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Encyclopedia > Sofia
Sofia
София
Official flag of Sofia
Flag
Official seal of Sofia
Seal
Position of Sofia in Bulgaria
Coordinates: 42°42′N 23°20′E / 42.7, 23.333
Country Bulgaria
Province Sofia-City
Government
 - Mayor Boyko Borisov
Area
 - City 1,349 km²  (520.9 sq mi)
Elevation 550 m (1,804 ft)
Population (2007-07-01)
 - City 1,270,450
 - Density 1,030/km² (2,667.7/sq mi)
 - Metro 1,380,406
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Website: sofia.bg

Sofia listen  (Bulgarian: София), is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Bulgaria, with a population of 1,270,450 (making it the 14th largest city in the European Union), and some 1,380,406 in the metropolitan area, the Capital Municipality.[1] It is located in western Bulgaria, at the foot of the mountain massif Vitosha, and is the administrative, cultural, economic, and educational centre of the country. Sofia may refer to: Sofia, the capital and largest city of the Republic of Bulgaria Sofia Province, a province of Bulgaria Sofia Region, a region in northern Madagascar Sofia River, a river in Madagascar SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Sofia, a playable character in the Battle Arena Toshinden... Image File history File links BG_Sofia_flag. ... Image File history File links BG_Sofia_coa. ... The current edition of the coat of arms of Sofia as a seal The coat of arms of Sofia consists of a shield divided into four. ... Map of Bulgaria with Oblast Sofia. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Since 1999 Bulgaria is divided into 28 oblasts (provinces or regions) that correspond aproximatly to the 28 okrugs that existet before 1987. ... This is a chronological list of mayors of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, since that post was established after the Liberation of Bulgaria in 1878. ... Boyko Metodiev Borisov (Bulgarian: ) (born June 13, 1959) is the current mayor of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Image File history File links Sofia. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... This list includes the most up-to-date official census figures or census estimates with regards to the population of the largest cities in the European Union. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In geology, a massif is a section of a planets crust that is demarcated by faults or flexures. ... Vitosha (Bulgarian: Витоша  ) is a mountain massif, on the outskirts of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ...


One of the oldest capital cities in Europe, the history of Sofia dates back to the 8th century BC, when Thracians established a settlement there. Sofia has had several names in the different periods of its existence, and remnants of the city's millenary history can still be seen today alongside modern landmarks. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ...

Contents

Geography

Sofia seen from space
Sofia seen from space

Sofia's development as a significant settlement owes much to its central position in the Balkans. It is situated in western Bulgaria, at the northern foot of the Vitosha mountain, in the Sofia Valley that is surrounded by mountains on all sides. The valley is the largest one in the country with territory of 1,186 square kilometres (457.9 sq mi) and average altitude of 550 metres (1,804 ft). Three mountain passes lead to the city, which have been key roads since antiquity, connecting the Adriatic Sea and Central Europe with the Black and Aegean Seas. Download high resolution version (3060x2092, 1726 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (3060x2092, 1726 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Vitosha (Bulgarian: Витоша  ) is a mountain massif, on the outskirts of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... The Sofia Valley (Bulgarian: Софийска котловина, transliterated as Sofiyska kotlovina, or Софийско поле, Sofiysko pole) is a valley in central western Bulgaria, bordering Stara Planina to the northeast, the Viskyar, Lyulin, Vitosha and Lozenets mountains to the southwest, the Vakarel Mountain to the southeast and the low Slivnitsa Heights to the northwest. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A number of low rivers cross the city, including the Vladayska and the Perlovska. The Iskar River in its upper course flows near eastern Sofia. The city is known for its numerous mineral and thermal springs. Artificial and dam lakes were built in the last century. Vladayska river (Bulgarian: Владайска река) is a tribuary to the Iskar river which originates in Vitosha, passes through several neighbourhoods of Sofia and joins the Iskar river east of the city. ... Perlovksa reka (Bulgarian: ) is a small river in the Sofia Valley, western Bulgaria which is only 17,8 km long. ... The Iskar (Bulgarian: Искър; Latin Oescus) is, with a length of 368 km, the longest river thar runs solely in Bulgaria, and a right tributary of the Danube. ... Mineral water is water containing minerals or other dissolved substances that alter its taste or give it therapeutic value. ... A hot spring or a hydrothermal spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the earth on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55–57 °F or 13–14...


It is located 150 km (90 miles) northwest of Plovdiv, Bulgaria's second largest city, 390 km west of Burgas, 472 km (294 miles) west of Varna, Bulgaria's major port-cities on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. The city is situted at less than 200 kilometres (124 mi) from the borders with three countries: 55 kilometres (34 mi) from Kalotina on the Serbian border, 113 kilometres (70 mi) from Gyueshevo on the frontier with the Republic of Macedonia and 183 kilometres (114 mi) from the Greek border at Kulata. “km” redirects here. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Burgas (Bulgarian: , sometimes transliterated as Bourgas) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 205,821. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... The Bulgarian Black Sea Coast covers the whole eastern border of Bulgaria. ... Kalotina (Bulgarian: ) is a village in Dragoman municipality, Sofia Province, in westernmost central Bulgaria. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Gyueshevo (Bulgarian: ) is a village in Kyustendil municipality, Kyustendil Province, in western Bulgaria. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Kulata (Bulgarian: , the tower) is a village in Petrich municipality, Blagoevgrad Province, in southwestern Bulgaria. ...


Climate

Sofia has a moderate continental climate with high temperature amplitudes. The hottest month is August while January is the coldest. Up to 1936 the average annual temperature was +10.0 °C (50 °F) and since then it has risen with +0.5 °C (+1 °F).[2] The city receives around 650 millimetres (25.6 in) annual precipitation with summer maximum and winter minimum. Sofia generally remains less hot in summer than other parts of Bulgaria, due to the high altitude of the valley its situated in, although temperatures can still reach 40 °C on occasions. Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ...

Climate table
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum temperature (°C) 2.2 4.9 9.8 15.7 22.3 26.7 29.7 30.0 24.0 16.6 9.6 4.1 15.1
Mean minimum night time temperature (°C) −4.9 −2.9 0.3 4.8 9.0 12.1 13.8 13.4 10.4 5.7 1.2 −2.7 5.0
Mean total rainfall (mm) 28 31 38 51 73 75 63 51 38 35 48 40 571
Mean number of rain days 10 10 10 12 14 13 10 8 7 7 9 11 121
Source: World Weather Information Service

Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ...

History

Main article: History of Sofia

The history of Sofia, Bulgarias capital and largest city, spans thousands of years from Antiquity to modern times, in which the city has always been a commercial, industrial, cultural and economic centre of its region and the Balkans. ...

Antiquity

The Church of Sv. Georgi is among the oldest Christian temples in the Balkan peninsula dating back to 4th century
The Church of Sv. Georgi is among the oldest Christian temples in the Balkan peninsula dating back to 4th century

Sofia was originally a Thracian settlement called Serdica, named after the Thracian tribe Serdi. Around 500 BC another tribe settled in the region, the Odrysi, known as an ethnos with their own kingdom. For a short period during the 4th century BC, the city was possessed by Philip of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 421 KB) St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 421 KB) St. ... The St. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... The Odrysian kingdom was a union of Thracian tribes that endured between the 5th century BC and the 3rd century BC. Area included in this kingdom ranged from Romania to northern Greece and Turkey. ... Philip II of Macedon (Macedonia) (382 BC - 336 BC), King of Macedon (ruled 359 BC - 336 BC), was the father of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon) and Philip III of Macedon. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


Around AD 29, Sofia was conquered by the Romans and renamed Ulpia Serdica. It became a municipium, or centre of an administrative region, during the reign of Emperor Trajan (98-117). Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ...


The first written mention of Serdica was made by Ptolemy (around 100 AD). This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ...


The city expanded, as turrets, protective walls, public baths, administrative and cult buildings, a civic basilica and a large amphitheatre called Bouleutherion, were built. When Emperor Diocletian divided the province of Dacia into Dacia Ripensis (on the banks of the Danube) and Dacia Mediterranea, Serdica became the capital of Dacia Mediterranea. The city subsequently expanded for a century and a half, which caused Constantine the Great to call it "my Rome". Corbelled corner turrets at Newark Castle, Port Glasgow. ... St. ... The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... This article is about the Danube River. ... Constantine. ...


Serdica was of moderate size, but magnificent as an urban concept of planning and architecture, with abundant amusements and an active social life. It flourished during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, when it was surrounded with great fortress walls whose remnants can still be seen today. This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ...


The city was destroyed by the Huns in 447 but was rebuilt by Justinian and renamed Triaditsa. The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ...

A fresco depicting Desislava, a 13th century patron of the church
Sofia has been a centre of Christianity since the times of the Roman Empire

Frescoes from the Boyana Church: Desislava This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Frescoes from the Boyana Church: Desislava This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x3072, 3095 KB) Church in Sofia, Bulgaria Source: Photo Pascal Reusch File links The following pages link to this file: Sofia Portal:Bulgaria Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x3072, 3095 KB) Church in Sofia, Bulgaria Source: Photo Pascal Reusch File links The following pages link to this file: Sofia Portal:Bulgaria Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or...

Middle Ages

The Boyana Church is among the most precious monuments from the Bulgarian Empire
The Boyana Church is among the most precious monuments from the Bulgarian Empire

Sofia first became part of the First Bulgarian Empire during the reign of Khan Krum in 809 after a long siege. [3] Afterwards, it was known by the Slavic name Sredets and grew into an important fortress and administrative centre. After the fall of North-eastern Bulgaria under John I Tzimiskes's armies in 971, the Bulgarian Patriarch Damyan chose Sofia for his seat in the next year. After a number of unsuccessful sieges, the city fell to the Byzantine Empire in 1018, but once again was incorporated into the restored Bulgarian Empire at the time of Tsar Ivan Asen I. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 657 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 17:45, 22 юли 2006 . ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 657 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 17:45, 22 юли 2006 . ... Frescoes from the Boyana Church: Desislava The church of Boyana is a medieval Bulgarian church situated on the outskirts of Sofia. ... Imperial Emblem (under the Shisman Dynasty) Bulgarian Empire c. ... Imperial Emblem Bulgarian Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Krum (died April 13, 814) was a Khan of Bulgaria, of the Dulo clan, from 802 to 814. ... Combatants First Bulgarian Empire Byzantine Empire Commanders Krum Unknown Strength Unknown c. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... Ioannes, protected by God and the Virgin Mary. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Imperial Emblem (under the Shisman Dynasty) Bulgarian Empire c. ... Ivan Asen I (also Ioan Asen I, in English John Asen I), ruled as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria 1189-1196. ...


From the 12th to the 14th century, Sofia was a thriving centre of trade and crafts. It was renamed Sofia (meaning "wisdom" in Greek) in 1376 after the Church of St. Sofia. However, it was called both "Sofia" and "Sredets" until the 16th century, when the new name gradually replaced the old one. The basilica St. ...


Ottoman rule

Sofia was conquered by the Ottoman Empire during the reign of Murad I in 1382. After the campaign of Władysław III of Poland in 1443 towards Sofia, the city's Christian elite was annihilated and became the capital of the Ottoman province (beylerbeylik) of Rumelia for more than 4 centuries, which encouraged many Turks to settle there. From 16th century Sofia's appearance changed to Oriental town with many mosques, fountains, hamam (baths). During that time the town had a population of around 7,000 which rose to 55,000 in the mid 17th century. The town was seized for several weeks by Bulgarian haiduks in 1599. Ottoman redirects here. ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw III of Varna. ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... Haiduc (Romanian language), hajduk (Serbian or Croatian), aiducco (Italian), haïdouk (French), haidut (Bulgarian) are names given in the Balkans to an individual who was more than just a thief, something like a Robin Hood. ...


In 1610 the Vatican established the See of Sofia for Catholics of Rumelia, which existed until 1715 when most Catholics had emigrated[4]. In 16th century there had been 126 Jew households. The Jews had a synagogue since 967. The Roman Catholic (arch)bishopric of Sardica, with its episcopal see in the present Bulgarian capital Sofia, is in modern times only a titular see. ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ...


Liberated Bulgaria

Sofia was liberated by Russian forces in 1878, during the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78, and became the capital of the autonomous Principality of Bulgaria in 1879, which became Kingdom of Bulgaria in 1908. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and dominating Constantinople (Istanbul) and the adjacent Turkish Straits. ... The Treaty of San Stefano of March 3, 1878 provided for an independent Bulgarian state, which spanned over the geographical regions of Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia. ... The Treaty of San Stefano of March 3, 1878 provided for an independent Bulgarian state, which spanned over the geographical regions of Moesia, Thrace and Macedonia. ...


During World War II, Sofia was bombed by Allied aircraft in late 1943 and early 1944, as well as later occupied by the Soviet Union. Bulgaria's regime, which allied the country with Nazi Germany, was overthrown and Sofia became capital of the Communist-ruled People's Republic of Bulgaria (1944–1989). Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Bulgarian capital of Sofia suffered a series of Allied bombing raids during World War II, from late 1943 to early 1944. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Administration

The city of Sofia is one of 28 Provinces of Bulgaria (not to be confused with Sofia Province, which surrounds but does not include the city). Besides the city of Sofia, the capital province encompasses three other cities and 34 villages, being split into a total of 24 municipalities. Each municipality has a head person who is elected by the municipal assembly. The head of the county is its mayor. The assembly members are chosen every four years. The current mayor of Sofia is Boyko Borisov. Since 1999 Bulgaria is divided into 28 oblasts (provinces or regions) that correspond aproximatly to the 28 okrugs that existet before 1987. ... Sofia Province is a province (oblast) of Bulgaria. ... This is a chronological list of mayors of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, since that post was established after the Liberation of Bulgaria in 1878. ... Boyko Metodiev Borisov (Bulgarian: ) (born June 13, 1959) is the current mayor of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ...


Municipalities of Sofia City:

The municipalities of Sofia
The municipalities of Sofia
Name Unemployment (2004, %) Population (Sub)Urban/Town
Bankya 10,4 9,186 Town
Vitosha 3,5 42,953 Suburban
Vrabnitsa 4,6 47,417 Urban
Vazrazhdane 5,3 47,794 Urban
Izgrev 3,1 33,611 Urban
Ilinden 4,5 37,256 Urban
Iskar 3,9 69,896 Urban
Krasna polyana 9,2 65,442 Urban
Krasno selo 3,7 72,302 Urban
Kremikovtsi 5,8 23,599 Suburban
Lozenets 3,3 45,630 Urban
Lyulin 5,4 120,897 Urban
Mladost 4,2 110,852 Urban
Nadezhda 3,8 77,000 Urban
Novi Iskar 4,5 26,544 Town
Ovcha kupel 3,8 47,380 Urban
Oborishte 2,8 36,000 Urban
Pancharevo 5,3 24,342 Suburban
Poduyane 4,5 85,996 Urban
Serdika 3,6 52,918 Urban
Slatina 4,1 65,772 Urban
Studentski grad 2,9 50,368 Urban
Sredets 4,0 41,000 Urban
Triaditsa 3,7 65,000 Urban
TOTAL 4,5 1,270,450 [5][6]

Image File history File links Sofia_Capital_map_Taushanov. ... Image File history File links Sofia_Capital_map_Taushanov. ... Bankya (Bulgarian Банкя) is a town in Western Bulgaria. ... Front view of the National Historical Museum edifice Dragalevtsi Monastery Vitosha (Bulgarian: ) is one of the 24 municipalities in Sofia, situated in the southern parts of the City on the foot of the Vitosha mountain. ... Vrabnitsa (Bulgarian: ) is a municipality in the City of Sofia, located in the western part of the Sofia region. ... A bank in Vazrazhdane Vazrazhdane (Bulgarian: ) is an urban municipality in the centre of Sofia. ... Izgrev (Bulgarian: ) is one of the 24 municipalities in the City of Sofia. ... Ilinden (Bulgarian: ) is an urban municipality of Sofia, located in the western parts of the City. ... Iskar (Bulgarian: ) is a municipality located in the eastern parts of Sofia. ... Krasna Polyana (Bulgarian: ) is an urban municipality in the western parts of Sofia. ... Krasno selo (Bulgarian: ) is a municipality and neighbourhoood of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, located in the western part of the city. ... Kremikovtsi (Bulgarian: ) is an industrial municipality of Sofia, Bulgaria. ... A residential quarter in Lozenets Lozenets (Bulgarian: ) is an urban municipality located in the southern parts of the City of Sofia. ... Lyulin (Люлин) is the largest residential complex in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... Mladost (Bulgarian: ) is an urban municipality in Sofia. ... Nadezhda (Bulgarian: , meaning Hope) is an urban municipality located it the north-western parts of Sofia with an area of 19,300 decares. ... Location of Novi Iskar rayon Novi Iskar (Нови Искър, New Iskar) is a town in western Bulgaria, located in Sofia City Province and the Capital Municipality. ... Ovcha Kupel (Bulgarian: ) is a municipality located in the south-western parts of Sofia. ... Oborishte (Bulgarian: ) is an urban municipality located in the centre of the capital Sofia. ... Pancharevo (Bulgarian: ) is a suburban municipality located in the south-eastern parts of the Capital Municipality. ... Poduyane (Bulgarian: Подуяне, Подуене) is a residential complex in Sofia, Bulgaria the capital of Bulgaria. ... The back side of the Central Bus Station Serdica (Bulgarian: ) is an urban municipality located in the northern parts of the capital Sofia. ... Sky City Mall Slatina (Bulgarian: ) is an urban municipality located in the eastern parts of the capital Sofia. ... Studentski grad (Студентски град, Student city) is the student campus area for most universities in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, and also one of the 24 municipalities of Sofia. ... Hotel Sofia Sredets (Bulgarian: ) is an urban municipality located in the very centre of the capital Sofia. ... Front view of NDK Triaditsa (Bulgarian: ) is an urban municipality located in the southern parts of Sofia. ...

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1887 20856 -
1892 30928 +48.3%
1900 46593 +50.6%
1920 154025 +230%
1946 530168 +244%
2001 1177577 +122%
2006 1203680 +2.2%
New Housings
New Housings

According to 1999 data,[7] the whole Capital Municipality, with a population of 1,326,377 as of June 2006, had a population density of 917.8, by far the highest in the country. The city itself has a population of 1,203,680.[1] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ...


The ratio of women per 1,000 men was 1,114 and the rate of population ageing was 100.3. The birth rate per 1000 people was 7.9 and steadily declining in the last 15 years, the death rate reaching 12.2 and growing. The population was declining by 4.3 per cent. However, considerable immigration to the capital from poorer regions of the country, as well as urbanization, are the reason Sofia's population is in practice increasing. 5.7 people of every one thousand were married and the infant mortality rate was 11 dead babies per 1,000 born alive, down from 18.9 in 1980. Population ageing or population aging (see English spelling differences) occurs when the median age of a country or region rises. ...


The unemployment is significantly lower than in other parts of the country — 2.45% of the active population in 1999 and declining, compared to 8.97% for the whole of Bulgaria as of August 14, 2006 (also on the decrease).[8] The large share of unemployed people with higher education, 27% as compared to 7% for the whole country, is a characteristic feature of the capital. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


When Sofia was declared capital in 1879 it was the fifth-largest city in the country after Plovdiv, Ruse, Varna and Shumen. Plovdiv remained the most populous town in Bulgaria till 1892 when Sofia took the lead. Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... A ruse is an action or plan which is intended to deceive someone. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Shumen (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: ) is a city in the northeastern part of Bulgaria, capital of Shumen Province. ...


Culture

The Church of St Sophia, built in the middle of the 6th century under Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, gave the city its name
The Church of St Sophia, built in the middle of the 6th century under Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, gave the city its name

Sofia is one of the oldest capital cities in Europe, blending its past and present in a remarkable architectural style. Historic landmarks include the 10th century Boyana Church (one of the UNESCO World Heritage protected sites), the Alexander Nevski Cathedral (one of the world's largest Orthodox churches), and the early Byzantine Church of St Sophia. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 594 KB) Photo by Petar Iordanov, September 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2304x1728, 594 KB) Photo by Petar Iordanov, September 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Church of St. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Frescoes from the Boyana Church: Desislava The church of Boyana is a medieval Bulgarian church situated on the outskirts of Sofia. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The St. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... The Church of St. ...


Sofia is the see of an Eastern Orthodox and of a Roman Catholic diocese. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ...

The fountain in front of the National Theatre
The fountain in front of the National Theatre

More modern architecture is represented by the Bulgarian National Opera and Ballet, the Ivan Vazov National Theatre, the Rakovski Str theatre district, Slaveykov Square's outdoor book market, and the NDK, which is Southeastern Europe's largest cultural and congressional centre. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 3527 KB) Ivan Vazov National Theatre, Sofia, Bulgaria. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 3527 KB) Ivan Vazov National Theatre, Sofia, Bulgaria. ... The Ivan Vazov National Theatre (Народен театър Иван Вазов) is Bulgarias national theatre and one of the important landmarks of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The National Opera and Ballet (Bulgarian: ) is a national cultural institution in Bulgaria that covers opera and ballet. ... The Ivan Vazov National Theatre (Народен театър Иван Вазов) is Bulgarias national theatre and one of the important landmarks of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... Slaveykov Square (Площад Славейков) is one of the most popular squares in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... Front view The National Palace of Culture (Национален дворец на културата, usually just НДК, NDK), located in Sofia, Bulgaria, is one of the largest multifunctional congress centres in Southeastern Europe. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ...


Sofia has also a huge nightlife scene with many different night clubs, live venues, pubs, mehani (Bulgarian traditional taverns), and restaurants. Many of the famous Bulgarian music groups were established in Sofia such as Shturtzite, Hipodil, Epizod and FSB. The city hosts many of the major world music acts that play shows in Bulgaria such as Depeche Mode, Iron Maiden, Marilyn Manson, Eros Ramazotti, DJ Tiesto, Transglobal Underground, Judas Priest and Wu-tang Clan to name a few.
Musicians performing at an Ankara meyhane. ... Shturtzite is a Bulgarian rock music group. ... Hipodil Hipodil (bg: Хиподил) is a Bulgarian rock band, founded 1988 in Sofia by four classmates from the Sofias mathematics gymnasium. ... Epizod is a Bulgarian rock band, founded 1983 in Sofia. ... An influential Bulgarian art-rock/funk/pop band. ... Depeche Mode (pronounced ) are an electronic music group that formed in 1980 in Basildon, Essex, England. ... This article is about the band. ... This article is about the person. ... Eros Ramazzotti (born October 28, 1963), is an Italian singer and songwriter. ... ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Judas priest (curse). ... Wu-Tang redirects here. ...


Museums

Sofia houses numerous museums, notably the National Historical Museum, the Bulgarian Natural History Museum, the Museum of Earth and Men, the Ethnographic Museum, the National Museum of Military History, the National Polytechnical Museum and the National Archaeological Museum. In addition, there are the Sofia City Art Gallery, the Bulgarian National Gallery of Arts, the Bulgarian National Gallery for Foreign Art as well as numerous private art galleries. The National Historical Museum (Национален исторически музей, Natsionalen istoricheski muzey) in Sofia is Bulgarias largest museum. ... The National Museum of Natural History (Bulgarian: , Natsionalen prirodonauchen muzey; abbreviated НПМ, NMNH) of Bulgaria is a museum of natural history located in Sofia, the capital of the country. ... The entrance to the Earth and Man museum The Earth and Man National Museum (Bulgarian: , romanized Natsionalen muzey „Zemyata i horata“) is a mineralogical museum in the centre of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... The National Museum of Military History (Национален военноисторически музей, Natsionalen voennoistoricheski muzey) is a Bulgarian museum based in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, and dedicated to military history. ... Front view of the historic building of the National Archaeological Museum Side view The National Archaeological Museum (Bulgarian: , Natsionalen arheologicheski muzey) is an archaeological museum in the centre of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... The National Art Gallery edifice, the former royal palace of Bulgaria Closer view of the east wing The National Art Gallery (Bulgarian: , Natsionalna hudozhestvena galeriya) is Bulgarias national gallery and houses over 50,000 pieces of Bulgarian art. ... The Neoclassic National Gallery for Foreign Art edifice Another view The National Gallery for Foreign Art (Bulgarian: , Natsionalna galeriya za chuzhdestranno izkustvo) of Bulgaria is a gallery located on St Alexander Nevsky Square in the capital city of Sofia and serves as the countrys national institution for foreign (i. ...


Places of special interest

The city also offers many places of special interest such as the Sts. Cyril and Methodius National Library (which houses the largest national book collection and is Bulgaria's oldest cultural institute), the Sofia State Library, the British Council, the Russian Cultural Institute, the Polish Cultural Institute, the Hungarian Institute, the Czech and the Slovak Cultural Institutes, the Italian Cultural Institute, the French Cultural Institute, Goethe Institut, Instituto Cervantes, and the Open Society Institute. Families with children can enjoy Sofia Land, the nearly nine-acre amusement park adjacent to the Sofia Zoological Garden (founded in 1888) as well as the Museum of Natural History. A front view of the library building The SS. Cyril and Methodius National Library (Народна библиотека „свети свети Кирил и Методий“) is the national library of Bulgaria, situated in the capital city of Sofia. ... Sofia Land (София Ленд) is an amusement park in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... A crowned elephant, the symbol of Sofia Zoo Sofia Zoo in the capital city of Sofia is both Bulgarias largest and oldest zoological garden, being founded on 1 May 1888 through a royal decree. ...


Sofia currently enjoys a booming film industry as the filming ground of several international film productions. Vitosha Boulevard, also called Vitoshka — ranked as the world's 22nd most expensive commercial street — represents numerous fashion boutiques and luxury goods stores and features exhibitions by world fashion designers. Sofia's geographic location, situated in the foothills of the weekend retreat Vitosha mountain, further adds to the city's specific atmosphere. Vitosha Boulevard Vitoshka, as seen from near NDK, with the St Nedelya Church in the distance. ... Vitosha (Bulgarian: Витоша  ) is a mountain massif, on the outskirts of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ...

Tourist attractions

Some of Sofia's popular tourist attractions include among others:

Religious sites
Museums and galleries
Miscellaneous places of culture
Outdoors sights
Vitosha Mountain
Vitosha Mountain
  • Vitosha mountain, one of the symbols of Sofia, just a short drive or lift trip away, open year round. Ski and snowboard are popular in the winter, and hiking in the summer.
  • Borisova gradina, Sofia's main and oldest garden, the construction of which began in 1884.
Other places of interest
  • Sofia Public Mineral Baths, decorated with the finest majolica tiles and completed in 1911.
  • TZUM, Sofia's oldest and largest department store.
  • The Largo, an architectural complex in downtown Sofia which includes the headquarters of many national institutions

The St. ... The Church of St. ... The St. ... Combatants Russia, Romania Ottoman Empire The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and liberating the Orthodox Christian Slavic peoples of the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgarians, Serbians) from the Islamic-ruled Ottoman Empire. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... St Nedelya Church St Nedelya Church (Bulgarian: ) is an Eastern Orthodox church in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, a cathedral of the Sofia bishopric of the Bulgarian Patriarchate. ... Church of St Petka of the Saddlers The Church of St Petka of the Saddlers (Църква „Света Петка Самарджийска“) is a medieval Bulgarian Orthodox church in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... Banya Bashi Mosque Banya Bashi Mosque (Bulgarian: джамия Баня Баши, dzhamiya Banya Bashi; Turkish: Banya Bashi Camii), is a mosque in Sofia, Bulgaria. ... The Sofia Synagogue The Sofia Synagogue (Bulgarian: Софийска синагога, Sofiyska synagoga) is the largest synagogue in the Balkans, one of two functioning in Bulgaria and one of the largest in Europe. ... The National Historical Museum (Национален исторически музей, Natsionalen istoricheski muzey) in Sofia is Bulgarias largest museum. ... The Thracians were an Indo-European people, inhabitants of Thrace and adjacent lands (present-day Bulgaria, Romania, northeastern Greece, European Turkey and northwestern asiatic Turkey, eastern Serbia and parts of Republic of Macedonia). ... Front view of the historic building of the National Archaeological Museum Side view The National Archaeological Museum (Bulgarian: , Natsionalen arheologicheski muzey) is an archaeological museum in the centre of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... The Neoclassic National Gallery for Foreign Art edifice Another view The National Gallery for Foreign Art (Bulgarian: , Natsionalna galeriya za chuzhdestranno izkustvo) of Bulgaria is a gallery located on St Alexander Nevsky Square in the capital city of Sofia and serves as the countrys national institution for foreign (i. ... The Ivan Vazov National Theatre (Народен театър Иван Вазов) is Bulgarias national theatre and one of the important landmarks of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... Slaveykov Square (Площад Славейков) is one of the most popular squares in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... Front view The National Palace of Culture (Национален дворец на културата, usually just НДК, NDK), located in Sofia, Bulgaria, is one of the largest multifunctional congress centres in Southeastern Europe. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... The Monument to the Tsar Liberator in front of the Radisson SAS hotel. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Vitosha (Bulgarian: Витоша  ) is a mountain massif, on the outskirts of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... An alley in Borisova gradina Borisova gradina or Knyaz-Borisova Gradina (Борисова градина or Княз-Борисова градина, translated as Boris Garden or Knyaz Boris Garden) is the oldest and best known garden of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... The Sofia Public Mineral Baths The Sofia Public Mineral Baths (Bulgarian: , Sofiyska gradska mineralna banya) or the Central Mineral Baths (Централна минерална баня, Tsentralna mineralna banya) is a landmark in the centre of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, a city known for the mineral springs in the area. ... Majolica is earthenware with a white tin glaze, decorated by applying colorants on the raw glazed surface. ... TZUM (Bulgarian: ЦУМ, abbreviated from Централен универсален магазин, Tsentralen universalen magazin, Central Department Store) is an upmarket department store in the centre of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, officially opened in 1957 and situated in a monumental edifice on one of the citys main boulevards. ... View of the Largo from the east The Largo (Bulgarian: ) is an architectural ensemble of three Socialist Classicism edifices in central Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria, designed and built in the 1950s with the intention to become the citys new representative centre. ...

Economy

The DZI headquarters in central Sofia
The DZI headquarters in central Sofia
A new office building on Bulgaria Blvd., an example of one of the many new buildings that spurred in the city in recent years.
A new office building on Bulgaria Blvd., an example of one of the many new buildings that spurred in the city in recent years.

Sofia is the major centre of Bulgaria's economic life. The manufacturing sector of the economy, represented by over 800 large manufacturing plants, includes metal products (75% of the total output in the country), textiles, rubber and leather goods, printing (50% of output) and electronics (15% of output). Sofia is also the country's financial hub, home to the Bulgarian National Bank, the Bulgarian Stock Exchange, as well as some of the country's largest commercial banks (such as HVB Bank Biochim, Bulbank, DSK Bank and United Bulgarian Bank). Construction, trade and transport are other important sectors of the local economy. Increasingly, Sofia is attracting attention as an outsourcing location for Western European and American multinationals. Sofia is also the headquarters for major Bulgarian and international companies operating in Bulgaria and Eastern Europe. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 1193 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sofia DZI (company) ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1920x2560, 1193 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sofia DZI (company) ... The DZI headquarters in central Sofia DZI (), officially the State Insurance Institution (Bulgarian: , Darzhaven zastrahovatelen institut) is a Bulgarian financial group primarily engaged in various forms of insurance and banking. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x2592, 828 KB) A new building on Bulgaria Boulevard, Sofia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1944x2592, 828 KB) A new building on Bulgaria Boulevard, Sofia. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ... central bank of the Republic of Bulgaria and one of the oldest central banks in the world, established on 25 January 1879. ... The Bulgarian Stock Exchange - Sofia (Bulgarian: Българска фондова борса - София, Balgarska fondova borsa - Sofiya, abbreviated BSE) is a stock exchange operating in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... HVB Bank Biochim, founded in 1986, is the fourth largest Bulgarian bank as of 2004, with a market share of 7% and assets of about 2 billion leva. ... Bulbank is one of the biggest banks of Bulgaria. ... DSK Bank (Банка ДСК, Banka DSK; formerly Държавна спестовна каса, Darzhavna spestovna kasa — State Savings Bank) is a major Bulgarian bank. ... United Bulgarian Bank (Bulgarian: , abbreviated ОББ, UBB) is a Bulgarian bank founded in 1992 through the merger of 22 regional banks, marking the first and most large-scale consolidation in Bulgarian banking. ... Outsourcing became part of the business lexicon during the 1980s and refers to the delegation of non-core operations from internal production to an external entity specializing in the management of that operation. ...


With the fall of the Communist government in Bulgaria in 1989, major international companies previously not present on the Bulgarian market moved in, the majority of them to Sofia. One such company is SAP AG. SAP Labs located in Sofia is one of the core Development organizations of SAP in Eastern Europe. The real estate market in Sofia has skyrocketed in recent years; for the past year or so with about 100% in just one year (2005–2006). The construction industry has exploded with new construction sites popping up everywhere. Unemployment is rather low at about 2.5% compared to the Bulgarian average of 8.2% but also to European levels where it is at about 7.3%.
SAP AG (ISIN: DE0007164600, FWB: SAP, NYSE: SAP) is the largest European software enterprise and the third largest in the world, with headquarters in Walldorf, Germany. ... SAP Labs are the Research and Development Organizations of Parent Company SAP AG. SAP has its Labs spread across the globe. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...


Transport and infrastructure

With its well-developed infrastructure and strategic location, Sofia is an important centre for international railway and automobile routes. All major types of transport (except water transport) are represented in the city, which is home to 8 railway stations, the Centre for Flight Control and the Sofia Airport (hub for flag-carrier Bulgaria Air). Three Trans-European Transport Corridors cross the city: 4, 8 and 10. “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... Ship Transport is the process of moving people, goods, etc. ... Sofia Airport (IATA: SOF, ICAO: LBSF) (Bulgarian: , Letishte Sofiya), also known as Vrazhdebna (Враждебна) (after the village located to the north) is the main airport in Sofia, Bulgaria. ... Bulgaria Air (Bulgarian name: България Ер) is the national airline carrier of Bulgaria, based in the capital, Sofia. ...


Public transit is well-developed, reliable and important to the city's economy; it is provided by means of underground trains (the Sofia Metro), buses, trams and trolleybuses. In the city operate also multiple taxies called "Marshrutkas" - having a capacity of about 12 people and traveling faster then other transports in the city traffic except for the subway. Fares are paid for a single journey. There are over 15,000 licensed taxi cabs operating in the city. The subway system became operational in the late 1990s but had limited extent. A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... The Sofia Metropolitan (Bulgarian: , Sofiysko metro) is the underground urban railway network servicing the Bulgarian capital Sofia. ... “Autobus” redirects here. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... Further information: electric bus A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram or simply trolley) is an electric bus powered by two overhead wires, from which it draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Mass Transit” redirects here. ... For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


With the extensive growth of private automobile ownership in the 1990s the number of cars registered in Sofia has exceeded 1,000,000 in the past five years. Consequently the traffic (and air pollution) problems of the city have become more severe. Subway expansion plans are set to alleviate the situation when major routes are completed by 2008. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Air pollution is a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. ...


Sofia has a unique, very large combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Virtually the entire city (900,000 households and 5,900 companies) is centrally heated, using residual heat from electricity generation (3,000 MW) and gas- and oil-fired heating furnaces; total heat capacity is 4,640 MW. The heat distribution piping network is 900 km long and comprises 14,000 substations and 10,000 heated buildings. Not to be confused with California Highway Patrol. ... The megawatt (symbol: MW) is a unit for measuring power corresponding to one million (106) watts. ...

Architecture

After the Liberation of Bulgaria from Ottoman rule in 1878 and the establishment of an autonomous Bulgarian monarchy with its capital in Sofia, Knyaz Alexander Battenberg invited architects from Austria-Hungary to shape the new capital's architectural appearance. Alexander Joseph of Battenberg (April 5, 1857 - November 17, 1893), the first prince of modern Bulgaria, reigned from April 29, 1879 to September 7, 1886). ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


Among the architects invited to work in Bulgaria were Friedrich Grünanger, Adolf Václav Kolář, Viktor Rumpelmayer and others, who designed the most important public buildings needed by the newly-reestablished Bulgarian government, as well as numerous houses for the country's elite. Later, many foreign-educated Bulgarian architects also contributed. Friedrich Grünanger (25 January 1856-14 December 1929) was an Austro-Hungarian architect who primarily worked in Bulgaria. ... Viktor Rumpelmayer (1830-1885)[1] was a 19th-century Austro-Hungarian architect, whose style was a combination of French and Italian patterns and the Viennese shapes characteristic for his period. ...


The architecture of Sofia's centre is thus a combination of Neo-Baroque, Neo-Rococo, Neo-Renaissance and Neoclassicism, with the Vienna Secession also later playing an important part, but it is mostly typically Central European. The foyer of the Paris Opera, built by Charles Garnier Neo-baroque is a term used to describe artistic creations which display important aspects of Baroque style, but are not from the Baroque period proper. ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Château de Ferrières 1855 Mentmore Towers English Neo-Renaissance of the 1850s. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... The secession building at Vienna, built in 1897 by Joseph Maria Olbrich for exhibitions of the secession group another view The Vienna Secession or (also known as Secessionsstil, or Sezessionsstil in Austria) was part of that highly varied movement that is now covered by the general term Art Nouveau. ...



Among the most important buildings constructed in Sofia in the period are the former royal palace, today housing the National Art Gallery and the National Ethnographic Museum (1882); the Ivan Vazov National Theatre (1907); the former royal printing office, today the National Gallery for Foreign Art; the National Assembly of Bulgaria (1886), the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (1893), etc. The National Art Gallery edifice, the former royal palace of Bulgaria Closer view of the east wing The National Art Gallery (Bulgarian: , Natsionalna hudozhestvena galeriya) is Bulgarias national gallery and houses over 50,000 pieces of Bulgarian art. ... The Ivan Vazov National Theatre (Народен театър Иван Вазов) is Bulgarias national theatre and one of the important landmarks of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... The Neoclassic National Gallery for Foreign Art edifice Another view The National Gallery for Foreign Art (Bulgarian: , Natsionalna galeriya za chuzhdestranno izkustvo) of Bulgaria is a gallery located on St Alexander Nevsky Square in the capital city of Sofia and serves as the countrys national institution for foreign (i. ... The National Assembly of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Народното събрание, transliterated: Narodno Sabranie) is the unicameral parliament and body of the legislative of the Republic of Bulgaria. ... The Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (abbreviated BAS, in Bulgarian: Balgarska akademia na naukite, abbreviated BAN) is the National Academy of Bulgaria, established in 1869. ...


After the Second World War and the establishment of a Communist government in Bulgaria in 1944, the architectural line was substantially altered. Socialist Classicism public buildings emerged in the centre, but as the city grew outwards, the new neighbourhoods were dominated by many Communist-era tower blocks (panelki) and examples of Brutalist architecture. Unrealised design for the Palace of Soviets, Moscow, by Boris Iofan, 1933 Stalinist architecture (also referred to as Stalins Empire style or Socialist Classicism) is a term given to constructions that were built in the Soviet Union between 1933, when Boris Iofans draft for Palace of Soviets was... Brutalism is an architectural style that spawned from the modernist architectural movement and which flourished from the 1950s to the 1970s. ...


After the abolishment of Communism in 1989, Sofia has witnessed the construction of whole business districts and neighbourhoods, as well as modern skryscraper-like glass-fronted office buildings, but also top-class residential neighbourhoods.

Foreign embassies occupy some of Sofia's most beautiful historic houses
Foreign embassies occupy some of Sofia's most beautiful historic houses

Education

There are 16 universities in Sofia. The Saint Clement of Ohrid University of Sofia is often regarded as the most prestigious university of Bulgaria, being founded in 1888 and having an incoming class of 14,000 students each year. Other important universities include the National Academy of Arts, the Technical University of Sofia, the University for National and World Economics, Sofia Medical University, the Krastyo Sarafov National Academy for Theatre and Film Arts and New Bulgarian University. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 2302 KB) Sofia University. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 2302 KB) Sofia University. ... The main entrance of the university building The Saint Clement of Ohrid University of Sofia or Sofia University (Sofiiski Universitet Sveti Kliment Ohridski) (Софийски университет Св. Климент Охридски) is the oldest and most significant modern higher education institution in Bulgaria, founded on 1st October 1888. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... The Saint Clement of Ohrid University of Sofia or Sofia University (Софийски университет св. Климент Охридски, Sofiyski universitet sv. ... The rectors office The National Academy of Arts (Bulgarian: ; abbreviated НХА, NAA) is an institution of higher education in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... The Technical University of Sofia (Технически университет - София, often abbreviated as ТУ, TU or ТУ-София, TU-Sofia), based in Sofia, is the largest technical university in Bulgaria. ... The University of National and World Economy (UNSS, Университет за национално и световно стопанство, УНСС) is a school of economics in Sofia, Bulgaria. ... The Medical University of Sofia (Bulgarian Медицинският университет в София) is a university located in Sofia, Bulgaria. ... The Krastyo Sarafov National Academy for Theatre and Film Arts (Национална академия за театрално и филмово изкуство „Кръстьо Сарафов“, usually abbreviated as НАТФИЗ, NATFA) is an institution of higher education based in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ... New Bulgarian University (Нов български университет, abbreviated as НБУ, NBU) is a private institution of higher education based in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. ...


Furthermore, institutions of national significance, such as the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the SS. Cyril and Methodius National Library are located in Sofia. The American College of Sofia, founded in 1860 and regarded as the oldest American academic institution outside the United States provides secondary education to some of Bulgaria's brightest students. The school was closed during the communist era and reopened in 1992. The first class of the reopened school graduated in 1997 and will celebrate their 10th year reunion in June 2007. The Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (abbreviated BAS, in Bulgarian: Balgarska akademia na naukite, abbreviated BAN) is the National Academy of Bulgaria, established in 1869. ... A front view of the library building The SS. Cyril and Methodius National Library (Народна библиотека „свети свети Кирил и Методий“) is the national library of Bulgaria, situated in the capital city of Sofia. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Sport

Top-level football in Sofia: PFC Levski Sofia playing Chelsea F.C. at the Vasil Levski National Stadium during the UEFA Champions League 2006-07
Top-level football in Sofia: PFC Levski Sofia playing Chelsea F.C. at the Vasil Levski National Stadium during the UEFA Champions League 2006-07

Being the country's capital, Sofia is also the centre of Bulgaria's sport activities, with a large number of sports clubs being based in the city, including most of Bulgaria's primary, such as Levski Sofia, CSKA Sofia, Akademik Sofia, Spartak Sofia, Lokomotiv Sofia and Slavia Sofia. Football is arguably the most popular sport in the city, as well as the whole country, but sports such as basketball and volleyball also have strong traditions in Sofia. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2046x1239, 810 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bulgaria Sofia PFC Levski Sofia Vasil Levski National Stadium ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2046x1239, 810 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bulgaria Sofia PFC Levski Sofia Vasil Levski National Stadium ... “Levski Sofia” redirects here. ... Chelsea Football Club (also known as The Blues or previously The Pensioners) are an English professional football club based in west London. ... This is one of the the biggest stadiums in Bulgaria at 43,384 people. ... The UEFA Champions League 2006-07 was the 52nd edition of the European championship football club tournament and 15th edition under the current UEFA Champions League format. ... PFC Levski Sofia is a Bulgarian football club established on May 24, 1914 and playing in the capital, Sofia. ... PFC CSKA Sofia is the football club of the CSKA sports club of Sofia, Bulgaria, founded on May 5, 1948. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Spartak Sofia is a defunct Bulgarian football club founded in 1947. ... Lokomotiv Sofia is a Bulgarian football club, founded in [[1929 ]]. Honours Bulgarian Championship: (4) 1940, 1945, 1964, 1978. ... PFC Slavia Sofia (ПФК Славия София) is a Bulgarian football club founded on 10 April 1913 in Sofia. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... This article is about the sport. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ...


The capital is also home to a large number of sports venues, including the 43,000-seat Vasil Levski National Stadium which hosts most major outdoor events in Bulgaria, Levski Sofia's Georgi Asparuhov Stadium, CSKA Sofia's Balgarska Armiya Stadium and Slavia Sofia's Ovcha Kupel Stadium. Another important sports facility is Universiade Hall, where in turn many indoor events are held. This is one of the the biggest stadiums in Bulgaria at 43,384 people. ... The Georgi Asparuhov is the stadium of Bulgarian football club PFC Levski Sofia . ... стадион Българска Армия Bulgarska Armia (bg:Българска армия) is the football club stadium of the bulgarian football club CSKA Sofia. ... Ovcha Kupel Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Sofia, Bulgaria. ...


Sofia applied to host the Winter Olympic Games in 1992 and in 1994, coming 2nd and 3rd respectively. The city was also an applicant for the 2014 Winter Olympics, but was not selected as candidate. In addition, Sofia hosted Eurobasket 1957 and the 1961 and 1977 Summer Universiades, as well as the 1983 and 1989 winter editions.
The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXII Olympic Winter Games, is an international winter multiple sports event that will be celebrated from February 7 to February 23, 2014. ... The 1957 European Basketball Championship, commonly called Eurobasket 1957, was the tenth regional championship held by FIBA Europe. ... The 1961 Summer Universiade, also known as the II Summer Universiade, took place in Sofia, Bulgaria. ... The 1977 Summer Universiade, also known as the IX Summer Universiade, took place in Sofia, Bulgaria. ... The 1983 Winter Universiade, the XI Winter Universiade, took place in Sofia, Bulgaria. ... The 1989 Winter Universiade, the XIV Winter Universiade, took place in Sofia, Bulgaria. ...


Mass media

The TV Tower in Vitosha
The TV Tower in Vitosha

Some of the biggest and most popular telecommunications companies, TV and radio stations, cable television companies, newspapers, magazines, and web portals are based in Sofia. Some television companies and channels include Bulgarian National Television (featuring BNT Channel 1 and TV Bulgaria), bTV and Nova Television among others. Top-circulation newspapers include 24 chasa, Trud, Sega and others. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Bulgarian National Television is a Bulgarian language public television station founded in 1959 which began broadcast on December 26. ... BNT Channel 1 (Канал 1 на БНТ) is a Bulgarian language public television station founded in 1959 which began broadcast on December 26. ... bTV is the first private-owned national television channel in Bulgaria. ... For the Croatian television network, see Nova TV. For the Czech television network, see TV Nova. ... 24 Chasa (Cyrillic: 24 часа, translated as 24 Hours) is one of the largest-circulation Bulgarian daily newspapers. ... Dneven Trud (Дневен Труд), commonly known as Trud (labour), is the largest-circulation Bulgarian daily newspaper. ...


Notable people

See also: Category:People from Sofia

People that were born in Sofia:

Galerius Maximianus (c. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria (January 30, 1894 – August 28, 1943), originally Boris Klemens Robert Maria Pius Ludwig Stanislaus Xaver, son of Ferdinand I, came to the throne in 1918 upon the abdication of his father, following Bulgarias defeat in World War I. This was the countrys second... This is a list of Bulgarian monarchs from the earliest records in the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans to 1946, when the monarchy in the country was abolished. ... Assen Jordanoff Assen Jerry Jordanoff (Bulgarian: ) (born Assen Khristov Yordanov, September 2, 1896, Sofia, Bulgaria – d. ... Bulgarian Americans are people of Bulgarian descent living in the United States. ... Patriarch Cyril (3 January 1901-7 March 1971) was the first Patriarch of the restored Bulgarian Patriarchy. ... The Patriarch of All Bulgaria is the Patriarch of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. ... Valeri Petrov (Bulgarian: ), pseudonym of Valeri Nisim Mevorah (Валери Нисим Меворах) (born 22 April 1920) is a Bulgarian poet, screenplay writer, playwright and translator of paternal Jewish origin. ... Stoyanka Konstantinova Mutafova (Bulgarian: Стоянка Константинова Мутафова) is a Bulgarian actress born on February 2, 1922 in Sofia. ... Itzhak Fintzi (b. ... Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha as Prime Minister of Bulgaria Tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria (born June 16, 1937) was the last Tsar of Bulgaria from 1943 to 1946, and was Prime Minister of Bulgaria from 2001 until August 2005. ... Prime Ministers, 1879-1946 Todor Stoyanov Burmov 17 July 1879 - 6 December 1879 Archbishop Kliment Turnovski 6 December 1879 - 5 April 1880 Dragan Kiriakov Tsankov 5 April - 10 December 1880 Petko Karavelov 10 December 1880 - 9 May 1881 Johann Casimir Ernrot 9 May - 13 July 1881 Prince Alexander 13 July... Stefan Danailov (born December 9, 1942) is a Bulgarian actor and current Minister of Culture of Bulgaria. ... Georgi Asparuhov (Bulgarian: ) (sometimes spelled Asparoukhov), nicknamed Gundi (May 4, 1943 – June 30, 1971) was one of the greatest Bulgarian football players of all time. ... Solomon Passy (Bulgarian: Соломон Паси) (born December 22, 1956) is a Bulgarian politician, founder of the Atlantic Club in Bulgaria. ... Stefan Antonov Sofiyanski (Bulgarian: ) (born November 7, 1951 in Sofia) has been a leading member of the Union of Democratic Forces in Bulgaria. ... Borislav Mikhailov (Bulgarian: ) (born 12 February 1962) is a former Bulgarian football goalkeeper. ... Evgenia Radanova (Евгения Раданова, nicknamed Jeni, born on 4 November 1977) is a Bulgarian female sportsperson that has participated in both summer and winter Olympic games. ... Antoaneta Stefanova (b. ... The Womens World Chess Championship is played to determine the womens world champion in chess. ... Stanislav Ianevski as Viktor Krum in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire Stanislav Ianevski (Bulgarian: ) (born May 16, 1985) is a Bulgarian actor, known for playing Viktor Krum in the 2005 film Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. ... Alice Panikian (born May 23, 1985 in Sofia, Bulgaria) is a Canadian model who was crowned Miss Universe Canada on March 21, 2006. ... These water valves are operated by handles. ... Half-Life 2 (HL2) is a science fiction first-person shooter computer game that is the sequel to Half-Life. ...

Sister cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria. ... Image File history File links Blason-alger. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Ankara_flag. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Taken with permission from Flags of the World (http://www. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Berlin. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links BEL_Brussels_flag. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Budapest. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Helsinki. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - City manager Jussi Pajunen Area  - City 187. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Kyiv_flag. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links City_of_London_Arms. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pittsburgh,_Pennsylvania. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Saint_Petersburg_large_(2003). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Tel Aviv coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x770, 363 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Warsaw Coat of Arms of Warsaw ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ...

References

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Population table by permanent and present address as of 12 June 2006 (Bulgarian). Head Direction of Residential Registration and Administrative Service. Retrieved on 2006-06-15.
  2. ^ http://www.meteo.bg/docs/CMS_Sof_Hystory_Web.pdf
  3. ^ Theophanes Confessor. Chronographia, p.485
  4. ^ The Catholic Encyclopedia
  5. ^ София в числа, НСИ, 2003
  6. ^ http://www.bsp-poduene.hit.bg
  7. ^ Demographic record (Bulgarian). Sofia municipality website. Retrieved on 2006-06-15.
  8. ^ "Най-ниската безработица от 16 години насам е отчетена през юли", Aktualno.com, 2006-08-14. Retrieved on 2006-10-15. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Sofia

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Institutions of higher education

  • Sofia University St. Clement of Ohrid (Kliment Ohridski)
  • University for National and World Economy
  • University of Architecture, Construction and Geodesy
  • Sofia Technical University
  • University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy
  • St. John of Rila (Ivan Rilski) University of Mining and Technology
  • Bulgarian Evangelical Theological Institute
  • University of Forestry
  • Sofia Medical University
  • Vassil Levski National Sports Academy
  • Krastio Sarafov National Academy for the Theatre and Film Arts
  • National Academy for the Fine Arts
  • Prof. Pancho Vladigerov State Academy of Music
  • New Bulgarian University
  • Luben Karavelov Higher School for Civil Engineering
  • Todor Kableshkov Higher School for Transportation
  • Police Academy
  • G.S. Rakovsky Military Academy
  • Maps and aerial photos for 42°42′01″N 23°20′01″E / 42.7004, 23.3337Coordinates: 42°42′01″N 23°20′01″E / 42.7004, 23.3337
    • Maps from MapQuest, Multimap and Yahoo! Maps
    • Satellite images and maps from Google Maps and Live Search
    • Other mapping from GlobalGuide and WikiMapia

Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - City manager Jussi Pajunen Area  - City 187. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ...   (IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Administration District Luxembourg Canton Luxembourg LAU 2 LU00011001 Mayor Paul Helminger Geography Area Area rank 51. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Riga (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... County Area 159. ... Valletta, population 6,315 (official estimate for 2005), is the capital city of Malta. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Vilnius city municipality. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This is a list of cities in Bulgaria with over 20,000 inhabitants. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Aytos / Ajtos (Bulgarian: , Greek/Thracian: Αετός) is a town located in the eastern part of Bulgaria, belonging to the administrative boundaries of Burgas Province. ... Asenovgrad (Bulgarian Асеновград) is a town in Southern Bulgaria. ... The centre of the town Houses in Varosha, the old quarter of Blagoevgrad Blagoevgrad (Bulgarian: Благоевград, formerly Горна Джумая, Gorna Dzhumaya) is a town in southwestern Bulgaria, situated in Blagoevgrad Province, with a population of about 76,000. ... all my regards and wishes to Angela Marinova from [email protected] ... Burgas (Bulgarian: , sometimes transliterated as Bourgas) is the second-largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast with population 205,821. ... Dimitrovgrad (Bulgarian: ) is a town and a municipality in Haskovo Province of southern Bulgaria. ... Dobrich (Bulgarian: Добрич) is a town in northeastern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Dobrich Province. ... Dupnitsa (Дупница) is a town in western Bulgaria. ... Elena is a Bulgarian town in the Middle Balkan Range, 42 km south-east of Veliko Turnovo; a mountain resort at an altitude of 280 m. ... Gabrovo municipality is located in Northern Bulgaria, in Gabrovo micro region. ... Gorna Oryahovitsa (Bulgarian: ) is a town in northern Bulgaria, situated in Veliko Tarnovo Province, between the towns of Veliko Tarnovo and Dolna Oryahovitsa. ... Goce Delchev location in Bulgaria Gotse Delchev (Гоце Делчев), population 23,573, is a town in Southwestern Bulgaria (Pirin Macedonia). ... Harmanli is a town in south-eastern Bulgaria. ... Haskovo (Bulgarian: Хасково) is the name of a town (and administrative center of the region of the same name) in Southern Bulgaria. ... Karlovo is a town in Central Bulgaria located in a fertile valley along the river Striama (in Bulgarian: Стряма). It has a population of 28,000 (as of 2005). ... Karnobat, a city in the Bourgaska State, Karnobat Municipality of Bulgaria. ... Kazanlak (Bulgarian: ) is a town located in Stara Zagora Province, Bulgaria. ... Kardzhali (Bulgarian: , Turkish: ) is a town in Bulgaria, capital of Kardzhali Province in the Eastern Rhodopes. ... The Lyutov House, a mid-19th century house in Koprivshtitsa Characteristic architecture in Koprivshtitsa The roofs of the old buildings The Oslekov House Overview of the town The Karavelov House Koprivshtitsa (Bulgarian: ; , from the Bulgarian word , kopriva, meaning nettle) is a historic town in Sofia Province, central Bulgaria, lying on... Kyustendil Coat of arms Kyustendil (Bulgarian: , historically , Velbazhd, Turkish: ) is a town in the very west of Bulgaria, and the capital of Kyustendil Province, with a population of 47,196 (2005 calculation). ... Shishman Street - a street in Lom, Bulgaria Soviet style tower blocks characterize Loms skyline, with the Danube River and Romania visible in the background. ... View over Lovech The Covered Bridge Lovech (Bulgarian: Ловеч) is a town in north-central Bulgaria with a population of about 50,000. ... Montana (Монтана) is a city in northwestern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Montana Province. ... Nova Zagora (Bulgarian: ) is a town with a population of approximately 26,000 people in the city, and approximately 48,000 in the entire municipality (which includes 33 surrounding villages). ... Panagyurishte (Bulgarian: ) is a town in Pazardzhik Province, western Bulgaria. ... Pazardzhik (Bulgarian: , also spelled as Pazardjik or Pazarjik) is a town situated along the banks of the Maritsa river in Bulgaria. ... Overview of the city Pernik (Bulgarian: ) is a city in western Bulgaria with a population of 91,883 as of 2006. ... Petrich is a small town in the Blagoevgrad district in Bulgaria, located at the foot of the Belasitza. ... Pleven (Bulgarian: Плевен , known as Plevna in English in some historical documents) is the seventh most populated town in Bulgaria. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 341,873([1]). It is the administrative centre of Plovdiv Province in southern Bulgaria, as well as the largest and most important city of the historical region of Upper (or Northern) Thrace, famous for its... Popovo (Попово, from поп, pop priest and the placename suffix -ovo, literally the priests village) is a town in eastern Bulgaria, part of Targovishte Province. ... Ibrahim Pasha (Ä°brahim PaÅŸa) Mosque Razgrad (Разград) is a city in northeastern Bulgaria and the capital of Razgrad Province, built upon the ruins of the Ancient Roman town of Abritus on the banks of the Beli Lom. ... Dohodno Zdanie is a theatre building which is considered a symbol of the city Rousse (also transliterated as Ruse or Russe; Bulgarian: ; formerly also Rustchuk) is the fifth-largest city in Bulgaria, with a population of 176,115. ... Samokov (Bulgarian: ) is a town in Sofia Province in the southwest of Bulgaria. ... Sandanski (Bulgarian: , formerly Свети Врач, Sveti Vrach) is a town and recreation centre in southwestern Bulgaria, part of Blagoevgrad Province. ... Sevlievo is a town in north-central Bulgaria, between Sofia and Varna. ... Shumen (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: ) is a city in the northeastern part of Bulgaria, capital of Shumen Province. ... Silistra (Bulgarian: , historically Bulgarian Дръстър (Drastar, ) and Romanian Dârstor) is a port city of northeastern Bulgaria, lying on the southern side of the lower Danube at the countrys border with Romania. ... Sliven (Bulgarian: Сливен) is a town in southeast Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Sliven Province. ... Smolyan (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: or Ahiçelebi) is a town in the very south of Bulgaria, the administrative center of Smolyan Province. ... Stara Zagora (Bulgarian: ) is a city in the cental part of Southern Bulgaria, and represents an important economic center. ... Svishtov is a Bulgarian town at Danube river, nearly 235 km north-east from Sofia. ... A street in Targovishte TârgoviÅŸte is also a city in Romania. ... Coat of arms of Troyan Troyan (also spelled Troian, Bulgarian: Троян) is a town in central Bulgaria with population of about 30,000 and territory of 888,850 m². It is located 160km from Sofia. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgarian: Велико Търново; also transliterated as Veliko Turnovo) is a city in central northern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province. ... Velingrad is the most beautiful and most famous among the Bulgarian Balneological resorts. ... Vidin (Bulgarian: Видин; Romanian: Vidin, Diiu) is a town on the southern bank of the Danube in northwestern Bulgaria. ... Vratsa (also transliterated as Vraca or Vratza, in some languages with a W; Bulgarian: ) is a city in northwestern Bulgaria, at the foothills of the Balkan Mountains. ... Yambol (Bulgarian: Ямбол, also transliterated as Jambol) is the principal town in Yambol Province, Bulgaria, located on the Tunzha River. ... Zlataritsa (Bulgarian: ) is a town situated in the central northern part of Bulgaria, located in Veliko Tarnovo Province and close to the towns of Elena, Lyaskovets, Strazhitsa and Antonovo. ... Since 1999 Bulgaria is divided into 28 oblasts (provinces or regions) that correspond aproximatly to the 28 okrugs that existet before 1987. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Blagoevgrad Province (Bulgarian: област Благоевград, oblast Blagoevgrad or Благоевградска област, Blagoevgradska oblast), also known as Pirin Macedonia (Bulgarian: Пиринска Македония, Pirinska Makedoniya), is a province (oblast) of southwestern Bulgaria. ... Burgas Province or oblast (Bulgarian: Област Бургас) is located in southeastern Bulgaria, on the southern Black Sea coast. ... Dobrich province shown within Bulgaria Dobrich Province is a province in northeastern Bulgaria. ... Gabrovo province shown within Bulgaria Gabrovo is a small province lying at the geographical centre of Bulgaria. ... Haskovo Province is a province in southern Bulgaria, neighbouring Greece and Turkey to the southeast. ... Kurdzhali province shown within Bulgaria Kardzhali (Bulgarian: ; Turkish: ) is a province of southern Bulgaria, neighbouring Greece with the Greek prefectures of Xanthi and Rodhopi to the south and east. ... Kyustendil region shown within Bulgaria Kyustendil is a province of western Bulgaria, neighbouring Republic of Macedonia and Serbia and Montenegro. ... Lovech region shown within Bulgaria Lovech is a province in central Bulgaria. ... Montana (Монтана) is a province in northwestern Bulgaria, bordering Serbia and Romania. ... Pazardzhik is a province located in southern Bulgaria and covers 4,458 km². Ranging from 190 to 370 m above sea level, Pazardzhik is home to 319,358 people (1998). ... Pernik Province is a province in western Bulgaria, neighbouring Serbia. ... Pleven region shown within Bulgaria Pleven is a province in northern Bulgaria, neighbouring Romania. ... Walls of the Hissarya fortress Plovdiv is an oblast, or province, of central Bulgaria, formerly part of Eastern Rumelia. ... Razgrad Province (Област Разград) is a province in northeastern Bulgaria. ... Ruse region shown within Bulgaria Ruse Province (Bulgarian: , Turkish: Rusçuk) is a province in northern Bulgaria (Ludogorie), neighbouring Romania. ... Shumen (Шумен) is a province in northeastern Bulgaria. ... Silistra province shown within Bulgaria Silistra is a province of Bulgaria, named for its main city, Silistra. ... Sliven province shown within Bulgaria Sliven is a province in central Bulgaria. ... Smolyan province shown within Bulgaria Smolyan is a province in southern Bulgaria. ... Sofia Province is a province (oblast) of Bulgaria. ... Stara Zagora is a province of south central Bulgaria. ... Targovishte province shown within Bulgaria Targovishte (Търговищка област) is a province in central Bulgaria. ... One of Byalas beaches River Kamchiya Cape Galata Varna Pobiti Kamani Euxinograd Aladzha Monastery Golden Sands Chudnite skali on Lake Tsonevo Varna Province (Bulgarian: is a province in northeastern Bulgaria, onе of the 28 Bulgarian provinces. ... Veliko Tarnovo is a province in the middle of the northern part of Bulgaria. ... Baba Vida fortress in Vidin Vidin Province is the northwesternmost province of Bulgaria. ... Vratsa is a province of north western Bulgaria, neighbouring Romania. ... Yambol town and province shown within Bulgaria Yambol is a town with province in south eastern Bulgaria, neighbouring Turkey to the south. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... The History of Bulgaria as a separate country began in the 7th century with the arrival of the Bulgars and the foundation of the First Bulgarian Empire together with the local seven Slavic tribes, a union recognized by Byzantium in 681. ... Pliska (Bulgarian. ... Preslav ( Bulgarian: Преслав) was capital of the First Bulgarian Empire from 893 to 972. ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in the Republic of Macedonia Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - City 701. ... City motto : Coordinates Municipality : Ohrid municipality Elevation 695 m Population 55 749 Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Area code +389 46 Postal code 6000 Car plates OH Official Website www. ... Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgarian: Велико Търново; also transliterated as Veliko Turnovo) is a city in central northern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sofia Project (228 words)
The Sofia project is an open content initiative launched by the Foothill - De Anza Community College District with funding support from The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.
The pilot effort began with a call for contributions that was extended to faculty from Foothill-De Anza, the ETUDES Alliance, and the California Virtual Campus.
The long-term vision is to broaden participation in the Sofia project, promoting openness, sharing, and collaboration globally.
Sofia Kovalevskaya (1495 words)
As a result, Sofia became fairly nervous and withdrawn--traits which were evident throughout her lifetime (Perl 127-128).
In July of 1874, Sofia Kovalevskaya was granted a Ph.D. from the University of Gottingen.
In her paper, Sofia developed the theory for an unsymmetrical body where the center of its mass is not on an axis in the body.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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