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Encyclopedia > Software testing

Software testing is the process used to assess the quality of computer software. Software testing is an empirical technical investigation conducted to provide stakeholders with information about the quality of the product or service under test[1] , with respect to the context in which it is intended to operate. This includes, but is not limited to, the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding software bugs. Quality is not an absolute; it is value to some person. With that in mind, testing can never completely establish the correctness of arbitrary computer software; testing furnishes a criticism or comparison that compares the state and behaviour of the product against a specification. An important point is that software testing should be distinguished from the separate discipline of Software Quality Assurance (S.Q.A.), which encompasses all business process areas, not just testing.[citation needed] When applied to software the adjective quality may apply to source code as seen by software developers, or to applications software as seen by the end-users of the software. ... Software redirects here. ... A software bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from working as intended, or produces an incorrect result. ... Software testing is the process used to help identify the correctness, completeness, security and quality of developed computer software. ...


Over its existence, computer software has continued to grow in complexity and size. Every software product has a target audience. For example, a video game software has its audience completely different from banking software. Therefore, when an organization develops or otherwise invests in a software product, it presumably must assess whether the software product will be acceptable to its end users, its target audience, its purchasers, and other stakeholders. Software testing is the process of attempting to make this assessment.


A study conducted by NIST in 2002 reports, that software bugs cost §59.5 billions to U.S economy. More than a third of this cost could be avoided if a better software testing would be done.[2] As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ...

Software Testing Portal
Software development process
Activities and steps
Requirements · Architecture
Design · Implementation
Testing · Deployment
Models
Agile · Cleanroom · Iterative · RAD
RUP · Spiral · Waterfall · XP · Scrum
Supporting disciplines
Configuration management
Documentation
Quality assurance (SQA)
Project management
User experience design

Contents

Image File history File links Portal. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... In sytems and software engineering, requirements analysis encompasses those tasks that go into determining the requirements of a new or altered system, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders, such as users. ... The software architecture of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software elements, the externally visible properties of those elements, and the relationships between them. ... Software design is the process that starts from a problem for which there is currently no acceptable (software) solution, and ends when such a solution has been created. ... Programming redirects here. ... Software deployment is all of the activities that make a software system available for use. ... Agile software development is a conceptual framework for software engineering that promotes development iterations throughout the life-cycle of the project. ... The Cleanroom Software Engineering process is a software development process intended to produce software with a certifiable level of reliability. ... Iterative and Incremental development is a software development process developed in response to the weaknesses of the more traditional waterfall model. ... Rapid application development (RAD), is a software development process developed initially by James Martin in the 1980s. ... The Rational Unified Process (RUP) is an iterative software development process framework created by the Rational Software Corporation, a division of IBM since 2003. ... The spiral model is a software development process combining elements of both design and prototyping-in-stages, in an effort to combine advantages of top-down and bottom-up concepts. ... The waterfall model is a sequential software development model (a process for the creation of software) in which development is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of requirements analysis, design, implementation, testing (validation), integration, and maintenance. ... Extreme Programming (or XP) is a software engineering methodology, the most prominent of several agile software development methodologies, prescribing a set of daily stakeholder practices that embody and encourage particular XP values (below). ... For other uses, see Scrum. ... Software Configuration Management (SCM) is part of configuration management (CM). ... Software documentation or source code documentation is written text that accompanies computer software. ... Software testing is the process used to help identify the correctness, completeness, security and quality of developed computer software. ... Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (e. ... User experience design is a subset of the field of experience design which pertains to the creation of the architecture and interaction models which impact a users perception of a device or system. ...

Scope

Software testing may be viewed as an important part of the software quality assurance (SQA) process.[citation needed] In SQA, software process specialists and auditors take a broader view on software and its development. They examine and change the software engineering process itself to reduce the amount of faults that end up in defect rate. What constitutes an acceptable defect rate depends on the nature of the software. An arcade video game designed to simulate flying an airplane would presumably have a much higher tolerance for defects than software used to control an actual airliner. Although there are close links with SQA testing departments often exist independently, and there may be no SQA areas in some companies. Software testing is the process used to help identify the correctness, completeness, security and quality of developed computer software. ...


The software faults occur through the following process. A programmer makes an error (mistake), which results in a defect (fault, bug) in the software source code. If this defect is executed, in certain situations the system will produce wrong results, causing a failure.[3] Not all defects will necessarily result in failures. For example, defects in a dead code will never result in failures. A defect can turn into a failure when the environment is changed. Examples of these changes in environment include the software being run on a new hardware platform, alterations in source data or interacting with different software.[3] This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... In document ISO/CD 10303-226, a fault is defined as an abnormal condition or defect at the component, equipment, or sub-system level which may lead to a failure. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... Fail and Phail redirect here. ... In computer programming, dead code typically consists of blocks of programming instructions or entire routines that will never be accessed because all calls to them have been removed, or code that cannot be reached because it is guarded by a control structure that must always transfer control somewhere else. ... For other uses, see Hardware (disambiguation). ...


A problem with software testing is that testing all combinations of inputs and preconditions is not feasible when testing anything other than a simple product.[4] This means that the number of defects in a software product can be very large and defects that occur infrequently are difficult to find in testing. More significantly, parafunctional dimensions of quality--for example, usability, scalability, performance, compatibility, reliability--can be highly subjective; something that constitutes sufficient value to one person may be intolerable to another. A software bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from behaving as intended (e. ...


There are many approaches to software testing. Reviews, walkthroughs or inspections are considered as static testing, whereas actually running the program with a given set of test cases in a given development stage is referred to as dynamic testing. Static Testing (also known as Dry Run Testing) is a form of software testing where the software isnt actually used. ... Dynamic testing (or dynamic analysis) is a term used in software engineering to describe the testing of the dynamic behaviour of code. ...


Software testing is used in association with verification and validation:[5]

  • Verification: Have we built the software right (i.e., does it match the specification)?
  • Validation: Have we built the right software (i.e., is this what the customer wants)?

Software testing can be done by software testers. Until the 1950s the term software tester was used generally, but later it was also seen as a separate profession. Regarding the periods and the different goals in software testing[6] there have been established different roles: test lead/manager, tester, test designer, test automater/automation developer, and test administrator.


History

The separation of debugging from testing was initially introduced by Glenford J. Myers in 1979.[7] Although his attention was on breakage testing, it illustrated the desire of the software engineering community to separate fundamental development activities, such as debugging, from that of verification. Dr. Dave Gelperin and Dr. William C. Hetzel classified in 1988 the phases and goals in software testing in the following stages:[8]

  • Until 1956 - Debugging oriented[9]
  • 1957-1978 - Demonstration oriented[10]
  • 1979-1982 - Destruction oriented[11]
  • 1983-1987 - Evaluation oriented[12]
  • 1988-2000 - Prevention oriented[13]

Testing methods

Software testing methods are traditionally divided into black box testing and white box testing. These two approaches are used to describe the point of view that a test engineer takes when designing test cases. Black box testing takes an external perspective of the test object to derive test cases. ... White box testing, clear box testing, glass box testing or structural testing is used in computer programming, software engineering and software testing to check that the outputs of a program, given certain inputs, conform to the structural specification of the program. ...


Black box testing treats the software as a black-box without any understanding as to how the internals behave. It aims to test the functionality according to the requirements.[14] Thus, the tester inputs data and only sees the output from the test object. This level of testing usually requires thorough test cases to be provided to the tester who then can simply verify that for a given input, the output value (or behaviour), is the same as the expected value specified in the test case. Black box testing methods include: equivalence partitioning, boundary value analysis, all-pairs testing, fuzz testing, model-based testing etc. Black box testing or functional testing is used in computer programming, software engineering and software testing to check that the outputs of a program, given certain inputs, conform to the functional specification of the program. ... Boundary value analysis is a software testing related technique to determine test cases covering known areas of frequent problems at the boundaries of software component input ranges. ... All-pairs testing or pairwise testing is a combinatorial software testing method that, for each pair of input parameters to a system (typically, a software algorithm) tests all possible discrete combinations of those parameters. ... Fuzz testing or fuzzing is a software testing technique that provides random data (fuzz) to the inputs of a program. ... Model-based testing is software testing in which test cases are derived in whole or in part from a model that describes some (usually functional) aspects of the system under test (SUT). ...


White box testing, however, is when the tester has access to the internal data structures, code, and algorithms. White box testing methods include creating of tests to satisfy some code coverage criteria. For example, the test designer can create tests to make all statement in the program to be executed at least once. Other examples of white box testing are mutation testing and fault injection methods. Code coverage is a measure used in software testing. ... Mutation testing (sometimes also called mutation analysys) is a method of software testing, which involves modifying programs source code in small ways. ... In software testing, fault injection is a technique for improving the coverage of a test by introducing faults in order to test code paths, in particular error handling code paths, that might otherwise rarely be followed. ...


White box testing methods can be also used to evaluate the completness of test suite, which was created with black box testing methods. This allows the software team to examine parts of a system that are rarely tested and ensures that the most important function points have been tested.[15] Two common forms of code coverage are function coverage, which reports on functions executed and statement coverage, which reports on the number of lines executed to complete the test. They both return a coverage metric, measured as a percentage. Function points or Function Points Analysis (FPA) are a unit measure for software much like an hour is to measuring time, miles are to measuring distance or Celsius is to measuring temperature. ...


In recent years the term grey box testing has come into common usage. This involves having access to internal data structures and algorithms for purposes of designing the test cases, but testing at the user, or black-box level. Manipulating input data and formatting output do not qualify as grey-box because the input and output are clearly outside of the black-box we are calling the software under test. This is particularly important when conducting integration testing between two modules of code written by two different developers, where only the interfaces are exposed for test. Integration testing (sometimes called Integration and Testing, abbreviated I&T) is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. ...


Testing process

A common practice of software testing is that it is performed by an independent group of testers after the functionality is developed but before it is shipped to the customer.[16] This practice often results in the testing phase being used as project buffer to compensate for project delays, thereby compromising the time devoted to testing.[17] Another practice is to start software testing at the same moment the project starts and it is a continuous process until the project finishes.[18] Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (e. ...


In counterpoint, some emerging software disciplines such as extreme programming and the agile software development movement, adhere to a "test-driven software development" model. In this process unit tests are written first, by the software engineers (often with pair programming in the extreme programming methodology). Of course these tests fail initially; as they are expected to. Then as code is written it passes incrementally larger portions of the test suites. The test suites are continuously updated as new failure conditions and corner cases are discovered, and they are integrated with any regression tests that are developed. Unit tests are maintained along with the rest of the software source code and generally integrated into the build process (with inherently interactive tests being relegated to a partially manual build acceptance process). Extreme Programming (or XP) is a software engineering methodology, the most prominent of several agile software development methodologies, prescribing a set of daily stakeholder practices that embody and encourage particular XP values (below). ... Agile software development is a conceptual framework for software engineering that promotes development iterations throughout the life-cycle of the project. ... Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a software development technique consisting of short iterations where new test cases covering the desired improvement or new functionality are written first, then the production code necessary to pass the tests is implemented, and finally the software is refactored to accommodate the changes. ... In computer programming, a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. ... Software engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... Pair programming requires two software engineers to participate in a combined development effort at one workstation. ...


Pre-release testing

  • Unit testing tests the minimal software component, or module. Each unit (basic component) of the software is tested to verify that the detailed design for the unit has been correctly implemented. In an object-oriented environment, this is usually at the class level, and the minimal unit tests include the constructors and destructors.[19]
  • Integration testing exposes defects in the interfaces and interaction between integrated components (modules). Progressively larger groups of tested software components corresponding to elements of the architectural design are integrated and tested until the software works as a system.[citation needed]
  • Functional testing tests at any level (class, module, interface, or system) for proper functionality as defined in the specification. The use of a traceability matrix often helps with functional testing.[citation needed]
  • System testing tests a completely integrated system to verify that it meets its requirements.[20]
  • System integration testing verifies that a system is integrated to any external or third party systems defined in the system requirements.[citation needed]
  • Performance testing validates whether the quality of service (sometimes called non-functional requirements) parameters defined at the requirements stage is met by the final product.[citation needed]
  • Acceptance testing can be conducted by the end-user, customer, or client to validate whether or not to accept the product. Acceptance testing may be performed as part of the hand-off process between any two phases of development.[citation needed]

In computer programming, a unit test is a method of testing the correctness of a particular module of source code. ... Integration testing (sometimes called Integration and Testing, abbreviated I&T) is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. ... Functional Testing. ... In a software development process, a traceability matrix is a table that correlates any two baselined documents that require a many to many relationship to determine the completeness of the relationship. ... System testing of software is testing conducted on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the systems compliance with its specified requirements. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Integration testing. ... In software engineering, performance testing is testing that is performed, from one perspective, to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload. ... In systems engineering and requirements engineering, non-functional requirements are requirements which specify criteria that can be used to judge the operation of a system, rather than specific behaviors. ... In software engineering, an acceptance test is the process of the user testing the system and, based on the results, either granting or refusing acceptance of the software/system being tested. ...

Post release testing

  • Alpha testing is simulated or actual operational testing by potential users/customers or an independent test team at the developers' site. Alpha testing is often employed for off-the-shelf software as a form of internal acceptance testing, before the software goes to beta testing.[citation needed]
  • Beta testing comes after alpha testing. Versions of the software, known as beta versions, are released to a limited audience outside of the programming team. The software is released to groups of people so that further testing can ensure the product has few faults or bugs. Sometimes, beta versions are made available to the open public to increase the feedback field to a maximal number of future users.[citation needed]

A software release refers to the distribution, whether public or private, of an initial or new and upgraded version of a computer software product. ... A computer bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from working as intended, or produces an incorrect result. ... For other uses, see Feedback (disambiguation). ...

Regression testing

Main article: Regression testing

After modifying software, either for a change in functionality or to fix defects, a regression test re-runs previously passing tests on the modified software to ensure that the modifications haven't unintentionally caused a regression of previous functionality. Regression testing can be performed at any or all of the above test levels. These regression tests are often automated. Regression testing is any type of software testing which seeks to uncover regression bugs. ... Regression testing is any type of software testing which seeks to uncover regression bugs. ... A software regression is a software bug which makes a feature stop working after a certain event (system upgrade, system patching, daylight saving time switch, etc. ... Test automation is the use of software to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting functions. ...


More specific forms of regression testing are known as sanity testing, when quickly checking for bizarre behaviour, and smoke testing when testing for basic functionality. A sanity test or smoke test (note: many do not consider the terms synonymous) is a brief run-through of the main functionality of a computer program or other product. ... Smoke testing is a term used in plumbing, woodwind repair, electronics, and computer software development. ...


Finding faults early

It is commonly believed that the earlier a defect is found the cheaper it is to fix it.[21] The following table shows the cost of fixing the defect depending on the stage it was found.[22] For example, if a problem in requirements is found only post-release, then it would cost 10-100 times more to fix it comparing to the cost if the same fault was already found by the requirements review.

Time Introduced Time Detected
Requirements Architecture Construction System Test Post-Release
Requirements 1 3 5-10 10 10-100
Architecture - 1 10 15 25-100
Construction - - 1 10 10-25

Measuring software testing

Usually, quality is constrained to such topics as correctness, completeness, security,[citation needed] but can also include more technical requirements as described under the ISO standard ISO 9126, such as capability, reliability, efficiency, portability, maintainability, compatibility, and usability.[citation needed] In theoretical computer science, correctness of an algorithm is asserted when it is said that the algorithm is correct with respect to a specification. ... A computer security audit is a manual or systematic measurable technical assessment of a system or application. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... ISO 9126 is an international standard for the evaluation of software. ... Reliability concerns quality or consistency. ... In computer science, efficiency is used to describe several desirable properties of an algorithm or other construct, besides clean design, functionality, etc. ... In computer science, porting is the process of adapting software so that an executable program can be created for a computing environment that is different from the one for which it was originally designed (e. ... In telecommunication, the term maintainability has the following meanings: A characteristic of design and installation, expressed as the probability that an item will be retained in or restored to a specified condition within a given period of time, when the maintenance is performed in accordance with prescribed procedures and resources. ... Usability is a term used to denote the ease with which people can employ a particular tool or other human-made object in order to achieve a particular goal. ...


There are a number of common software measures, often called "metrics", which are used to measure the state of the software or the adequacy of the testing:

  • Bugs found per tester per unit time (day/week/month).[citation needed]
  • Total bugs found in a release.[citation needed]
  • Total bugs found in a module or feature.[citation needed]
  • Bugs found or fixed per build.[citation needed]
  • Number of customer reported bugs (as a measure of testing effectiveness).[citation needed]
  • Bug trend over the period in a release. (Bugs should converge towards zero as the project gets closer to release. It is possible that there are more cosmetic bugs found closer to release - in which case the number of critical bugs found is used instead of total number of bugs found.)[citation needed]
  • Number of test cases executed per person per unit time.[citation needed]
  • Percent of test cases executed so far, total pass, total fail.[citation needed]

Testing artifacts

Software testing process can produce several artifacts. A test case is a software testing document, which consists of event, action, input, output, expected result, and actual result. Clinically defined a test case is an input and an expected result.[23] This can be as pragmatic as 'for condition x your derived result is y', whereas other test cases described in more detail the input scenario and what results might be expected. It can occasionally be a series of steps (but often steps are contained in a separate test procedure that can be exercised against multiple test cases, as a matter of economy) but with one expected result or expected outcome. The optional fields are a test case ID, test step or order of execution number, related requirement(s), depth, test category, author, and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps, and descriptions. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. These steps can be stored in a word processor document, spreadsheet, database, or other common repository. In a database system, you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The term artifact in connection with software development is largely associated with specific development methods or processes e. ... This article is about the term in software engineering. ...


The test script is the combination of a test case, test procedure, and test data. Initially the term was derived from the product of work created by automated regression test tools. Today, test scripts can be manual, automated, or a combination of both. A test script is a short program written in a programming language used to test part of the functionality of a software system. ... A test script is a short program written in a programming language used to test part of the functionality of a software system. ...


The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps, and descriptions of the following tests. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


A test specification is called a test plan. The developers are well aware what test plans will be executed and this information is made available to the developers. This makes the developers more cautious when developing their code. This ensures that the developers code is not passed through any surprise test case or test plans. A test plan is a systematic approach to testing a system such as a machine or software. ...


The software, tools, samples of data input and output, and configurations are all referred to collectively as a test harness. In software testing, a test harness or automated test framework is a collection of software and test data configured to test a program unit by running it under varying conditions and monitor its behavior and outputs. ...


A sample testing cycle

Although testing varies between organizations, there is a cycle to testing: Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...

  • Requirements analysis: Testing should begin in the requirements phase of the software development life cycle. During the design phase, testers work with developers in determining what aspects of a design are testable and with what parameters those tests work.
  • Test planning: Test strategy, test plan, testbed creation. A lot of activities will be carried out during testing, so that a plan is needed.
  • Test development: Test procedures, test scenarios, test cases, test scripts to use in testing software.
  • Test execution: Testers execute the software based on the plans and tests and report any errors found to the development team.
  • Test reporting: Once testing is completed, testers generate metrics and make final reports on their test effort and whether or not the software tested is ready for release.
  • Retesting the defects. Not all errors or defects reported must be fixed by a software development team. Some may be caused by errors in configuring the test software to match the development or production environment. Some defects can be handled by a workaround in the production environment. Others might be deferred to future releases of the software, or the deficiency might be accepted by the business user. There are yet other defects that may be rejected by the development team (of course, with due reason) if they deem it.

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Software development process. ... A test plan is a systematic approach to testing a system such as a machine or software. ... A testbed is a platform for experimentation for large development projects. ... A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. ... This article is about the term in software engineering. ... The test effort shows the expenses for (still to come) tests. ...

Controversy

Main article: Software testing controversies

Some of the major controversies include:

  • What constitutes responsible software testing? - Members of the "context-driven" school of testing[24] believe that there are no "best practices" of testing, but rather that testing is a set of skills that allow the tester to select or invent testing practices to suit each unique situation. Some contend that this belief directly contradicts standards such as the IEEE 829 test documentation standard, and organizations such as the Food and Drug Administration who promote them.[citation needed]
  • Agile vs. traditional - Should testers learn to work under conditions of uncertainty and constant change or should they aim at process "maturity"? The agile testing movement has popularity mainly in commercial circles,[citation needed] whereas the CMM was embraced by government and military software providers.[citation needed]
  • Exploratory vs. scripted[citation needed] - Should tests be designed at the same time as they are executed or should they be designed beforehand?
  • Manual vs. automated - Some writers believe that test automation is so expensive relative to its value that it should be used sparingly.[25] Others, such as advocates of agile development, recommend automating 100% of all tests.
  • Software design vs. software implementation[citation needed] - Should testing be carried out only at the end or throughout the whole process?
  • Who watches the watchmen? - The idea is that any form of observation is also an interaction, that the act of testing can also affect that which is being tested.[citation needed]

IEEE 829-1998, also known as the 829 Standard for Software Test Documentation is an IEEE standard that specifies the form of a set of documents for use in eight defined stages of software testing, each stage potentially producing its own separate type of document. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... The Capability Maturity Model (CMM), also known as the Software CMM (SW-CMM), was first described by Watts Humphrey in his book Managing the Software Process [1]. The CMM is a process model based on software best-practices effective in large-scale, multi-person projects. ... Exploratory testing is an approach in software testing with simultaneous learning, test design and test execution. ... Test automation is the use of software to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting functions. ... Agile software development is a conceptual framework for undertaking software engineering projects. ...

Certification

Several certification programs exist to support the professional aspirations of software testers and quality assurance specialists. No certification currently offered actually requires the applicant to demonstrate the ability to test software. No certification is based on a widely accepted body of knowledge. This has led some to declare that the testing field is not ready for certification.[26] Certification itself cannot measure an individual's productivity, their skill, or practical knowledge, and cannot guarantee their competence, or professionalism as a tester.[27]


Certifications can be grouped into: exam-based and education-based. Exam-based certifications: For these there is the need to pass an exam, which can also be learned by self-study: e.g. for ISTQB or QAI. Education-based certifications are instructor-led sessions, where each course has to be passed, e.g. IIST (International Institute for Software Testing).


Testing certifications

Quality Assurance International is a private certifier of organic food systems. ... ISEB stands for the Information Systems Examinations Board, a part of the BCS. It promotes the acquisition of qualifications for IT professionals and has gained ground as the standardisation of IT skills has been occurring during the last decade or so. ... The ISTQB (International Software Testing Qualifications Board) was founded in Edinburgh in November 2002. ... The ISTQB (International Software Testing Qualifications Board) was founded in Edinburgh in November 2002. ...

Quality assurance certifications

American Society for Quality (ASQ), formerly known as American Society for Quality Control (ASQC), is a non-profit professional society comprised of almost 100,000 members who work in various aspects of the quality field (e. ... Quality Assurance International is a private certifier of organic food systems. ...

See also

In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics. ... Dynamic code analysis is the analysis of computer software that is performed with executing programs built from that software on a real or virtual processor (analysis performed without executing programs is known as static code analysis). ... Static analysis is the term applied to the analysis of computer software that is performed without actually executing programs built from that software (analysis performed on executing programs is known as dynamic analysis). ...

Specific application area testing

In computer science, GUI software testing is the process of testing graphical user interface-based software to ensure it meets its written specifications. ... Security Testing: (The) Process to determine that an IS (Information System) protects data and maintains functionality as intended. ... Pseudolocalization is a software testing method that is used to test internationalization aspects of software. ...

Quotes

  • "An effective way to test code is to exercise it at its natural boundaries." -- Brian Kernighan[36]
  • "Program testing can be used to show the presence of bugs, but never to show their absence!" -- Edsger Dijkstra[37]
  • "Beware of bugs in the above code; I have only proved it correct, not tried it." -- Donald Knuth[citation needed]
  • "A relatively small number of causes will typically produce a large majority of the problems or defects (80/20 Rule)." -- Pareto principle[citation needed]
  • "given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow." -- Linus's Law according to Eric S. Raymond[38]
  • "I can remember the exact instant when I realized that a large part of my life from then on was going to be spent in finding mistakes in my own programs." -- Maurice Wilkes[citation needed]

Brian Wilson Kernighan (IPA pronunciation: , the g is silent), (born 1942 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada) is a computer scientist who worked at Bell Labs alongside Unix creators Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie and contributed greatly to Unix and its school of thought. ... Edsger Dijkstra Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (Rotterdam, May 11, 1930 – Nuenen, August 6, 2002; IPA: ) was a Dutch computer scientist. ... Donald Ervin Knuth ( or Ka-NOOTH[1], Chinese: [2]) (b. ... For other uses of the word pareto, see Pareto. ... Linus Benedict Torvalds  ; born December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, Finland, is a Finnish software engineer best known for initiating the development of the Linux kernel. ... Eric S. Raymond (FISL 6. ... Maurice V. Wilkes Maurice Vincent Wilkes (born June 26, 1913 in Dudley, Staffordshire, England) is a British computer scientist, credited with several important developments in computing. ...

References

  1. ^ Exploratory Testing, Cem Kaner, Florida Institute of Technology, Quality Assurance Institute Worldwide Annual Software Testing Conference, Orlando, FL, November 2006
  2. ^ Software errors cost U.S. economy $59.5 billion annually, NIST report
  3. ^ a b Section 1.1.2, Certified Tester Foundation Level Syllabus, International Software Testing Qualifications Board
  4. ^ Principle 2, Section 1.3, Certified Tester Foundation Level Syllabus, International Software Testing Qualifications Board
  5. ^ Tran, Eushiuan (1999). "Verification/Validation/Certification", in Koopman, P.: Topics in Dependable Embedded Systems. USA: Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved on 2008-01-13. 
  6. ^ see D. Gelperin and W.C. Hetzel
  7. ^ Myers, Glenford J. (1979). The Art of Software Testing. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-04328-1. 
  8. ^ Gelperin, D.; B. Hetzel (1988). "The Growth of Software Testing". CACM 31 (6). ISSN 0001-0782. 
  9. ^ until 1956 it was the debugging oriented period, when testing was often associated to debugging: there was no clear difference between testing and debugging. Gelperin, D.; B. Hetzel (1988). "The Growth of Software Testing". CACM 31 (6). ISSN 0001-0782. 
  10. ^ From 1957-1978 there was the demonstration oriented period where debugging and testing was distinguished now - in this period it was shown, that software satisfies the requirements. Gelperin, D.; B. Hetzel (1988). "The Growth of Software Testing". CACM 31 (6). ISSN 0001-0782. 
  11. ^ The time between 1979-1982 is announced as the destruction oriented period, where the goal was to find errors. Gelperin, D.; B. Hetzel (1988). "The Growth of Software Testing". CACM 31 (6). ISSN 0001-0782. 
  12. ^ 1983-1987 is classified as the evaluation oriented period: intention here is that during the software lifecycle a product evaluation is provided and measuring quality. Gelperin, D.; B. Hetzel (1988). "The Growth of Software Testing". CACM 31 (6). ISSN 0001-0782. 
  13. ^ From 1988 on it was seen as prevention oriented period where tests were to demonstrate that software satisfies its specification, to detect faults and to prevent faults. Gelperin, D.; B. Hetzel (1988). "The Growth of Software Testing". CACM 31 (6). ISSN 0001-0782. 
  14. ^ Laycock, G. T. (1993). "The Theory and Practice of Specification Based Software Testing" (PostScript). Dept of Computer Science, Sheffield University, UK. Retrieved on 2008-02-13.
  15. ^ Introduction, Code Coverage Analysis, Steve Cornett
  16. ^ e)Testing Phase in Software Testing:-
  17. ^ Myers, Glenford J. (1979). The Art of Software Testing. John Wiley and Sons, 145-146. ISBN 0-471-04328-1. 
  18. ^ Dustin, Elfriede (2002). Effective Software Testing. Addison Wesley, 3. ISBN 0-20179-429-2. 
  19. ^ Binder, Robert V. (1999). Testing Object-Oriented Systems: Objects, Patterns, and Tools. Addison-Wesley Professional, 45. ISBN 0-201-80938-9. 
  20. ^ IEEE (1990). IEEE Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries. New York: IEEE. ISBN 1559370793. 
  21. ^ Kaner, Cem; James Bach, Bret Pettichord (2001). Lessons Learned in Software Testing: A Context-Driven Approach. Wiley, 4. ISBN 0-471-08112-4. 
  22. ^ McConnell, Steve (2004). Code Complete, 2nd edition, Microsoft Press, 960. ISBN 0-7356-1967-0. 
  23. ^ IEEE (1998). IEEE standard for software test documentation. New York: IEEE. ISBN 0-7381-1443-X. 
  24. ^ context-driven-testing.com
  25. ^ An example is Mark Fewster, Dorothy Graham: Software Test Automation. Addison Wesley, 1999, ISBN 0-201-33140-3
  26. ^ Kaner, Cem (2001). NSF grant proposal to "lay a foundation for significant improvements in the quality of academic and commercial courses in software testing" (pdf).
  27. ^ Kaner, Cem (2003). Measuring the Effectiveness of Software Testers (pdf).
  28. ^ Quality Assurance Institute
  29. ^ International Institute for Software Testing
  30. ^ K. J. Ross & Associates
  31. ^ International Institute for Software Testing
  32. ^ a b ISTQB.
  33. ^ a b ISTQB in the U.S..
  34. ^ American Society for Quality
  35. ^ Quality Assurance Institute
  36. ^ Brian Kernighan; Rob Pike (1999). The practice of programming. Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 978-0201615869. 
  37. ^ Hoare, C. A. R.; Dahl, Ole-Johan; Dijkstra, Edsger Wybe (1972). Structured programming. Boston: Academic Press, 6. ISBN 0-12-200550-3. 
  38. ^ Raymond, Eric S. (2001). The cathedral and the bazaar: musings on Linux and Open Source by an accidental revolutionary. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly. ISBN 0-596-00108-8. 

The ISTQB (International Software Testing Qualifications Board) was founded in Edinburgh in November 2002. ... The ISTQB (International Software Testing Qualifications Board) was founded in Edinburgh in November 2002. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cem Kaner J.D., Ph. ... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... IEEE 829-1998, also known as the 829 Standard for Software Test Documentation is an IEEE standard that specifies the form of a set of documents for use in eight defined stages of software testing, each stage potentially producing its own separate type of document. ...

External links

Wikiversity
At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Software testing at:
The Department of Software testing
Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Software testing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3691 words)
Software testing is the process used to help identify the correctness, completeness, security and quality of developed computer software.Testing is a process of executing a program or application in the intent of finding errors.
Software testing may be viewed as a sub-field of software quality assurance but typically exists independently (and there may be no SQA areas in some companies).
Testing during the beta phase, informally called beta testing, is generally constrained to fl box techniques although a core of test engineers are likely to continue with white box testing in parallel to the beta tests.
Software Testing (5353 words)
Software testing is any activity aimed at evaluating an attribute or capability of a program or system and determining that it meets its required results.
Contrary to fl-box testing, software is viewed as a white-box, or glass-box in white-box testing, as the structure and flow of the software under test are visible to the tester.
Test cases are carefully selected based on the criterion that all the nodes or paths are covered or traversed at least once.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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