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Encyclopedia > Software engineering

Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software.[1] It encompasses techniques and procedures, often regulated by a software development process, with the purpose of improving the reliability and maintainability of software systems.[2] The effort is necessitated by the potential complexity of those systems, which may contain millions of lines of code.[3] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Source lines of code (SLOC) is a software metric used to measure the amount of code in a software program. ...


The term software engineering was popularized by F.L. Bauer during the NATO Software Engineering Conference in 1968.[4] The discipline of software engineering includes knowledge, tools, and methods for software requirements, software design, software construction, software testing, and software maintenance tasks.[5] Software engineering is related to the disciplines of computer science, computer engineering, management, mathematics, project management, quality management, software ergonomics, and systems engineering.[6] Friedrich Ludwig Bauer (born June 10, 1924) in Regensburg) is a german computer scientist and professor emeritus at Munich_University_of_Technology. ... In sytems and software engineering, requirements analysis encompasses those tasks that go into determining the requirements of a new or altered system, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders, such as users. ... Software design is the process that starts from a problem for which there is currently no acceptable (software) solution, and ends when such a solution has been created. ... Programming redirects here. ... Software testing is the process used to assess the quality of computer software. ... In software engineering, software maintenance is the process of enhancing and optimizing deployed software (software release), as well as remedying defects. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Computer engineering (or Computer Systems Engineering) encompasses broad areas of both electrical engineering and computer science[1]. Computer engineers are electrical engineers that have additional training in the areas of software design and hardware-software integration. ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (e. ... Quality management is a method for ensuring that all the activities necessary to design, develop and implement a product or service are effective and efficient with respect to the system and its performance. ... Ergonomics (or human factors) is the application of scientific information concerning objects, systems and environment for human use (definition adopted by the International Ergonomics Association in 2007). ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means...


As of 2004, the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics counts 760,840 software engineers holding jobs in the U.S.; for comparison, in the U.S. there are some 1.4 million practitioners employed in all other engineering disciplines combined.[7] Due to its relative newness as a field of study, formal education in software engineering is often taught as part of a computer science curriculum, and as a result most software engineers hold computer science degrees.[8] 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bureau of Labor Statistics was founded in 1884 by President Chester A. Arthur. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...

Contents

Ambiguity and controversy

Main articles: Debates within software engineering and Controversies over the term Engineer

Typical formal definitions of software engineering are Many debates are raging within the software engineering community. ... Controversies over the term Engineer stem from the traditional uses in design and analysis, as compared to newly emerging uses of the term. ...

  • "the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software".[9]
  • "an engineering discipline that is concerned with all aspects of software production"[10]
  • "the establishment and use of sound engineering principles in order to economically obtain software that is reliable and works efficiently on real machines"[11]

The term has been used less formally: Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ...

  • as the informal contemporary term for the broad range of activities that were formerly called programming and systems analysis;[12]
  • as the broad term for all aspects of the practice of computer programming, as opposed to the theory of computer programming, which is called computer science;[13]
  • as the term embodying the advocacy of a specific approach to computer programming, one that urges that it be treated as an engineering discipline rather than an art or a craft, and advocates the codification of recommended practices.[14]

Some people believe that software engineering implies a certain level of academic training, professional discipline, and adherence to formal processes that often are not applied in cases of software development. A common analogy is that working in construction does not make one a civil engineer, and so writing code does not make one a software engineer. The notion that the field is mature enough to warrant the title "engineering" is disputed.[citation needed] In each of the last few decades, at least one radical new approach has entered the mainstream of software development (e.g. Structured Programming, Object Orientation), implying that the field is still changing too rapidly to be considered an engineering discipline. Proponents argue that the supposedly radical new approaches are evolutionary rather than revolutionary.[citation needed] Computer programming (often simply programming) is the craft of implementing one or more interrelated abstract algorithms using a particular programming language to produce a concrete computer program. ... Systems analysis is the interdisciplinary branch of science, dealing with analysis of systems, often prior to their automation as computer systems, and the interactions within those systems. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering. ... In communications, a code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letter, word, or phrase) into another form or representation, not necessarily of the same type. ... Structured programming can be seen as a subset or subdiscipline of procedural programming, one of the major programming paradigms. ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ...


Individual commentators have disagreed sharply on how to define software engineering or its legitimacy as an engineering discipline. David Parnas has said that software engineering is, in fact, a form of engineering.[15][16] Steve McConnell has said that it is not, but that it should be.[17] Donald Knuth has said that programming is an art and a science.[18] Edsger W. Dijkstra claims that the terms software engineering and software engineer have been misused, particularly in the United States.[19] David Lorge Parnas (born February 10, 1941) is an early pioneer of software engineering who developed the concept of module design which is the foundation of object oriented programming today. ... Steven Steve C. McConnell is a well-known author of many software engineering textbooks including Code Complete, Rapid Development, and Software Estimation. ... Donald Ervin Knuth ( or Ka-NOOTH[1], Chinese: [2]) (b. ... Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (May 11, 1930 – August 6, 2002); IPA: ) was a Dutch computer scientist. ...


Regulatory classification

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies computer software engineers as a subcategory of "computer specialists", along with occupations such as computer scientist, programmer, and network administrator.[20] The BLS classifies all other engineering disciplines, including computer hardware engineers, as "engineers".[21] The Bureau of Labor Statistics was founded in 1884 by President Chester A. Arthur. ...


The U.K. has seen the alignment of the Information Technology Professional and the Engineering Professionals.[22] Software engineering in Canada has seen some contests in the courts over the use of the title "Software Engineer"[23]


The Canadian Council of Professional Engineers (C.C.P.E. or "Engineers Canada") will not grant a "Professional Engineer" status/license to anyone who has not completed a recognized academic engineering program.[citation needed] Engineers qualified outside Canada are similarly unable to obtain a "Professional Engineer" license.[24]Template:Request citation


Some of the United States of America regulate the use of terms such as "computer engineer" and even "software engineer". These states include at least Texas[25] and Florida[26]. Texas even goes so far as to ban anyone from writing any real-time code without an engineering license.


Education

About half of all practitioners today have computer science degrees. A small, but growing, number of practitioners have software engineering degrees. In 1996, Rochester Institute of Technology established the first software engineering Bachelor's degree program in the United States but did not obtain ABET until 2003, the same time as Clarkson University, Milwaukee School of Engineering and Mississippi State University.[27] Since then, software engineering undergraduate degrees have been established at many universities. A standard international curriculum for undergraduate software engineering degrees was recently defined by the CCSE. As of 2004, in the U.S., about 50 universities offer software engineering degrees, which teach both computer science and engineering principles and practices. The first software engineering Master's degree was established at Seattle University in 1979. Since then graduate software engineering degrees have been made available from many more universities. Likewise in Canada, the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB) of the Canadian Council of Professional Engineers has recognized software engineering programs in engineering faculties such as McMaster University, the University of Waterloo, the University of Ottawa and the University of Western Ontario, the University of Calgary, the University of Victoria, McGill University and the Université Laval in 2006.[28][29][30][31][32] Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... North American redirects here. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... RIT redirects here. ... A bachelors degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three, four, or in some cases and countries, five or six years. ... The Accredition Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) is a non-profit organization that serves the public by making accreditations of the universities and scientific institutions which live up to certain qualities defined by the organization. ... Clarkson University, formerly Clarkson College of Technology, is a private university located in rural Potsdam, New York. ... MSOE redirects here. ... Mississippi State University is a land-grant university located in north east-central Mississippi, United States, in the town of Starkville and is situated 125 miles (200 km) northeast of Jackson and 23 miles (37 km) west of Columbus. ... The Software Engineering 2004 (SE2004) —formerly known as Computing Curriculum Software Engineering (CCSE)— is a document that provides recommendations for undergraduate education in software engineering. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Centennial Fountain, designed by George Tsutakawa. ... The Canadian Council of Professional Engineers (CCPE) is the national organization of the 12 provincial and territorial associations that regulate the practice of engineering in Canada. ... McMaster University is a highly regarded medium-sized research-intensive university located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, with an enrollment of 18,238 full-time and 3,836 part-time students (as of 2006). ... The University of Waterloo (also referred to as UW, UWaterloo, or Waterloo) is a research-intensive public university in the city of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. ... For the university in Ottawa, Kansas, see Ottawa University. ... The University of Western Ontario (known as Western, as well as UWO or Western Ontario) is a research university located in London, Ontario. ... Arch marking south entrance to campus during the winter. ... The University of Victoria (usually known as UVic, though originally as U of V) is located in Greater Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (northeast of Victoria). ... McGill University is a public co-educational research university located in Montréal, Québec, Canada. ... Université Laval (Laval University) is the oldest centre of education in Canada, and was the first institution in North America to offer higher education in French. ...


In 1998, the US Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) established the first doctorate program in Software Engineering in the world.[citation needed] As of the beginning of 2006, thirteen students had graduated from the program and assumed senior-level leadership roles in the Department of Defense research and development community.[citation needed] Additionally, many online advanced degrees in Software Engineering have appeared such as the Master of Science in Software Engineering (MSE) degree offered through the Computer Science and Engineering Department at California State University, Fullerton. The Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, United States is a graduate school operated by the United States Navy. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... California State University, Fullerton, commonly known as CSUF, CSU Fullerton, or Cal State Fullerton, is the fastest growing California State University campus. ...


Steve McConnell opines that because most universities teach computer science rather than software engineering, there is a shortage of true software engineers.[33]


Other degrees

In business, some practitioners have MIS degrees. In embedded systems, some practitioners have electrical or computer engineering degrees, because embedded software often requires a detailed understanding of hardware. In medical software, some practitioners have medical informatics, general medical, or biology degrees.[citation needed] Management Information Systems (MIS), are information systems, typically computer based, that are used within an organization. ... What is an Embedded System? Electronic devices that incorporate a computer(usually a microprocessor) within their implementation. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... Computer engineering (or Computer Systems Engineering) encompasses broad areas of both electrical engineering and computer science[1]. Computer engineers are electrical engineers that have additional training in the areas of software design and hardware-software integration. ... Electronic patient chart of a HIS Medical Informatics is the name given to the discipline that exists at the intersection of information technology and medicine. ...


Some practitioners have mathematics, science, engineering, or technology degrees. Some have philosophy (logic in particular) or other non-technical degrees.[citation needed] And, some have no degrees.[citation needed] For instance, Barry Boehm earned degrees in mathematics. For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Barry W. Boehm is known for many contributions to software engineering. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ...


Profession

Employment

See also: software engineering demographics

Most software engineers work as employees or contractors. Software engineers work with businesses, government agencies (civilian or military), and non-profit organizations. Some software engineers work for themselves as freelancers. Some organizations have specialists to perform each of the tasks in the software development process. Other organizations required software engineers to do many or all of them. In large projects, people may specialize in only one role. In small projects, people may fill several or all roles at the same time. Specializations include: in industry (analysts, architects, developers, testers, technical support, managers) and in academia (educators, researchers). There are a lot of software engineers. ... A freelancer or freelance worker is a person who pursues a profession without a long-term commitment to any one employer. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... In sytems and software engineering, requirements analysis encompasses those tasks that go into determining the requirements of a new or altered system, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders, such as users. ... The software architecture of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software components, the externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships between them. ... For other uses, see Software developer (disambiguation). ... Software testing is the process used to assess the quality of computer software. ... Technical support (also tech support) is a range of services providing assistance with computer hardware, software, or other electronic or mechanical goods. ... Project Management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources (e. ... Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. ... For the suburb of Melbourne, Australia, see Research, Victoria. ...


There is considerable debate over the future employment prospects for Software Engineers and other IT Professionals. For example, an online futures market called the Future of IT Jobs in America attempts to answer whether there will be more IT jobs, including software engineers, in 2012 than there were in 2002. Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Certification

Certification of software engineers is a contentious issue.[citation needed] Some see it as a tool to improve professional practice.[citation needed] Certification is a contentious issue. ... Professional Engineer is the term for registered or licensed engineers in some countries, including the United States, and Canada who are permitted to offer their professional services directly to the public. ...


Most successful certification programs in the software industry are oriented toward specific technologies, and are managed by the vendors of these technologies.[citation needed] These certification programs are tailored to the institutions that would employ people who use these technologies.


The ACM had a professional certification program in the early 1980s, which was discontinued due to lack of interest.[citation needed] As of 2006, the IEEE had certified over 575 software professionals.[34] In Canada the Canadian Information Processing Society has developed a legally recognized professional certification called Information Systems Professional (ISP).[35] The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, was founded in 1947 as the worlds first scientific and educational computing society. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ... The Canadian Information Processing Society (C.I.P.S) is the Information Technology professional society in Canada. ...


Impact of globalization

Many students in the developed world have avoided degrees related to software engineering because of the fear of offshore outsourcing (importing software products or services from other countries) and of being displaced by foreign visa workers.[36] Although government statistics do not currently show a threat to software engineering itself; a related career, computer programming does appear to have been affected.[37][38] Often one is expected to start out as a computer programmer before being promoted to software engineer. Thus, the career path to software engineering may be rough, especially during recessions. Offshore outsourcing is the practice of hiring an external organization to perform some business functions in a country other than the one where the products or services are actully developed or manufactured. ... The Foreign Worker Visa is an immigration document allowing a foreign national to temporarily immigrate to a country for purposes of employment. ... Programming redirects here. ...


Some career counselors suggest a student also focus on "people skills" and business skills rather than purely technical skills because such "soft skills" are allegedly more difficult to offshore.[39] It is the quasi-management aspects of software engineering that appear to be what has kept it from being impacted by globalization.[40]


Comparing related fields

Many fields are closely related to software engineering; here are some key similarities and distinctions. Comparing SE with other fields helps explain what SE is and helps define what SE might or should become. There is considerable debate over which fields SE most resembles (or should most resemble). These complex and inexact comparisons explain why some see software engineering as its own field. The relationships between software engineering and the fields of programming, computer science, and traditional engineering have been debated for decades. ...


History

Main article: History of software engineering

Software engineering has a long evolving history. Both the tools that are used and the applications that are written have evolved over time. It seems likely that software engineering will continue evolving for many decades to come. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


60 year time line

  • 1940s[citation needed]: First computer users wrote machine code by hand.
  • 1950s: Early tools, such as macro assemblers and interpreters were created and widely used to improve productivity and quality[citation needed]. First-generation optimizing compilers[citation needed].
  • 1960s: Second generation tools like optimizing compilers and inspections were being used to improve productivity and quality[citation needed]. The concept of software engineering was widely discussed[citation needed]. First really big (1000 programmer) projects[citation needed]. Commercial mainframes and custom software for big business. The influential 1968 NATO Conference on Software Engineering was held.
  • 1970s: Collaborative software tools, such as Unix, code repositories, make, and so on. Minicomputers and the rise of small business software.
  • 1980s: Personal computers and personal workstations became common. Commensurate rise of consumer software. Smalltalk: the first commercial OOPS language/platform that is UI based, Memory Managed, VM Image based, scripted/incremental.
  • 1990s: Object-oriented programming and agile processes like Extreme programming gained mainstream acceptance[citation needed]. Computer memory capacity sky-rocketed and prices dropped drastically[citation needed]. These new technologies allowed software to grow more complex[citation needed]. The WWW and hand-held computers made software even more widely available.
  • 2000s: Managed code and interpreted platforms such as Java, .NET, Ruby, Python and PHP made writing software easier than ever before[citation needed]. Offshore outsourcing changed the nature and focus of software engineering careers.

This is a list of important publications in computer science, organized by field. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®, sometimes also written as or ® with small caps) is a computer operating system originally developed in 1969 by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... In computer programming, make is a utility for automatically building large applications. ... HP2114 minicomputer Minicomputer is a largely obsolete term for a class of multi-user computers which make up the middle range of the computing spectrum, in between the largest multi-user systems (mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers). ... The tower of a personal computer. ... For other uses, see Small talk. ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ... Agile software development is a conceptual framework for software engineering that promotes development iterations throughout the life-cycle of the project. ... Extreme Programming (or XP) is a software engineering methodology, the most prominent of several agile software development methodologies, prescribing a set of daily stakeholder practices that embody and encourage particular XP values (below). ... Graphic representation of the world wide web around Wikipedia The World Wide Web (WWW, or simply Web) is an information space in which the items of interest, referred to as resources, are identified by global identifiers called Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI). ... In Microsoft Windows terminology, managed code is computer instructions — that is, code — executed by a CLI-compliant virtual machine, such as Microsofts . ... Java language redirects here. ... The Microsoft . ... Ruby is a reflective, dynamic, object-oriented programming language. ... Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language. ... For other uses, see PHP (disambiguation). ... Offshore outsourcing is the practice of hiring an external organization to perform some business functions in a country other than the one where the products or services are actully developed or manufactured. ...

Current trends in software engineering

Software engineering is a young discipline, and is still developing. The directions in which software engineering is developing include:

Aspects
Aspects help software engineers deal with -ilities by providing tools to add or remove boilerplate code from many areas in the source code. Aspects describe how all objects or functions should behave in particular circumstances. For example, aspects can add debugging, logging, or locking control into all objects of particular types. Researchers are currently working to understand how to use aspects to design general-purpose code. Related concepts include generative programming and templates.
Agile
Agile software development guides software development projects that evolve rapidly with changing expectations and competitive markets. Proponents of this method believe that heavy, document-driven processes (like TickIT, CMM and ISO 9000) are fading in importance[citation needed]. Some people believe that companies and agencies export many of the jobs that can be guided by heavy-weight processes[citation needed]. Related concepts include Extreme Programming and Lean software development.
Experimental
Experimental software engineering is a branch of software engineering interested in devising experiments on software, in collecting data from the experiments, and in devising laws and theories from this data. Proponents of this method advocate that the nature of software is such that we can advance the knowledge on software through experiments only[citation needed].
Model-driven
Model Driven Software Development uses (both textual and graphical) models as primary development artifacts. By means of model transformation and code generation a part or complete applications are generated.
Software Product Lines
Software Product Lines is a systematic way to produce families of software systems, instead of creating a succession of completely individual products. This method emphasizes extensive, systematic, formal code reuse, to try to industrialize the software development process.

The Future of Software Engineering conference (FOSE), held at ICSE 2000, documented the state of the art of SE in 2000 and listed many problems to be solved over the next decade. The FOSE tracks at the ICSE 2000 and the ICSE 2007 conferences also help identify the state of the art in software engineering. Separation of concerns entails breaking down a program into distinct parts that overlap in functionality as little as possible. ... Within systems engineering, -ilities are aspects or non-functional requirements. ... Boilerplate refers to any text that is or can be reused in new contexts or applications without being changed much from the original. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... In computer science, an aspect is a part of a program that cross-cuts its core concerns, therefore violating its separation of concerns. ... Debugging is a methodical process of finding and reducing the number of bugs, or defects, in a computer program or a piece of electronic hardware thus making it behave as expected. ... Data logging is the practice of recording sequential data, often chronologically. ... In software engineering, a lock is a mechanism for enforcing limits on access to a resource in an environment where there are many threads of execution. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Source code generation. ... In computer programming, templates are a feature of the C++ programming language that allow code to be written without consideration of the data type with which it will eventually be used. ... Agile software development is a conceptual framework for software engineering that promotes development iterations throughout the life-cycle of the project. ... “Software development” redirects here. ... expectation in the context of probability theory and statistics, see expected value. ... TickIT is a quality-management certification program for software, supported primarily by the United Kingdom and Swedish software industries. ... CMM can refer to:<Component Maintenance Manual> Coordinate Measuring Machine Capability Maturity Model Center for Microanalysis of Materials Center for Molecular Modeling Centre for Metaphysics and Mind Certification in Meeting Management Chad Michael Murray, an American actor best known for his role in One Tree Hill C++ with multimethods (Cmm... ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management systems. ... Extreme Programming (or XP) is a software engineering methodology, the most prominent of several agile software development methodologies, prescribing a set of daily stakeholder practices that embody and encourage particular XP values (below). ... Lean Software Development is a translation of lean manufacturing principles and practices to the software development domain. ... Experimental software engineering is a sub-domain of software engineering focusing on experiments on software systems (software products, processes, and resources). ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... Model-Driven Engineering (MDE; a. ... // Presentation Description The notion of model transformation is central to Model Driven Engineering. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Product families/lines are quite common in our daily lives, but before a product family can be successfully established, an extensive process has to be followed. ... Code reuse, also called software reuse, is the use of existing software, or software knowledge, to build new software. ...


Software engineering today

The profession is trying to define its boundary and content. The Software Engineering Body of Knowledge SWEBOK has been tabled as an ISO standard during 2006 (ISO/IEC TR 19759). The Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK) is a product of the Software Engineering Coordinating Committee. ...


In 2006, Money Magazine and Salary.com rated software engineering as the best job in America in terms of growth, pay, stress levels, flexibility in hours and working environment, creativity, and how easy it is to enter and advance in the field.[41]


See also software engineering economics. Software engineering economics is the economics of the software industry. ...


See also

Software Testing Portal
Main lists: List of basic software engineering topics and List of software engineering topics

Image File history File links Portal. ... Software Engineering (SE) is the design, development, and documentation of software by applying technologies and practices from computer science, project management, engineering, application domains, interface design, digital asset management and other fields. ... This list complements the software engineering article, giving more details and examples. ... The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, was founded in 1947 as the worlds first scientific and educational computing society. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Custom Software Development, also known as custom software engineering, defines omitting of predeveloped (template or boxed) solutions and views. ... Informatics includes the science of information, the practice of information processing, and the engineering of information systems. ... Search Based Software Engineering (SBSE) is an approach to apply metaheuristic search techniques like genetic algorithms, simulated annealing and tabu search to software engineering problems. ... “Software development” redirects here. ... Software Quality Assurance (SQA) consists of a means of monitoring the software engineering processes and methods used to ensure quality. ... System testing of software is testing conducted on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the systems compliance with its specified requirements. ... Redirect page ... In Software Engineering, Software System Safety optimizes system safety in the design, development, use, and maintenance of software systems and their integration with safety critical hardware systems in an operational environment. ... Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM) is a systems approach to the analysis and design of information systems. ... Systems analysis is the science dealing with analysis of complex, large scale systems and the interactions within those systems. ... User experience is a term used to describe the overall experience and satisfaction a user has when using a product or system. ... Service-oriented Modeling (SOM) to produce a Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) is referred to as SOMA (Service-oriented Modeling and Architecture). ...

References

  1. ^ “IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology,” IEEE std 610.12-1990, 1990, quoted at the beginning of Chapter 1: Introduction to the guide Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (February 6, 2004). Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
  2. ^ Pecht, Michael (1995). Product Reliability, Maintainability, and Supportability Handbook. CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-9457-0. 
  3. ^ Pehrson, Ronald J. (January 1996). "Software Development for the Boeing 777". CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. , "The 2.5 million lines of newly developed software were approximately six times more than any previous Boeing commercial airplane development program. Including commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) and optional software, the total size is more than 4 million lines of code."
  4. ^ Dijkstra, Edsger W; transcribed by Mario Béland (1993-12-03; transcription last revised 2004-11-23). There is still a war going on (manuscript Austin, 3 December 1993). E. W. Dijkstra Archive. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Retrieved on 2007-02-17. “When the term was coined in 1968 by F.L. Bauer of the Technological University of Munich, I welcomed it.”
  5. ^ Table 1 in Chapter 1,Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (February 6, 2004). Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
  6. ^ Table 2 in Chapter 1,Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (February 6, 2004). Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
  7. ^ Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, USDL 05-2145: Occupational Employment and Wages, November 2004, Table 1.
  8. ^ Software Engineering. Retrieved on 2008-02-01.
  9. ^ “IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology,” IEEE std 610.12-1990, 1990.
  10. ^ Sommerville, Ian [1982] (2007). "1.1.2 What is software engineering?", Software Engineering, 8th ed., Harlow, England: Pearson Education, P. 7. ISBN 0-321-31379-8. “Software engineeering is an engineering discipline that is concerned with all aspects of software production from the early stages of system specification to maintaining the system after it has gone into use. In this definition, there are two key phrases:
    1. Engineeering discipline Engineers make things work. They apply theories, methods and tools where these are appropriate [. . .] Engineers also recognise that they must work to organisational and financial constraints. [. . .]
    2. All aspects of software production Software engineering is not just concerned with the technical processes of software development but also with activities such as software project management and with the development of tools, methods and theories to support software production.”
     
  11. ^ "Software Engineering" (1972). Information Processing 71: 530-538. North-Holland Publishing Co.. 
  12. ^ Akram I. Salah (2002-04-05). Engineering an Academic Program in Software Engineering. 35th Annual Midwest Instruction and Computing Symposium. Retrieved on 2006-09-13.: "For some, software engineering is just a glorified name for programming. If you are a programmer, you might put 'software engineer' on your business card—never 'programmer' though."
  13. ^ Mills, Harlan D., J. R. Newman, and C. B. Engle, Jr., "An Undergraduate Curriculum in Software Engineering," in Deimel, Lionel E. (1990). Software Engineering Education: SEI Conference 1990, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, April 2-3,.... Springer. ISBN 0-387-97274-9. , p. 26: "As a practical matter, we regard software engineering as the necessary preparation for the practicing, software development and maintenance professional. The Computer Scientist is preparing for further theoretical studies..."
  14. ^ David Budgen, Pearl Brereton, Barbara Kitchenham, Stephen Linkman (2004-12-14). Realizing Evidence-based Software Engineering. Retrieved on 2006-10-18.: "We believe that software engineering can only advance as an engineering discipline by moving away from its current dependence upon advocacy and analysis...."
  15. ^ Parnas, David L. (1998). "Software Engineering Programmes are not Computer Science Programmes". Annals of Software Engineering 6: 19–37. , p. 19: "Rather than treat software engineering as a subfield of computer science, I treat it as an element of the set, {Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering,....}."
  16. ^ Parnas, David L. (1998). "Software Engineering Programmes are not Computer Science Programmes". Annals of Software Engineering 6: 19–37. , p. 20: "This paper argues that the introduction of accredited professional programmes in software engineering, programmes that are modelled on programmes in traditional engineering disciplines will help to increase both the quality and quantity of graduates who are well prepared, by their education, to develop trustworthy software products."
  17. ^ McConnell, Steve (August 2003). Professional Software Development: Shorter Schedules, Better Projects, Superior Products, Enhanced Careers. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-321-19367-9. , p. 39: "In my opinion, the answer to that question is clear: Professional software development should be engineering. Is it? No. But should it be? Unquestionably, yes. "
  18. ^ Knuth, Donald (1974). "Computer Programming as an Art". Communications of the ACM 17 (12): 667-673.  Transcript of the 1974 Turing Award lecture.
  19. ^ Dijkstra, Edsger W; transcribed by Mario Béland (1993-12-03; transcription last revised 2004-11-23). There is still a war going on (manuscript Austin, 3 December 1993). E. W. Dijkstra Archive. The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer Sciences. Retrieved on 2007-02-17. “When the term was coined in 1968 by F.L. Bauer of the Technological University of Munich, I welcomed it. [. . .] I interpreted the introduction of the term “software engineering” as an apt reflection of the fact that the design of software systems was an activity par excellence for the mathematical engineer. [. . .]. As soon the term arrived in the USA, it was relieved of all its technical content. It had to be so for in its original meaning it was totally unacceptable [. . .] In the mean time, software engineering has become an almost empty term, as was nicely demonstrated by Data General who overnight promoted all its programmers to the exalted rank of “software engineer”!”
  20. ^ U.S Department of Labor and Statistics The 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System: 15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations
  21. ^ U.S Department of Labor and Statistics The 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System: 17-0000 Architecture and Engineering Occupations
  22. ^ 'British Computer Society' - "BCS is licensed by the Engineering Council to award Chartered Engineer status (CEng) and Incorporated Engineer status (IEng);" [1]
  23. ^ 'Professional Engineers of Ontario' - "Quebec Engineers win court battle against Microsoft"[2]
  24. ^ Council for Access to the Profession of Engineering
  25. ^ IEEE Software: "What do you mean I can't call myself a Software Engineer?"
  26. ^ Florida Statutes: Chapter 471: Engineering
  27. ^ ABET Accredited Engineering Programs (April 3, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-03.
  28. ^ PEO. CEAB accredits first software programs. Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
  29. ^ CCPE. Software Engineering Syllabus - 2004. Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
  30. ^ University of Victoria. Full Accreditation granted to our Software Engineering Degree (BSEng) Program!. Retrieved on 2007-12-09.
  31. ^ McGill University. Full Accreditation has been granted to our Software Engineering Degree (B.S.E.) Program!. Retrieved on 2008-04-10.
  32. ^ Université Laval. Accréditation par le BCAPI. Retrieved on 2008-01-05.
  33. ^ McConnell, Steve (July 10, 2003. Professional Software Development: Shorter Schedules, Higher Quality Products, More Successful Projects, Enhanced Careers. ISBN 978-0321193674.
  34. ^ IEEE Computer Society. 2006 IEEE COMPUTER SOCIETY REPORT TO THE IFIP GENERAL ASSEMBLY. Retrieved on 2007-04-10.
  35. ^ Canadian Information Processing Society. I.S.P. Designation. Retrieved on 2007-03-15.
  36. ^ http://www.computerworld.com/printthis/2006/0,4814,111202,00.html
  37. ^ http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos110.htm#outlook
  38. ^ http://www.infoworld.com/article/07/03/13/HNslowsoftdev_1.html
  39. ^ http://www.computerworld.com/action/article.do?command=viewArticleTOC&specialReportId=9000100&articleId=112360
  40. ^ http://itmanagement.earthweb.com/career/article.php/3523066
  41. ^ Kalwarski, Tara; Daphne Mosher, Janet Paskin and Donna Rosato (2006). Best Jobs in America. MONEY Magazine. CNN. Retrieved on 2006-04-20., "MONEY Magazine and Salary.com researched hundreds of jobs, considering their growth, pay, stress-levels and other factors. These careers ranked highest. 1. Software Engineer..."

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Edsger Dijkstra Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (Rotterdam, May 11, 1930 – Nuenen, August 6, 2002; IPA: ) was a Dutch computer scientist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ... Ian F. Sommerville, (1951 –) is a British academic. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... David Lorge Parnas (born February 10, 1941) is an early pioneer of software engineering who developed the concept of module design which is the foundation of object oriented programming today. ... David Lorge Parnas (born February 10, 1941) is an early pioneer of software engineering who developed the concept of module design which is the foundation of object oriented programming today. ... Steven Steve C. McConnell is a well-known author of many software engineering textbooks including Code Complete, Rapid Development, and Software Estimation. ... Donald Ervin Knuth ( or Ka-NOOTH[1], Chinese: [2]) (b. ... The A.M. Turing Award is given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery to a person selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community. ... Edsger Dijkstra Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (Rotterdam, May 11, 1930 – Nuenen, August 6, 2002; IPA: ) was a Dutch computer scientist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Jalote, Pankaj [1991] (2005). An Integrated Approach to Software Engineering, 3th ed., Springer. ISBN 0-387-20881-X. 
  • Sommerville, Ian [1982] (2007). Software Engineering, 8th ed., Harlow, England: Pearson Education. ISBN 0-321-31379-8. 
  • Pressman, Roger S (2005). Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach, 6th ed., Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0072853182. 
  • Carlo Ghezzi, Mehdi Jazayeri, Dino Mandrioli: Fundamentals of Software Engineering, 2nd (International) ed.: 2003 (1st ed.: 1991), Pearson Education @ Prentice-Hall
  • Colin Hood,Simon Wiedemann, Stefan Fichtinger, Urte Pautz Requirements Management: Interface Between Requirements Development and All Other Engineering Processes Springer, Berlin 2007, ISBN 354047689X

Ian F. Sommerville, (1951 –) is a British academic. ... Dr. Roger Pressmen is an author and consultant and is President of R.S. Pressman & Associates. ...

External links

  • Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge
  • Computer Software Engineers - Definition and statistics from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
  • Big Ball of Mud A "yes but why not" point of view by Brian Foote and Joseph Yoder, Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
The Bureau of Labor Statistics was founded in 1884 by President Chester A. Arthur. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... For the song by 311, see Grassroots Applied science is the exact science of applying knowledge from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems. ... AI redirects here. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... A processors core Computing is a very broad topic that has become pandemic to modern uses of technology. ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... Energy storage is the storing of some form of energy that can be drawn upon at a later time to perform some useful operation. ... Engineering physics (EP) is an academic degree, usually at the level of Bachelor of Science. ... Environmental technology or green technology is the application of the environmental sciences to conserve the natural environment and resources, and by curbing the negative impacts of human involvement. ... A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ... The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science or Materials Engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Microtechnology is technology with features near one micrometre (one millionth of a metre, or 10-6 metre, or 1μm). ... Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, generally 100 nanometers or smaller, and the fabrication of devices with critical dimensions that lie within that size range. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... Zoography, also known as descriptive zoology, is the applied science of describing animals and their habitats. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... The know-how that goes into a given medium. ... Graphic redirects here. ... Music Technology is a term that refers to all forms of technology involved with the musical arts, particularly the use of electronic devices and computer software to facilitate playback, recording, composition, storage, and performance. ... Speech recognition (in many contexts also known as automatic speech recognition, computer speech recognition or erroneously as voice recognition) is the process of converting a speech signal to a sequence of words in the form of digital data, by means of an algorithm implemented as a computer program. ... Visual technology is the engineering discipline dealing with visual representation. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... Computational finance (also known as financial engineering) is a cross-disciplinary field which relies on mathematical finance, numerical methods and computer simulations to make trading, hedging and investment decisions, as well as facilitating the risk management of those decisions. ... Manufacturing (from Latin manu factura, making by hand) is the use of tools and labor to make things for use or sale. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Business informatics (BI) is a discipline combining information technology (IT) – or informatics – with management concepts. ... Ammunition, often referred to as ammo, is a generic term meaning (the assembly of) a projectile and its propellant. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ... This article is about the video game. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Marine Engineers are the officers of a ship which operate and maintain the propulsion and electrical generation systems onboard a ship. ... For other uses, see Home (disambiguation). ... This article is about the use of technology in education delivery. ... A major appliance is a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation, or cleaning, whether in a household, institutional, commercial or industrial setting. ... Domestic technology is the incorporation of applied science into the home. ... The food technology room at Marling School in Stroud, Gloucestershire. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... An architectural engineer applies the skills of many engineering disciplines to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of buildings while paying attention to their impacts on the surrounding environment. ... Audio engineering is a part of audio science dealing with the recording and reproduction of sound through mechanical and electronic means. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... Biological engineering (a. ... Unser Nachbar hat ein neues Auto. ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Broadcast engineering is the field of electrical engineering, and now to some extent radio and television broadcasting. ... Ceramic engineering is the technology of manufacturing and usage of ceramic materials. ... Chemical engineers design, construct and operate plants Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with the application of physical science (e. ... The Falkirk Wheel in Scotland. ... Computer engineering (or Computer Systems Engineering) encompasses broad areas of both electrical engineering and computer science[1]. Computer engineers are electrical engineers that have additional training in the areas of software design and hardware-software integration. ... Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. ... Cryogenics is a branch of physics (or engineering) that studies the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems. ... Electronic discipline that deals with the behavior and effects of electrons (as in electron tubes and transistors) and with electronic devices, systems, or equipment. ... Environmental engineering[1][2] is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. ... Materials engineering is a discipline related to materials science which focusses on materials design, processing techniques (casting, rolling, welding, ion implantation, crystal growth, thin film deposition, sintering, glassblowing, etc. ... Mechanical Engineering is an engineering discipline that involves the application of principles of physics for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. ... Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of mechanical engineering (mecha for mechanisms, i. ... Metallurgical engineering- Designing, creating, or producing metals by various methods, for various applications, from metallic elements described on the Chemical Periodic Table of the Elements. ... Mining Engineering is a field that involves many of the other engineering disciplines as applied to extracting and processing minerals from a naturally occurring environment. ... Steamer New York in c. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the breakdown of atomic nuclei and/or other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physics. ... Optical engineering is the field of study which focuses on applications of optics. ... Petroleum engineering is involved in the exploration and production activities of petroleum as an upstream end of the energy sector. ... Structural engineering is a field of engineering that deals with the design of structural systems with the purpose of supporting and resisting various loads. ... Systems engineering techniques are used in complex projects: from spacecrafts to chip design, from robotics to creating large software products to building bridges, Systems engineering uses a host of tools that include modeling & simulation, requirements analysis, and scheduling to manage complexity Systems Engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary approach and means... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Tissue engineering is the use of a combination of cells, engineering and materials methods, and suitable biochemical and physio-chemical factors to improve or replace biological functions. ... For other uses, see Safety (disambiguation). ... The AbioCor artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering application of mechanical engineering with biocompatible materials for Cardiothoracic Surgery using an artificial organ. ... Map of the human X chromosome (from the NCBI website). ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Cheminformatics (also known as chemoinformatics and chemical informatics) is the use of computer and informational techniques, applied to a range of problems in the field of chemistry. ... Fire protection engineering (also known as fire engineering or fire safety engineering) is the application of science and engineering principles to protect people and their environments from the destructive effects of fire and smoke. ... Health Sciences are the group of disciplines of applied science dealing with human and animal health. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmakon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and lego (λέγω) to tell (about)) is the study of how drugs interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Safety engineering is an applied science strongly related to systems engineering and the subset System Safety Engineering. ... Sanitary engineering is the application of scientific or mathematical principles with to the field of sanitation, especially in regards to its affect on public health. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering that concerns the design, construction and science behind aircraft and spacecraft. ... Automotive engineering is a branch of Vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of automobiles, buses and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems. ... The Engine room of Argonaute, a French supply vessel. ... Space technology is a term that is often treated as a category. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Software engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3944 words)
Software engineering is "(1) the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software, that is, the application of engineering to software," and "(2) the study of approaches as in (1)." – IEEE Standard 610.12
Software Engineering is considered by many to be an engineering discipline because there are pragmatic approaches and expected characteristics of engineers.
Experimental software engineering is a branch of software engineering interested in devising experiments on software, in collecting data from these experiments, and in devising laws and theories from this data.
Software engineering - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article (3337 words)
Software engineering is the profession that creates and maintains software applications by applying technologies and practices from computer science, project management, engineering, application domains, and other fields.
Software engineering is "(1) the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software, that is, the application of engineering to software," and "(2) the study of approaches as in (1)." &ndash; IEEE Standard 610.12
Requiring software engineers to be licensed would make persons who create software without a license into criminals, even if they give their software away, same as practicing medicine or law without a license, even for free, is a criminal offense.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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