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Encyclopedia > Soft drink

The term soft drink (more commonly known as soda, pop, or soda pop in parts of the United States and Canada, or fizzy drinks in the U.K.[1]; sometimes called minerals in Ireland) refers to drinks, often carbonated, that do not contain alcohol. The name "soft drink" specifies a lack of alcohol by way of contrast to the term "hard drink" and the term "drink", the latter of which is nominally neutral but often carries connotations of alcoholic content. Beverages like colas, sparkling water, iced tea, lemonade, squash, and fruit punch are among the most common types of soft drinks, while hot chocolate, hot tea, coffee, milk, tap water, alcohol, and milkshakes do not fall into this classification. Many carbonated soft drinks are optionally available in versions sweetened with sugars or with non-caloric sweeteners. For the chemical reaction forming calcium carbonate, see carbonatation. ... For other uses, see Cola (disambiguation). ... Bubbles in carbonated water float to the surface. ... This article is about the drink. ... This article is about the drink made with lemons. ... A bottle of squash Squash (sometimes called cordial; however, see the definitions below) is a highly-sweetened (and often fruit-based) concentrate, which is mixed with a liquid, most commonly water, before drinking. ... A fruit drink usually consisting of juices from Apples, Cherries, and Pineapples. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text here <gallery> Insert non-formatted text here </gallery></nowiki>:For the beverage, see Hot chocolate. ... For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... A glass of cows milk. ... A water tap Tap water (also known as running water) has existed for as long as indoor plumbing, i. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A strawberry milkshake topped with whipped cream and strawberry syrup A milkshake is a sweet, cold beverage which is made from milk, ice cream, and sweet flavourings such as fruit syrup or chocolate sauce (in Canada and most regions of the United States, and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Soft drinks on supermarket shelves.
Soft drinks on supermarket shelves.

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1523 KB) Summary soft drinks on shelves. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1523 KB) Summary soft drinks on shelves. ... Packaged food aisles in a Fred Meyer store in Portland, Oregon A supermarket is a departmentalized self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. ...

Packaging

In the US, soft drinks are often sold in two-liter bottles, one liter plastic bottles, 24 and 20 US fluid ounce bottles, 12 US fluid ounce cans, and short 8 ounce cans. They are packaged in a variety of quantities such as six packs, 12 packs and cases of 24, 36, and 360. In Amsterdam, 1.5 liter bottles, 500 mL and 350 mL bottles and cans are more common. With the advent of energy drinks sold in 8 ounce cans in the USA, some soft drinks are now sold in similarly sized cans. It is also common for carbonated soft drinks to be served as fountain drinks in which carbonation is added to a concentrate immediately prior to serving. In Europe, various systems are in use: plastic and glass bottles of sizes 2, 1.5, 1, 0.5, 0.35, 0.33 liters and aluminum cans of 0.33, 0.35, and 0.25 liters. Several countries have standard recycled packaging with a forfeit such as 0.15 euro: the bottles are smelted and reused, cans are crushed and sold as scrap aluminum. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... The two liter bottle is common container for soft drinks. ... The pull-tab opening mechanism characteristic of post-1970s drinking cans. ... Six-pack has more than one meaning: Six-pack refers to a set of six canned or bottled drinks sold together: aluminum cans are held together by a yoke, and bottles are stored in cardboard carriers with three on either side of a handle in the middle. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... The pull-tab opening mechanism characteristic of post-1970s drinking cans. ... Energy drinks are beverages which contain legal stimulants, vitamins, and minerals, including caffeine, guarana, taurine, various forms of ginseng, maltodextrin, carnitine, creatine, and ginkgo biloba. ... A fountain drink is a soft drink, prepared locally from a supply of flavored sweetened syrup, carbon dioxide, and water, either manually (as American pharmacists of yore did), in a device called a soda fountain, or in a vending machine which is essentially an automated soda fountain that is operated... Forfeiting is the act of voluntarily admitting defeat in a competition or contest, thereby surrendering victory to the opposition. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


In Australia soft drinks are usually sold in 375mL cans or glass or plastic bottles. Bottles are usually 390mL, 600mL, 1.25L or 2L. However, 1.5L bottles have more recently been used by the Coca-Cola Company. The pull-tab opening mechanism characteristic of post-1970s drinking cans. ... The Coca-Cola Companys headquarters in Atlanta, GA. The Coca-Cola Company (NYSE: KO) is an international beverage and food manufacturer whose headquarters are in Atlanta, Georgia, in the United States of America. ...


Naming conventions

Soft drinks are called by many names in different places of the world. ...

Mixed soft drinks

Many people mix soft drinks, usually from a soda fountain, to combine flavor. Nicknames have been given to this concept of mixing soft-drinks by those who do it, among them are suicide, graveyard, sewage, pop bomb, swamp water, tornado, kamikaze, garbage soda, hurricane, atomic bomb, ghetto juice, splat or garbage can. For instance if someone was to mix the soft drink Fanta with the popular soft drink Hi-C one will have the resulting nicknamed combination called Fanta-C pronounced like fantasy. A nickname is a short, clever, cute, derogatory, or otherwise substitute name for a person or things real name (for example, Nick is short for Nicholas). ...


Floats

A float is created by dropping a scoop of ice cream into a soft drink. In the mid-western United States, a soft drink with ice cream added is most often called an "ice cream soda," or soda, for short as they were made at soda fountains. In Australia and New Zealand, this is known as a Spider. In Scotland (Mainly West) this is sometimes referred to as an "iced drink" or an "ice-cream soda" (for example a "coke soda" or a "coke ice cream soda"). The most common of these is the Root beer float. Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... A lime spider The ice cream soda is a treat made, typically, by mixing ice cream with either a soft drink (commonly root beer) or flavored syrup and carbonated water, often with some special technique to encourage the partial slushing of the ice cream itself. ... Soda fountain is a North American term referring to the carbonated drink dispensers found in fast food restaurants and convenience stores in the US and Canada. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In Brazil, a scoop of ice cream into a soft drink may have different names:

  • vaca preta (black cow): ice cream in cola
  • vaca amarela (yellow cow): ice cream in guaranĂ¡-flavoured soft drink
  • pantera cor de rosa (the Pink Panther): strawberry ice cream in lemon-lime soft drink

In Belfast, the capital of Northern Ireland, there is a regional variation: Cola (regardless of brand) and vanilla ice cream constitute a "coke afloat". Binomial name Paullinia cupana Kunth Guarana or Guaraná (pronounced gwa-ra-naa), Paullinia cupana (syn. ... This article is about the Pink Panther film series. ... This article is about the city in Northern Ireland. ...


In the U.S., some floats have specific names as a Black Cow, Brown Cow, or Purple Cow, which is vanilla or chocolate ice cream in root beer, or Boston Cooler, which is vanilla ice cream in Vernor's ginger ale. A Boston cooler is a drink typically composed of ginger ale and vanilla ice cream. ... Deliciously different! Detroits Vernors ginger ale shares the title of Americas oldest soft drink with Hires Root Beer. ...


Controversy

Nutritional value of non-diet soft drinks

Until the 1980s, soft drinks obtained nearly all of their food energy in the form of refined cane sugar or corn syrup. Today high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is used exclusively as a sweetener because of its lower cost. However, HFCS has been criticized as having a number of detrimental effects on human health, such as promoting diabetes, hyperactivity, hypertension, and a host of other problems.[2] Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... Tate & Lyle brand Corn Syrup being moved by tank car Corn syrup is a syrup, made using corn (maize) starch as a [feedstock], and composed mainly of [glucose]. A series of two [enzyme|enzymatic] reactions are used to convert the corn starch to corn syrup. ... High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) refers to a group of corn syrups which have undergone enzymatic processing in order to increase their fructose content and are then mixed with pure corn syrup (100% glucose) to reach their final form. ...


While the USDA recommended daily allotment (RDA) of added sugars is 10 teaspoons for a 2,000-calorie diet, many soft drinks contain more than this amount. Unless fortified, it also contains little to no vitamins, minerals, fiber, protein, or other essential nutrients. Many soft drinks contain food additives such as food colouring, artificial flavouring, emulsifiers, and preservatives, which some consumers find objectionable. Some also argue that caffeine-containing soft drinks are not a valid source of dietary fluids because of the diuretic properties of caffeine; this is disputed.[6] “USDA” redirects here. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ... Retinol (Vitamin A) Vitamins are nutrients required in very small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body [1]. The term vitamin does not encompass other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... An essential nutrient is a nutrient required for normal body functioning that cannot be synthesized by the body. ... The color of food is considered important in its enjoyment. ... Flavouring (CwE) or flavoring (AmE) is a product which is added to food in order to change or augment its taste. ... An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ... A preservative is a natural or synthetic chemical that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, etc. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ... This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ...


Soft drinks may also displace other healthier choices in people's diets, such as water, milk, and fruit juice. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Juice is the liquid naturally contained in plants. ...


Studies showing a correlation between non-diet soft drinks and obesity

A study from Harvard shows that soft drinks may be responsible for the doubling of obesity in children in the United States over the last 15 years. Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... These children vary in their proportion of body fat. ...


From 1991 and 1995, adolescent boys in the US, on average, increased their intake of soft drinks from 345 mL to 570 mL. Most soft drinks are sweetened with sugar or corn syrup, and not artificial sweeteners. Dr. David Ludwig of the Boston Children's Hospital showed that school children drinking at least eight U.S. fluid ounces (240 mL) or more of regularly sweetened drinks daily will consume 835 calories (3,500 kilojoules) more than those avoiding soft drinks; i.e., children who drink soft drinks loaded with sugar tend to eat much more food than those who avoid soft drinks. Either those taking sugared drinks lack the same restraint on foods, or sugared drinks cause a rise in insulin that makes adolescents more hungry, causing them to eat more. Soft drinks (including diet soft drinks) are also typically consumed with other high-calorie foods such as fast food. Children who drink soft drinks regularly are therefore fatter on average, in addition to being more likely to develop diabetes later in life (see below).[3] A separate article is about the punk band called The Adolescents. ... A fluid ounce is a unit of volume in both the Imperial system of units and the U.S. customary units system. ... Etymology: French calorie, from Latin calor (heat), from calere (to be warm). ... A kilojoule (abbreviation: kJ) is a unit of energy equal to 1000 joules. ... Diet food (or dietetic food) refers to any food or drink whose recipe has been altered in some way to make it part of a body modification diet. ... Fast food is food prepared and served quickly at a fast-food restaurant or shop at low cost. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


This finding is controversial, because children in much of the Third World also consume large numbers of soft drinks with even more sugar, and do not share the same obesity rates as American children, suggesting that other factors are involved aside from sugar consumption in soft drinks.[citation needed] Suggested factors include physical activity, and the fact that American soft drinks are sweetened with high fructose corn syrup instead of cane sugar. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) refers to a group of corn syrups which have undergone enzymatic processing in order to increase their fructose content and are then mixed with pure corn syrup (100% glucose) to reach their final form. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ...


In March 2006, Pediatrics published a paper Effects of Decreasing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption on Body Weight in Adolescents: A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study. This suggests that reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages helped reduce body mass index in the heaviest teenagers. This was reported as drinking as a single 330ml can a day of sugary drinks translated to more than 1lb of weight gain every month. [4] Pediatrics is an official peer-reviewed journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. ... A graph of body mass index is shown above. ...


Soft drinks linked to weight gain and type 2 diabetes

In 2004, an eight-year study of 50,000 nurses showed a correlation that suggests drinking one or more sugar-sweetened beverages (such as soft drinks and fruit punches) per day increases one's risk of developing diabetes by 80% versus those who drink less than one such drink per month. This finding was independent of other lifestyle factors. It concludes, "Higher consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with a greater magnitude of weight gain and an increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes in women, possibly by providing excessive calories and large amounts of rapidly absorbable sugars."[5]. This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... A calorie refers to a unit of energy. ...


Soft drinks and teeth

Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates - glucose, fructose, sucrose and other simple sugars. Oral bacteria ferment carbohydrates and produce acid, which dissolves tooth enamel during the dental decay process; thus, sweetened beverages are likely to increase risk of dental caries. The risk is greater if the frequency of consumption is high.[6] Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ...


A large number of soft drinks are acidic and some may have a pH of 3.0 or even lower.[7] Drinking acidic drinks over a long period of time and continuous sipping can therefore erode the tooth enamel. Drinking through a straw is often advised by dentists as the drink is then swallowed from the back of the mouth and does not come into contact with the teeth. It has also been suggested that brushing teeth right after drinking soft drinks should be avoided as this can result in additional erosion to the teeth due to the presence of acid.[8] For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body , and with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp is one of the four major parts of the tooth. ... This article is about the dental profession. ... Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean in order to prevent cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, periodontitis, bad breath (halitosis), and other dental disorders. ...


Soft drinks and sleep

According to one report, soft drinks with caffeine can disrupt children's sleep and leave them feeling tired during the day.[9]


Soft drinks and bones

There has been a hypothesis that the phosphoric acid contained in some soft drinks (colas) displaces calcium from the bones, lowering bone density of the skeleton and leading to conditions such as osteoporosis and very weak bones. However, calcium metabolism studies by leading calcium and bone expert Dr. Robert Heaney determined that the net effect of carbonated soft drinks, (including colas, which use phosphoric acid as the acidulant) on calcium retention was negligible. He concluded that it is likely that colas prominence in observational studies is due to their prominence in the marketplace, and that the real issue is that people who drink a lot of soft drinks also tend to have an overall diet that is low in calcium. (Source: Heaney RP, Rafferty K. Carbonated beverages and urinary calcium excretion. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001,74:;343-347.) [citation needed] Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. ...


Banning

In recent years, debate on whether soft drink vending machines should be allowed in school has been on the rise. Proponents believe that soft drinks are a significant contributor to childhood obesity and tooth decay, and that allowing soft drink sales in schools encourages children to believe they are safe to consume in moderate to large quantities. Proponents note that children are not always mature enough to understand the consequences of their own food choices, and should not be routinely exposed to the temptation of cheap, readily available soft drinks. They also argue that schools have a responsibility to look after the health of the children in their care, and that allowing children easy access to soft drinks violates that responsibility. Opponents believe that obesity is a complex issue and soft drinks are not the only cause. They also note the immense amount of funding soft drink sales bring to schools. Some people take the middle ground, saying that soft drink machines should be allowed in schools, but that they should not be the only option available. They propose that when soft drink vending machines are made available in school grounds, the schools should be required to provide children with a choice of alternative drinks (such as fruit juice, flavoured water and milk) at a comparable price. However, fruit drinks may contain as much sugar as the soft drinks they replace. Childhood (song) Childhood is a broad term usually applied to the phase of development in humans between infancy and adulthood. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... Juice is the liquid naturally contained in plants. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A glass of cows milk. ...


On 3 May 2006, the Alliance for a Healthier Generation, Cadbury Schweppes, Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, and the American Beverage Association announced new School Beverage Guidelines that will voluntarily remove high-calorie soft drinks from all US schools. is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cadbury Schweppes plc (Cadbury Trebor Bassett), (NYSE: CSG) is a confectionery and beverage company with its headquarters in London. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... PepsiCo, Incorporated (NYSE: PEP) is a global American beverage and snack company. ... American Beverage Association is an organisationthat deals with the beverage industry in the United States. ...


On 19 May 2006, UK Education Secretary Alan Johnson announced new minimum nutrition standards for school food. Amongst a wide range of measures, from September 2006, school lunches will be free from carbonated drinks. Schools will also end the sale of junk food (including carbonated drinks) in vending machines and tuck shops. See the Department for Education and Skills press notice for details. is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In August 2006, after a controversial new report about the presence of pesticides in soft drinks sold in India, many state governments have issued a ban of the sale of soft drinks in schools. Kerala has issued a complete ban on the sale or manufacture of soft drinks altogether. In return, the soft drink companies like Coca Cola and Pepsi have issued ads in the media regarding the safety of consumption of the drinks. Since there is yet no enforcement[citation needed] of the agreed standards by Bureau of Indian Standards, the governing body to oversee the safety levels, in soft drinks in India, it is to be seen how this situation is to be resolved.[10] , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...


Carcinogens in soft drinks

Benzene is a known carcinogen, or cancer-causing agent. Major soft drink companies have had documentation of benzene contamination in soft drinks since at least 1990. It was originally thought that the contamination was caused by contaminated carbon dioxide, but research has shown that benzoates and ascorbic acid or erythorbic acid can react to produce benzene. [11] (Gardner & Lawrence, 1993). // Background Benzene is a carcinogen. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... Benzoates (salts of benzoic acid) can refer to: Potassium benzoate Sodium benzoate Category: ... This article deals with the molecular aspects of ascorbic acid. ... Erythorbic acid or erythorbate formerly known as isoascorbic acid and D-araboascorbic acid is a stereoisomer of ascorbic acid. ...


In 2006, the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency published the results of its survey of benzene levels in soft drinks[12], which tested 150 products and found that four contained benzene levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. The agency asked for these to be removed from sale. The United States Food and Drug Administration released its own test results of several soft drinks and beverages containing benzoates and ascorbic or erythorbic acid. Five tested beverages contained benzene levels above the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended standard of 5 ppb. The Environmental Working Group [13] has uncovered additional FDA test results that showed the following results: Of 24 samples of diet soda tested between 1995 and 2001 for the presence of benzene, 19 (79 %) had amounts of benzene in excess of the federal tap water standard of 5 ppb. Average benzene levels were 19 ppb, about four times tap water standard. One sample contained 55 ppb of benzene, 11 fold tap water standards. Despite these findings, as of 2006, the FDA stated its belief that "the levels of benzene found in soft drinks and other beverages to date do not pose a safety concern for consumers" [14]. The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom. ... WHO redirects here. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... EPA redirects here. ... This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ...


Quinine, the bittering component of mixer drinks present at 60 to 80 ppm as the dihydrochloride or sulphate, undergoes photolytic degradation in strong sunlight through clear glass, typically with a half-life (i.e. time for 50% of the chemical to degrade) of 3.5 hours in strong sunlight. From its chemical structure the degradation product is suspected to be carcinogenic and is devoid of the bitter taste of quinine. For that reason quinine-containing drinks should never be stored in sunlight. Quinine is used as a bittering agent because of its clean bitter taste, devoid of any lingering after-effects. Other bittering agents are available such as quassia, also a natural product extracted from the Quassia Amara tree and sometimes used as a bittering agent in soft drinks. Its bitter attribute is exploited as a substitute for hops that provides the bitter flavour in beers (Dictionary of Science and Technology Academic Press 1992,p 1772).


Taxation

The Center for Science in the Public Interest believes that a small tax on soft drinks may help curb consumption while raising money to fight obesity. (See fat tax) Opponents of this scheme believe this creates a conflict of interest for the government who collects these taxes, and may undermine their ability to reduce consumption of soft drinks. [15] Fat tax, also known as Twinkie tax, junk food tax, and snack tax, is a tax on calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods. ...


Alcohol content

A report in October 2006 demonstrates that some soft drinks contain measurable amounts of alcohol. [16] In some older preparations, this resulted from natural fermentation used to build the carbonation. Modern drinks use introduced carbon dioxide but alcohol might result from fermentation of sugars in an unsterile environment. A small amount of alcohol is introduced to at least some soft drinks where alcohol is used in the preparation of the flavoring extracts.[17] The Turkish soft drink manufacturer whose product was listed as highest in alcohol in the October 2006 study noted that the naturally occurring alcohol level in yogurt is 1.5 times higher than that found in their soft drink. [18] Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt (see spelling below), is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ...


History of soft drinks

Soft drinks trace their history back to the mineral waters found in natural springs. Ancient societies believed that bathing in natural springs and/or drinking mineral waters could cure many diseases. Early scientists who studied mineral waters included Paracelsus, Robert Boyle, Friedrich Hoffmann, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, Hermann Boerhaave, William Brownrigg, Gabriel F. Venel, Joseph Black, and David Macbride. Presumed portrait of Paracelsus, attributed to the school of Quentin Matsys. ... Robert Boyle (Irish: Robaird Ó Bhaoill) (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Friedrich Hoffmann (February 19, 1660 – November 12, 1742) was a German physician. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 _ May 8, 1794) was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... Herman Boerhaave (December 31, 1668 - September 23, 1738) was a Dutch humanist and physician of European fame. ... Joseph Black Joseph Black (April 16, 1728 - December 6, 1799) was a Scottish physicist and chemist. ...


The first marketed soft drinks (non-carbonated) appeared in the 17th century. They were made from water and lemon juice sweetened with honey. In 1676, the Compagnie des Limonadiers of Paris was granted a monopoly for the sale of lemonade soft drinks. Vendors carried tanks of lemonade on their backs and dispensed cups of the soft drink to thirsty Parisians.


Carbonated beverages

In the 1770s, scientists made important progress in replicating naturally carbonated mineral waters. Englishman Joseph Priestley impregnated distilled water with carbon dioxide. Another Englishman, John Mervin Nooth, improved Priestley's design and sold his apparatus for commercial use in pharmacies. Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman invented a generating apparatus that made carbonated water from chalk by the use of sulfuric acid. Bergman's apparatus allowed imitation mineral water to be produced in large amounts. Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (March 13, 1733 (old style) – February 8, 1804) was an eighteenth-century British natural philosopher, Dissenting clergyman, political theorist, theologian, and educator. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Torbern Olof Bergman (March 20, 1735 Katrineberg, Sweden, &#8211; July 8, 1784 Medevi, Sweden) was a Swedish chemist. ...


Soda fountain pioneers

Artificial mineral waters, usually called "soda water," and the soda fountain made the biggest splash in the United States. Beginning in 1806, Yale chemistry professor Benjamin Silliman sold soda waters in New Haven, Connecticut. He used a Nooth apparatus to produce his waters. Businessmen in Philadelphia and New York City also began selling soda water in the early 1800s. In the 1830s, John Matthews of New York City and John Lippincott of Philadelphia began manufacturing soda fountains. Both men were successful and built large factories for fabricating fountains. Benjamin Silliman. ...


Soda Fountains vs. Bottled Sodas

The drinking of either natural or artificial mineral water was considered a healthy practice. The American pharmacists selling mineral waters began to add herbs and chemicals to unflavored mineral water. They used birch bark, dandelion, sarsaparilla, fruit extracts, and other substances. Flavorings were also added to improve the taste. Pharmacies with soda fountains became a popular part of American culture. Many Americans frequented the soda fountain on a daily basis. Due to problems in the U.S. glass industry, bottled drinks were a small portion of the market in the 19th century. Most soft drinks were dispensed and consumed at a soda fountain, usually in a drugstore or ice cream parlor. In the early 20th century, sales of bottled soda increased exponentially. In the second half of the 20th century, canned soft drinks became an important share of the market.


Soft drink bottling industry

Over 1,500 U.S. patents were filed for either a cork, cap, or lid for the carbonated drink bottle tops during the early days of the bottling industry. Carbonated drink bottles are under a lot of pressure from the gas. Inventors were trying to find the best way to prevent the carbon dioxide or bubbles from escaping. In 1892, the "Crown Cork Bottle Seal" was patented by William Painter, a Baltimore machine shop operator. It was the first very successful method of keeping the bubbles in the bottle.


Automatic production of glass bottles

In 1899, the first patent was issued for a glass-blowing machine for the automatic production of glass bottles. Earlier glass bottles had all been hand-blown. Four years later, the new bottle-blowing machine was in operation. It was first operated by the inventor, Michael Owens, an employee of Libby Glass Company. Within a few years, glass bottle production increased from 1,500 bottles a day to 57,000 bottles a day.


Hom-Paks and vending machines

During the 1920s, the first "Hom-Paks" were invented. "Hom-Paks" are the familiar six-pack beverage carrying cartons made from cardboard. Automatic vending machines also began to appear in the 1920s. The soft drink had become an American mainstay.


References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ Lancet 2001;357:505-08. "Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis"
  4. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,11069-2072059,00.html
  5. ^ Schulze MB, Manson JE, Ludwig DS, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hu FB Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women JAMA. 2004 Aug 25;292(8):927-34.
  6. ^ Marshall TA, Levy SM, Broffitt B, Warren JJ, Eichenberger-Gilmore JM, Burns TL, Stumbo PJ. "Dental caries and beverage consumption in young children" Pediatrics. 2003 Sep;112(3 Pt 1):e184-91 [3]
  7. ^ Acids. British Soft Drinks Association. Retrieved on 2006-09-12.
  8. ^ M. A. Bassiouny, J. Yang, "Influence of drinking patterns of carbonated beverages on dental erosion", General Dentistry, May-June, vol. 53, no. 3, 2005. [4] [5]
  9. ^ BBC Fizzy drinks 'affect children's sleep' 8 January 2003
  10. ^ BBC (Sanjoy Majumder) Indian state bans Pepsi and Coke 9 August 2006
  11. ^ http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/jafcau/1993/41/i05/f-pdf/f_jf00029a001.pdf?sessid=6006l3 Benzene production from decarboxylation of benzoic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid and a transition-metal catalyst
  12. ^ survey of benzene levels in soft drinks
  13. ^ http://www.ewg.org/issues/toxics/20060404/index.php
  14. ^ http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/benzqa.html
  15. ^ http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=15797
  16. ^ http://www.zaman.com/?bl=economy&alt=&hn=37342
  17. ^ http://www.mail-archive.com/[email protected]/msg00028.html
  18. ^ http://english.sabah.com.tr/AF9128D8A63B49A897868E88404D320D.html

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Look up soft drink in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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Almond Drinks,Healthy Refreshing Drink,Almond Soft Drink,Refreshing Soft Drink,Almond Soft Drinks,Almond Refreshing ... (128 words)
Almond Drinks,Healthy Refreshing Drink,Almond Soft Drink,Refreshing Soft Drink,Almond Soft Drinks,Almond Refreshing Drink,Almond Sharbat
Almond also tones up brain and increase memory and concentration.
Almond drinks can be suitably taken with water, hot or cold milk as per the season and hence is an all season nutrition for all years.
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