550 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,122 × 1,224 pixels, file size: 569 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Guimet Museum caption File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 550 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,122 × 1,224 pixels, file size: 569 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Guimet Museum caption File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Northern Qi Dynasty was one of the Northern dynasties of Chinese history and ruled northern China from 550 to 577. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... Sketch of the first column of the Behistun Inscription Old Persian is the oldest attested Persid language. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... A girl in rural Iran. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Behistun Inscription, carved into a cliffside, gives the same text in three languages, telling the story of King Darius conquests, with the names of twenty-three provinces subject to him. ... Darius I the Great (c. ... Ahura Mazda () is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator, hence God. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Khujand (Tajik Хуҷанд or خجند, also transliterated as Khudzhand, Russian: , formerly Khodjend or Khodzhent until 1939 and Leninabad until 1992), is the second largest city of Tajikistan. ... Shahrisabz or Shahr-e Sabz (from the Persian meaning green city), also known as Kesh, is a city in Uzbekistan approximately 50 mi. ...


The Sogdian states, although never politically united, were centred around their main city of Samarkand. It lay north of Bactria, east of Khwarezm, and southeast of Kangju between the Oxus (Amu Darya) and the Jaxartes (Syr Darya), embracing the fertile valley of the Zarafshan (ancient Polytimetus). Sogdian territory corresponds to the modern provinces of Samarkand and Bokhara in modern Uzbekistan as well as the Sughd province of modern Tajikistan. Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as... The Mazar of Shaikh Ahmad Yasavi in the town of Turkestan. ... The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... The Zeravshan or Zarafshan river, whilst smaller and less well-known than the two great rivers of Central Asia, the Oxus or Amu-Darya and the Jaxartes or Syr-Darya, is if anything more valuable as a source of irrigation in the region. ... Buxoro Province (Bukhara Province) (Uzbek: Buxoro viloyati / Бухоро вилояти) is a viloyat (province) of Uzbekistan located in the southwest of the country. ... Sughd is one of the four provinces which make up Tajikistan and is located in the northwest of the country. ...

Contents

History

Gold coin of Diodotus c. 250 BC.
Gold coin of Diodotus c. 250 BC.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 396 pixel Image in higher resolution (845 × 418 pixel, file size: 550 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Gold coin of Diodotus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 396 pixel Image in higher resolution (845 × 418 pixel, file size: 550 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Gold coin of Diodotus. ... The founder of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, Diodotus ca. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 255 BC 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC - 250 BC - 249 BC 248 BC...

Hellenistic period

The Sogdian Rock or Rock of Ariamazes, a fortress in Sogdiana, was captured in 327 BC by the forces of Alexander the Great, who united Sogdiana with Bactria into one satrapy. Subsequently it formed part of the Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian kingdom, founded in 248 BC by Diodotus, for about a century. Euthydemus I seems to have held the Sogdian territory, and his coins were later copied locally. Eucratides apparently recovered sovereignty of Sogdia temporarily. Finally the area was occupied by nomads when the Scythians and Yuezhis overran it around 150 BC. Sogdiana, ca. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... The founder of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, Diodotus ca. ... Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus (230-200 B.C.) Euthydemus was allegedly a native of Magnesia and possible Satrap of Sogdiana, who overturned the dynasty of Diodotus of Bactria and became a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 BC according to Polybius. ... King Eucratides (171-145 BC) Obv: Bust of Eucratides. ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Languages Unknown, although the epigraphy ranges from Greek language to Bactrian, and often considered to have spoken a Tocharian language. ...


Battle of Sogdiana

Barbaric copy of a coin of Euthydemus I, from the region of Sogdiana. The legend on the reverse is in Aramaic script.
Barbaric copy of a coin of Euthydemus I, from the region of Sogdiana. The legend on the reverse is in Aramaic script.

In 36 BC Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 399 pixel Image in higher resolution (1516 × 757 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 399 pixel Image in higher resolution (1516 × 757 pixel, file size: 2. ... Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus (230-200 B.C.) Euthydemus was allegedly a native of Magnesia and possible Satrap of Sogdiana, who overturned the dynasty of Diodotus of Bactria and became a Greco-Bactrian king in about 230 BC according to Polybius. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ...

...[a] Han expedition into central Asia, west of the Jaxartes River, apparently encountered and defeated a contingent of Roman legionaries. The Romans may have been the enslaved remnants of Crassus' army, defeated by the Parthians and forced to fight on their eastern frontier. Sogdiana (modern Bukhara), east of the Oxus River, on the Polytimetus River, was apparently the most easterly penetration ever made by Roman forces in Asia. The margin of Chinese victory appears to have been their crossbows, whose bolts and darts seem easily to have penetrated Roman shields and armor.[2] Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... Syr Darya (also known as Syrdarya or Sirdaryo) is a river in Central Asia. ... A Legionary is a member of a legion. ... Marcus Licinius Crassus Dives (c. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... This article is about the weapon. ...

Contacts with China

Sogdiana was "Sùtè" for the Chinese.
Sogdiana was "Sùtè" for the Chinese.

The Sogdians' contacts with China were triggered by the embassy of the Chinese explorer Zhang Qian during the reign of Wudi in the former Han Dynasty, 141-87 BC. He wrote a report of his visit in Central Asia, and named an area of Sogdiana, "Kangju". They played a major role in facilitating trade between China and Central Asia. Zhang Qian (張騫) was an imperial envoy in the 2nd century BCE, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ... Emperor Wu of Han (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), (156 BC[1]–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che (劉徹), was the seventh emperor of the Han Dynasty in China, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. Emperor Wu is best remembered for the vast territorial expansion that occurred under... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... The Mazar of Shaikh Ahmad Yasavi in the town of Turkestan. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to...


Following Zhang Qian's embassy and report, commercial Chinese relations with Central Asia and Sogdiana flourished,[3] as many Chinese missions were sent throughout the 1st century BC: "The largest of these embassies to foreign states numbered several hundred persons, while even the smaller parties included over 100 members... In the course of one year anywhere from five to six to over ten parties would be sent out." (Shiji, trans. Burton Watson). However, the Sogdian traders were then still less important in the Silk Road trade than their Southern neighbours, Indian and Bactrian. The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China (Chinese: 史記; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shih-chi; literally Historical Records), written from 109 BCE to 91 BCE, was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical...


Central Asian role

Sogdian coin, 6th century AD. British Museum.
Sogdian coin, 6th century AD. British Museum.
Chinese-influenced Sogdian coin, Kelpin, 8th century AD. British Museum.
Chinese-influenced Sogdian coin, Kelpin, 8th century AD. British Museum.

Subsequent to their domination by by Alexander, the Sogdians from the city of Marakanda (Samarkand) became dominant as traveling merchants, occupying a key position along the ancient Silk Road. Their language became the common language of the Silk Route and they played a role in the culture movement of philosophies and religion, such Manicheism, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism into the east as well as the movement of items of trade. They were described by the Chinese as born merchants, learning their commercial skills at an early age. It appears from sources, such a documents found by Aurel Stein and others, that by the 4th century AD they may have monopolized trade between India and China. They dominated the trade along the Silk Route from the 2nd century BC until the 10th century AD[4] London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... Sir M(arc) Aurel Stein (1862 - 1943), born in Budapest, was a Hungarian Jewish archaeologist who became a British citizen. ...


The Suyab and Talas ranked among their main centres in the north. They were the dominant caravan merchants of Central Asia. Their commercial interests were protected by the resurgent military power of the Göktürks, whose empire has been described as "the joint enterprise of the Ashina clan and the Soghdians".[5][6] Their trades with some interruptions continued in 9th century. It is occurred in 10th century within the framework of the Uighur Empire, which until 840 extended all over northern Central Asia and obtained from China enormous deliveries of silk in exchange for horses. At this time caravans of Sogdians traveling to Upper Mongolia are mentioned in Chinese sources. Sogdian donors to the Buddha (fresco, with detail), Bezeklik, eastern Tarim Basin, China, 8th century. ... Taraz (formerly Zhambyl or Dzhambul) is a city and a center of the Zhambyl oblysy in Kazakhstan. ... Capital Ötüken Political structure Empire Göktürk Khans  - 551-553 Tumen Il-QaÄŸan  - 621-630 Bagatur-Shad Khieli-QaÄŸan History  - Established 551  - Disestablished 747 The Göktürkler(s) or Köktürkler(s) were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia. ... Ashina (also Asen or Asena), the ruling dynasty of the ancient Turks, according to Xin Tangshu they were related to the northern tribes from Xiongnu, though four theories were already established prior to the present under Zhoushu, Suishu and Youyang Zazu from as early as the 7th-century [1]. The... Map of the Uyghur Empire and areas under its dominion at its height, c. ...


The trade they brought to China included grapes, alfalfa, and silverware from Persia, as well as glass containers, Mediterranean coral, brass Buddhist images, woolen cloth from Rome and amber from the Baltic. They brought back Chinese paper, copper and silk.[4] This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ... For the Our Gang (Little Rascals) character, see Carl Switzer. ... Some dishware Dishware is a general term for objects—dishes—from which people eat or serve food, such as plates and bowls. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ...


They played an equally important religious and cultural role. Part of the data about eastern Asia provided by Muslim geographers of the 10th century actually goes back to Sogdian data of the period 750-840 and thus shows the survival of links between east and west. However, after the end of the Uighur Empire, Sogdian trade went through a crisis. What mainly issued from Muslim Central Asia was the trade of the Samanids, which resumed on the northwestern road leading to the Khazars and the Urals and the northeastern one toward the nearby Turkic tribes.[6] The Samanid dynasty (819-999) was a Persian dynasty in Central Asia, named after its founder Saman Khuda. ...


Language and culture

Sogdian in Sassanid style dresses donors to the Buddha (fresco, with detail), Bezeklik, eastern Tarim Basin, China, 8th century.
Sogdian in Sassanid style dresses donors to the Buddha (fresco, with detail), Bezeklik, eastern Tarim Basin, China, 8th century.

The 6th century is thought to be the peak of the Sogdian culture with its superb artistic tradition, judging by the remains of their civilization. Further, they were entrenched in their role as the central Asian traveling and trading merchants, transferring goods, culture and religion.[7] Image File history File links BezeklikSogdianMerchants. ... Image File history File links BezeklikSogdianMerchants. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Fresco painted in a Bezeklik cave. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ...


The Sogdians were noted for their tolerance of different religious beliefs. Zoroastrianism was the dominant religion among Sogdians and remained so until shortly after the Islamic conquest, when the Arabs made repeated efforts to forcefully suppress it. Manichaeism and Nestorian Christianity also had significant followings. Much of our knowledge of the Sogdians and their language comes from the numerous religious texts that they have left behind. Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ...


The Sogdians spoke an Eastern Iranian language called Sogdian, closely related to Bactrian, another major language of the region in ancient times. Sogdian was written in a variety of scripts, all of them derived from the Aramaic alphabet. The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages emerging in Middle Iranian times (from ca. ... The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language spoken in Sogdiana (Zarafshan River Valley) in the modern day republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (chief cities: Samarkand, Panjikent, Ferghana). ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Bactrian language is an extinct language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria, also called Tocharistan, in northern Afghanistan. ... The Sogdian alphabet is derived from Syriac, the descendant script of Aramaic alphabet. ... Bilingual inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by the Indian emperor Ashoka the Great, 3rd century BC. The Aramaic alphabet is an abjad alphabet designed for writing the Aramaic language. ...


Even in the Middle Ages, the valley of the Zarafshan around Samarkand retained the name of the Sogdian, Samarkand. Arabic geographers reckon it as one of the four fairest districts in the world. The Yaghnobis living in the Sughd province of Tajikistan still speak a dialect of the Soghdian language. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For the books called Geography by Ancient Greek authors, see Geographia (Ptolemy) and Geographica (Strabo) For the magazine of the Royal Geographical Society, see Geographical (magazine) Geography is the study of the earth and its features, inhabitants, and phenomena. ... Yaghnobi people (or Yagnobian people) is the name of a people who live in mountainous Tajikistan. ... Sughd is one of the four provinces which make up Tajikistan and is located in the northwest of the country. ... The Yaghnobi language [1] is a living Northeastern Iranian language (the only other living member being the Ossetic), and is spoken in high valley of the Yaghnob River in the Zarafshan area of Tajikistan by Yaghnobi people. ...


The great majority of the Sogdian people gradually mixed with other local groups such as the Bactrians, Chorasmians, Turks and Persians, and came to speak Persian or (after the Turkic conquest of Central Asia) Turkic (modern Uzbek). They are among the ancestors of the modern Tajik and Uzbek people. Numerous Sogdian words can be found in modern Persian and Uzbek as a result of this admixture. Farsi redirects here. ... Languages Persian Religions Islam (predominantly Sunni (Hanafi), with Shia (Twelver and Ismaili) minorities) Tājik (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Tajik: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east and northeast of present-day Iran. ... Languages Uzbek Religions Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups other Turk peoples (Uyghurs Mongols Tuvans Karluks Iranic Tajiks) The Uzbeks (Self designation sg. ...


Famous Sogdians

  • An Lushan was a military leader of Sogdian (from his father's side) and Turkic origin during the Tang Dynasty in China. He rose to prominence by fighting frontier wars between 741 and 755. Later, he precipitated the catastrophic An Shi Rebellion, which lasted from 755 to 763.

An Lushan (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (ca. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... The An Shi Rebellion (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) took place in China during the Tang Dynasty, from December 16, 755 to February 17, 763. ...

See also

The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ...

Literature

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Calum MacLeod, Bradley Mayhew “Uzbekistan. Golden Road to Samarkand”
  • Archaeological Researches in Uzbekistan. 2001. Tashkent The edition is based on results of German-French-Uzbek co-expeditions in 2001 in Uzbekistan*
  • Etienne de la Vaissière, Sogdian Traders. A History, Leiden : Brill, 2005. ISBN 90-04-14252-5
  • Etienne de la Vaissière, Histoire des marchands sogdiens, Paris : de Boccard, 2004.
  • Babadjan Ghafurov, "Tajiks", published in USSR, Russia, Tajikistan
  • Vaissiere. E.D.L, "Sogdian Trade" in Encyclopedia Iranica.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

References

  1. ^ Avesta.org
  2. ^ R. Ernest Dupuy and Trevor N. Dupuy, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History from 3500 B.C. to the Present, Fourth Edition (New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1993), 133.
  3. ^ C.Michael Hogan, Silk Road, North China, The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham
  4. ^ a b Wood, Francis (2002). The Silk Road: Two Thousand Years in the Heart of Asia. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 65–68. ISBN 978-0-520-24340-8. 
  5. ^ Wink, André. Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Brill Academic Publishers, 2002. ISBN 0391041738.
  6. ^ a b Sogdian Trade, Encyclopedia Iranica, (retrieved 15 June 2007)
  7. ^ Luce Boulnois, Silk Road: Monks, Warriors & Merchants, 2005, Odyssey Books, pp. 239–241 ISBN 962-217-721-2

is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
THE IRANIAN: History, Iranian culture in Central Asia, Matteo Compareti (1981 words)
Sogdiana entered history with the conquest of the region by Persian armies of the Achaemenid Dynasty (559-330 B.C.).
Sogdiana comprised Khorasmia, Parthia and Aria in the 16th Imperial Satrapy.
The common opinion among scholars is that Sogdiana was not conquered by the Kushans but their influence was very strong, especially in art and coinage.
Sogdiana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (581 words)
During the High Middle Ages it was extended to the north by a policy of colonial settlements up to the Lake Issyk Kul.
Alexander the Great united Sogdiana with Bactria in to one satrapy.
Following Zhang Qian's embassy and report, commercial Chinese relations with Central Asia and Sogdiana flourished, as many Chinese missions were sent throughout the 1st century BC: "The largest of these embassies to foreign states numbered several hundred persons, while even the smaller parties included over 100 members...
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