FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Sodium hydroxide
Sodium hydroxide
IUPAC name Sodium hydroxide
Other names Lye, Caustic Soda
Identifiers
CAS number [1310-73-2]
Properties
Molecular formula NaOH
Molar mass 39.9971 g/mol
Appearance White solid
Density 2.1 g/cm³, solid
Melting point

318°C (591 K) Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Sodium_hydroxide. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x827, 330 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sodium hydroxide User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... A chemical formula is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

1390°C (1663 K) Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in water 111 g/100 ml (20°C)
Basicity (pKb) -2.43
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
NFPA 704
0
3
1
 
Flash point Non-flammable.
Related compounds
Related bases Ammonia, lime.
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. Sodium hydroxide forms a strong alkaline solution when dissolved in a solvent such as water. It is used in many industries, mostly as a strong chemical base in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 1998 was around 45 million tonnes. Sodium hydroxide is the most used base in chemical laboratories. Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... An acid dissociation constant, denoted by Ka, is an equilibrium constant for the dissociation of a weak acid. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Portlandite be merged into this article or section. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ... The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of chemistry. ... A caustic substance, in chemistry, is one that causes corrosion, the deterioration of a material. ... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... International Paper Company Wood pulp is the most common material used to make paper. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... Tap water Mineral Water Drinking water is water that is intended to be ingested through drinking by humans. ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... Drain cleaner is a chemical used to dissolve clogs to unblock pipes, such as the drainpipes of sinks, bathtubs, toilets, and showers. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ...


Pure sodium hydroxide is a white solid; available in pellets, flakes, granules and as a 50% saturated solution. It is deliquescent and readily absorbs carbon dioxide from the air, so it should be stored in an airtight container. It is very soluble in water with liberation of heat. It also dissolves in ethanol and methanol, though it exhibits lower solubility in these solvents than potassium hydroxide. It is insoluble in ether and other non-polar solvents. A sodium hydroxide solution will leave a yellow stain on fabric and paper. Deliquescent materials are substances (mostly salts) which have a strong affinity for moisture and will absorb relatively large amount of water from the atmosphere if exposed to it, forming a liquid solution. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... The term hermetically sealed is used to describe something that has an airtight seal. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ...

Contents

Physical properties

Δ H° dissolution for diluted aqueous -44.45 kJ / mol;


From aqueous solutions at 12.3-61.8°C, it crystallizes in monohydrate, with a melting point of 65.1 ° C and density of 1829 g/cm 3;


Δ H° form -734.96 kJ / mol;


Monohydrate from -28 to -24°C;


Heptahydrate from -24 to -17.7°C;


Pentahydrate from -17.7 to -5.4°C;


Tetrahydrate (α- changed), at -5 , 4 - 12.3°C Also know metastable β- NaOH 4* H2O. Which above 61.8°C are crystallized.


Chemical properties

Sodium hydroxide is completely ionic, containing sodium ions and hydroxide ions. The hydroxide ion makes sodium hydroxide a strong base which reacts with acids to form water and the corresponding salts, e.g., with hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride is formed: An ionic bond can be formed after two or more atoms give up (or gain) electrons, so as to become ions. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...

NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

In general such neutralization reactions are represented by one simple net ionic equation: Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... H2O and HOH redirect here. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... Neutralization is a chemical reaction, also called a water forming reaction, in which an acid and a base or alkali (soluble base) react and produce a salt and water. ...

OH(aq) + H3O+(aq) → 2H2O

This type of reaction with a strong acid, releases heat, and hence is referred to as exothermic. Such acid-base reactions can also be used for titrations, which is a common method to determine the concentration of acids. Another type of reaction that sodium hydroxide is involved in is with acidic oxides. The reaction of carbon dioxide has already been mentioned, but other acidic oxides such as sulfur dioxide (SO2) also react completely. Such reactions are often used to "scrub" harmful acidic gases (like SO2 and H2S) and prevent their release into the atmosphere. Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the cation H3O+ derived from protonation of water. ... In chemistry, an exothermic reaction is one that releases heat . ... Acids and bases: Acid-base reaction pH Self-ionization of water Buffer solutions Systematic naming Acid-base extraction Acidity function Proton affinity Acids: Strong acids Weak acids Superacids Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Bases: Strong bases Weak bases Superbases Lewis bases Organic bases edit is a chemical reaction that... This article is about volumetric titration. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...

2NaOH + CO2Na2CO3 + H2O

Sodium hydroxide slowly reacts with glass to form sodium silicate, so glass joints and stopcocks exposed to NaOH have a tendency to "freeze".[citation needed] Flasks and glass-lined chemical reactors are damaged by long exposure to hot sodium hydroxide, and the glass becomes frosted. Sodium hydroxide does not attack iron since Iron does not have amphoteric properties. A few trasition metals, however, may react with Sodium Hydroxide in a vigorous way. In 1986 an aluminium road tanker in the UK was mistakenly used to transport 25% sodium hydroxide solution, causing pressurisation of the contents and damage to the tanker. Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Sodium silicate, also known as water glass or liquid glass, available in aqueous solution and in solid form, is a compound used in cements, passive fire protection, refractories, textile and lumber processing. ... A stopcock is a valve used to restrict or isolate the flow through a pipe of a liquid or gas. ... Erlenmeyer flasks from the Argonne National Laboratory glassblowing shop. ... In chemical engineering, chemical reactors are vessels designed to contain chemical reactions. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... A Shell Jet A refueller truck on the ramp at Vancouver International Airport. ...


Unlike NaOH, the hydroxides of most metals are insoluble, and therefore sodium hydroxide can be used to precipitate metal hydroxides. One such hydroxide is aluminium hydroxide, used as a gelatinous floc to filter out particulate matter in water treatment. Aluminium hydroxide is prepared at the treatment plant from aluminium sulfate by reacting with NaOH. This reaction is highly profitable, and is hence an important synthesis reaction. Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is the most stable form of aluminium in normal conditions. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A water treatment plant in northern Portugal. ... Aluminium sulfate is a widely used industrial chemical. ...


Sodium hydroxide reacts readily with carboxylic acids to form their salts and is even a strong enough base to form salts with phenols. NaOH can be used for the base-driven hydrolysis of esters (as in saponification), amides and alkyl halides. However, the limited solubility of NaOH in organic solvents means that the more soluble KOH is often preferred. Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... Saponification of a lipid with potassium hydroxide. ... Amide functional group Amides possess a conjugated system spread over the O, C and N atoms, consisting of molecular orbitals occupied by delocalized electrons. ... In chemistry, an alkyl halide is an organic molecule of the form R_X, where X is a halide and R contains a carbon atom bonded to other functional groups or hydrogens. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ...

Basic hydrolysis of an ester
Basic hydrolysis of an ester

Shortened length of Ester_Hydrolysis. ...

Manufacture

In 1998, total world production was around 45 million tonnes. North America and Asia collectively contributed around 14 million tonnes, while Europe produced around 10 million tonnes. This article is about the metric tonne. ...


Methods of production

Sodium hydroxide is produced (along with chlorine and hydrogen) via the chloralkali process. This involves the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. The sodium hydroxide builds up at the cathode, where water is reduced to hydrogen gas and hydroxide ion: General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... The chloralkali process is a redox reaction, an electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride: 2 NaCl(aq) + 2 H2O(l) —→ 2 NaOH(aq) + Cl2(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e- 2 H+ + 2 e- —→ H2(g) The process is primarily used to produce chlorine, but one of its byproducts... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ...

2Na+ + 2H2O + 2e → H2 + 2NaOH

To produce NaOH it is necessary to prevent reaction of the NaOH with the chlorine. This is typically done in one of three ways, of which the membrane cell process is economically the most viable. General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ...

  • Mercury cell process (also called the Castner-Kellner process) – Sodium ions are reduced to sodium metal, which forms an amalgam with a mercury cathode; this sodium is then reacted with water to produce NaOH. There have been concerns about mercury releases, although modern plants claim to be safe in this regard.[2]
  • Diaphragm cell process – uses a steel cathode, and the reaction of NaOH with Cl2 is prevented using a porous diaphragm, often made of asbestos fibers. In the diaphragm cell process the anode area is separated from the cathode area by a permeable diaphragm. The brine is introduced into the anode compartment and flows through the diaphragm into the cathode compartment. A diluted caustic brine leaves the cell. The sodium hydroxide must usually be concentrated to 50% and the salt removed. This is done using an evaporative process with about three tonnes of steam per tonne of sodium hydroxide. The salt separated from the caustic brine can be used to saturate diluted brine. The chlorine contains oxygen and is purified by liquefaction and evaporation.[3][4]
  • Membrane cell process – similar to the diaphragm cell process, with a Nafion membrane to separate the cathode and anode reactions. Only sodium ions and a little water pass through the membrane. It produces a higher quality of NaOH. Of the three processes, the membrane cell process requires the lowest consumption of electric energy and the amount of steam needed for concentration of the caustic is relatively small (less than one tonne per tonne of sodium hydroxide).[5][6]

An older method for sodium hydroxide production was the Leblanc process, which produced sodium carbonate, followed by roasting to create carbon dioxide and sodium oxide. This method is still occasionally used. It helped establish sodium hydroxide as an important commodity chemical. The Castner-Kellner process is a method of electrolysis on an aqueous alkali chloride solution (usually sodium chloride solution) to produce the corresponding alkali hydroxide,[1] invented by Hamilton Castner and Karl Kellner in the 1890s. ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... This article is about mixtures (alloys) of mercury with other elements. ... This article is about the element. ... Diagram of a copper cathode in a Daniells cell. ... An example of a diaphragm seal (in green) used to protect a pressure sensor. ... For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... Nafion® is a sulfonated tetrafluorethylene copolymer discovered in the late 1960s by Walther Grot of DuPont de Nemours. ... The Leblanc process was the industrial process for the production of soda ash (sodium carbonate) used throughout the 19th century. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O. It is used in ceramics and glasses. ...


The LeBlanc process was superseded by the Solvay process in the late 19th century. Chemistry The Solvay process calcium carbonate: CaCO3 → CO2 + CaO The solid sodium bicarbonate is then filtered out and converted to sodium carbonate by heating it, recovering some carbon dioxide in the process: 2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2 Meanwhile, ammonia is recovered from the ammonium chloride byproduct by treating the ammonium...


Major producers

In the United States, the major producer of sodium hydroxide is the Dow Chemical Company, which has annual production around 3.7 million tonnes from sites at Freeport, Texas, and Plaquemine, Louisiana. Other major US producers include Oxychem, PPG, Olin, Pioneer Companies, Inc. (PIONA), and Formosa. All of these companies use the chloralkali process[7]. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW TYO: 4850) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ... Freeport is a city located in Brazoria County, Texas and is situated in East Texas. ... The city of Plaquemine is the parish seat of Iberville Parish, in the US state of Louisiana. ... Oxychem (more formally called Occidental Chemical Corporation) is the chemicals division of the Occidental Petroleum Corporation. ... PPG Industries NYSE: PPG was founded in 1883, under the name Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company. ... The Olin Corporation (NYSE: OLN) is a major manufacturer of copper alloys (through subsidiary Olin Brass), ammunition (through the Winchester Ammunition), and chlorine and sodium hydroxide (Olin Chlor-Alkali Products). ... Formosa Plastics Group (Ch: 台灣塑膠公司) is a Taiwanese conglomerate of diverse interests, including biotechnology, petrochemical processing, and production of electronics components. ... The chloralkali process is a redox reaction, an electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride: 2 NaCl(aq) + 2 H2O(l) —→ 2 NaOH(aq) + Cl2(g) + 2 H+ + 2 e- 2 H+ + 2 e- —→ H2(g) The process is primarily used to produce chlorine, but one of its byproducts...


Uses

General applications

Sodium hydroxide is the principal strong base used in the chemical industry. In bulk it is most often handled as an aqueous solution, since solutions are cheaper and easier to handle. It is used to drive chemical reactions and also for the neutralization of acidic materials. It can be used also as a neutralizing agent in petroleum refining. It is sometimes used as a cleaner. Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water This article is about chemical solutions. ... Neutralization is a chemical reaction, also called a water forming reaction, in which an acid and a base or alkali (soluble base) react and produce a salt and water. ...


Paint stripper

A solution of sodium hydroxide in water was traditionally used as the most common paint stripper on wooden objects. Due to its corrosiveness and the fact that it can damage the wood surface raising the grain and staining the color, its use has become less common.


Gold pennies

Sodium hydroxide has also been used in conjunction with zinc for creation of the famous "Gold pennies" experiment. When a penny is boiled in a solution of NaOH together with some granular zinc metal (galvanized nails are one source), the color of the penny will turn silver in about 45 seconds. The penny is then held in the flame of a burner for a few seconds and it turns golden brown . The reason this happens is that granular zinc dissolves in NaOH to form Zn(OH)42- (tetrahydroxozincate). This zincate ion becomes reduced to metallic zinc on the surface of a copper penny. Zinc and copper when heated in a flame form brass. General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... For the NBA basketball player with the nickname see Penny Hardaway A variety of low value coins, including an Irish 2p piece and many U.S. pennies. ... Hot-dip galvanizing is a form of galvanization. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Brazen redirects here. ...


Alumina production - Bayer process

Sodium hydroxide is used in the refining of alumina containing ore (bauxite) to produce alumina (aluminium oxide) which is the raw material used to produce aluminium metal via the smelting process. The Bayer process is the principal industrial means of producing alumina, itself important in the Hall-Héroult process for producing aluminum. ... Aluminium oxide (or aluminum oxide) (Al2O3) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen. ... This article is about the ore. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942) Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of extractive metallurgy. ...


Use in chemical analysis

In analytical chemistry, sodium hydroxide solutions are often used to measure the concentration of acids by titration. Since NaOH is not a primary standard, solutions must first be standardised by titration against a standard such as KHP. Burettes exposed to NaOH should be rinsed out immediately after use to prevent "freezing" of the stopcock. Sodium hydroxide was traditionally used to test for cations in Qualitative Inorganic Analysis, as well as to provide alkaline media for some reactions that need it, such as the Biuret test. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Concentration (disambiguation). ... This article is about volumetric titration. ... A primary standard in chemistry is a reliable, readily quantified substance. ... Potassium hydrogen phthalate, often called simply KHP, is a white, colorless, ionic solid that is the monopotassium salt of phthalic acid. ... diagram of modern burette A burette (also buret) is a vertical cylindrical piece of laboratory glassware with a volumetric graduation on its full length and a precision tap, or stopcock, on the bottom. ... A cation is an ion with positive charge. ... Classical qualitative inorganic analysis is a method of analytical chemistry which seeks to find elemental composition of inorganic compounds. ... Biuret is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C2O2N3H5. ...


Soap production

Sodium hydroxide was traditionally used in soap making (cold process soap, saponification). The Arabs began producing soap in this way in the 7th century, and the same basic process is used today. Cold process is a method of making soap (saponification) which does not use an external heat source. ... Saponification of a lipid with potassium hydroxide. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


Paper making

Sodium hydroxide was also widely used in making paper. Along with sodium sulfide, NaOH is a key component of the white liquor solution used to separate lignin from cellulose fibers in the Kraft process. It also plays a key role in several later stages of the process of bleaching the brown pulp resulting from the pulping process. These stages include oxygen delignification, oxidative extraction, and simple extraction, all of which require a strong alkaline environment with a pH > 10.5 at the end of the stages. Sodium sulfide, or Na2S, is a water soluble chemical compound. ... Lignin (sometimes lignen) is a chemical compound (complex, highly cross-linked aromatic polymer) that is most commonly derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants, especially in tracheids, xylem fibres and sclereids. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... The Kraft process (also known as Kraft pulping or sulfate process) is used in production of paper pulp and involves the use of caustic sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide to extract the lignin from wood chips in large pressure vessels called digesters. ... Bleaching of wood pulp is the chemical processing carried out on various types of wood pulp to decrease the color of the pulp, so that it becomes whiter. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ...


Biodiesel

For the manufacture of biodiesel, sodium hydroxide is used as a catalyst for the transesterification of methanol and triglycerides. This only works with anhydrous sodium hydroxide, because combined with water the fat would turn into soap, which would be tainted with methanol. It is used more often than potassium hydroxide because it is cheaper and a smaller quantity is needed. This article is about transesterified plant and animal oils. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... In organic chemistry, transesterification is the process of exchanging the alkoxy group of an ester compound by another alcohol. ... As a general term, a substance is said to be anhydrous if it contains no water. ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ...


Aluminium etching

Strong bases attack aluminium. This can be useful in etching through a resist or in converting a polished surface to a satin-like finish, but without further passivation such as anodizing or alodining the surface may become corroded, either under normal use or in severe atmospheric conditions. Aluminum redirects here. ... Passivation is the process of making a material passive in relation to another material prior to using the materials together. ... These inexpensive decorative carabiners have an anodized aluminium surface that has been dyed and are made in many colors. ...


Food preparation

Food uses of sodium hydroxide include washing or chemical peeling of fruits and vegetables, chocolate and cocoa processing, caramel color production, poultry scalding, soft drink processing, and thickening ice cream. Olives are often soaked in sodium hydroxide to soften them, while pretzels and German lye rolls are glazed with a sodium hydroxide solution before baking to make them crisp. Due to the difficulty in obtaining food grade sodium hydroxide in small quantities for home use, sodium carbonate is often used in place of sodium hydroxide[8]. Popular Japanese fashion magazine throughout the 1990s; the photography of which has recently been reissued in two collections from Phaidon press. ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... For other uses, see Chocolate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... Caramel candy For other uses, see Caramel (disambiguation). ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio Poultry is the category of domesticated birds kept for meat, eggs, and feathers. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Lebanon and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... This article is about the baked snack. ... Lye rolls are a baked specialty in Germany, especially in Bavaria and Swabia. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ...


Specific foods processed with sodium hydroxide include:

  • The Scandinavian delicacy known as lutefisk (from lutfisk, "lye fish").
  • Hominy is dried maize (corn) kernels reconstituted by soaking in lye-water. These expand considerably in size and may be further processed by frying to make corn nuts or by drying and grinding to make grits. Nixtamal is similar, but uses calcium hydroxide instead of sodium hydroxide.
  • Sodium hydroxide is also the chemical that causes gelling of egg whites in the production of Century eggs.
  • German pretzels are poached in a boiling sodium carbonate solution or cold sodium hydroxide solution before baking, which contributes to their unique crust.
  • Most yellow coloured Chinese noodles are made with lye-water but are commonly mistaken for containing egg.

For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Lutefisk (on the upper left side of the plate) as served in a Norwegian restaurant, with potatoes, mashed peas, and bacon. ... Hominy or nixtamal is dried, treated maize (corn) kernels. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ... Corn nuts (or toasted corn) are a snack food made by roasting or deep frying maize. ... This article is about the corn-based Southern U.S. food. ... Nixtamalization is the process whereby ripe maize grains are soaked and cooked in an alkaline solution, usually lime based, to cause the transparent outer hull, the pericarp, to separate from the grain. ... It has been suggested that Portlandite be merged into this article or section. ... Century egg sliced open. ... This article is about the baked snack. ... Chinese cuisine includes many different types of noodles, called miàn (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; often transliterated as mien or mein ). Miàn (麵) refers to noodles made from wheat while fěn () or fun refers to noodles made from rice. ... Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ...

Domestic uses

Sodium hydroxide is used in the home as a drain cleaning agent for clearing clogged drains. It is distributed as a dry crystal or as a thick liquid gel. The chemical mechanism employed is the conversion of grease to a form of soap. Soap is water-soluble, and can be dissolved by flushing with water. Sodium hydroxide also decomposes complex molecules such as the protein that composes hair. Such drain cleaners (and their acidic versions) are highly caustic and should be handled with care. For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ...


Sodium hydroxide has been used as a relaxer to straighten hair. However, because of the high incidence and intensity of chemical burns, chemical relaxer manufacturers have now switched to other alkaline chemicals, although sodium hydroxide relaxers are still available, used mostly by professionals. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Tissue Digestion

This is a process that was used with farm animals at one time. This process involves the placing of a carcass into a sealed chamber, which then puts the carcass in a mixture of sodium hydroxide and water, which breaks chemical bonds keeping the body intact. This eventually turns the body into a coffee-like liquid, and the only solid remains are bone hulls, which could be crushed between one's fingertips. It is also of note that sodium hydroxide is frequently used in the process of decomposing roadkill dumped in landfills by animal disposal contractors[citation needed]. For the professional wrestler known as Roadkill, see Michael Depoli, for the movie marketed as Roadkill in the UK and Australia, see Joy Ride, for the Supernatural TV series episode, see Roadkill (Supernatural). ...


Sodium hydroxide has also been used by criminals and serial killers to dispose of their victims' bodies.[citation needed] Serial killers are individuals who have a history of multiple slayings of victims who were usually unknown to them beforehand. ...


Illegal drugs

Sodium hydroxide is a key reagent in the process of making methamphetamine and other illegal drugs. Contrary to popular media reports, it is not actually an "ingredient" in these drugs, but simply a strong base used to manipulate the pH at various points in a chemical synthesis. This article is about the psychostimulant, d-methamphetamine. ...


Cleansing agent

Sodium hydroxide is frequently used as a cleaner in breweries, where it is simply called "caustic". It is added to water, heated, and then used to clean the large stainless steel tanks where beer is brewed, fermented, and stored. It can dissolve oils and protein-based deposits. A sodium hydroxide soak solution is used as a powerful degreaser on stainless and glass bakeware. It also the most common ingredient in oven cleaners. Kettles in a modern Trappist brewery A brewery can be a building or place that produces beer, or a business (brewing company) whose trade is the production and sale of beer. ...


Safety

Solid sodium hydroxide or solutions containing high concentrations of sodium hydroxide may cause chemical burns, permanent injury or scarring, and blindness. A chemical burn occurs when living tissue is exposed to an extremely reactive chemical substance such as a strong acid or base. ... This article is about the visual condition. ...


Dissolution of sodium hydroxide is highly exothermic, and the resulting heat may cause heat burns or ignite flammables. Solvation is the attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. ...


Sodium Hydroxide is extremely corrosive, and can react with fats and oils on skin, in a reaction which creates salts. For this reason, sodium hydroxide is very dangerous, and skin should be washed thoroughly with water following contact with this substance.


See also

Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Transwiki:Common chemicals Bold textItalic text== References == The Golden Book of Chemistry Experiments Category: ... // Soda lime is a mixture of chemicals, used in granular form in closed breathing environments, such as general anaesthesia, submarines, rebreathers and recompression chambers, to remove carbon dioxide from breathing gases to prevent CO2 retention and carbon dioxide poisoning. ...

External links

  • Certified Lye™ - History, manufacture, first aid, storage, and safety of sodium hydroxide.
  • International Chemical Safety Card 0360
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
  • European Chemicals Bureau
  • Chlorine Online - Facts about chlorine; sodium hydroxide is an important co-product of chlorine.
  • The Chlorine Institute, Inc. website
  • Sodium hydroxide products of Bayer MaterialScience in North America
  • Titration of acids with sodium hydroxide – freeware for data analysis, simulation of curves and pH calculation

References

  1. ^ IUPAC RED Book, definition of "hydrate" salt, pp. 80-81
  2. ^ Chlorine Online Diagram of mercury cell process. Euro Chlor. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  3. ^ Euro Chlor - How is chlorine made?. Euro Chlor. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  4. ^ Chlorine Online Diagram of diaphragm cell process. Euro Chlor. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  5. ^ Chlorine Online Diagram of membrane cell process. Euro Chlor. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  6. ^ Euro Chlor - How is chlorine made?. Euro Chlor. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  7. ^ See Kirk-Othmer in general references
  8. ^ Hominy without Lye. National Center for Home Food Preservation.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

General references

  1. N. N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1997.
  2. Heaton, A. (1996) An Introduction to Industrial Chemistry, 3rd edition, New York:Blackie. ISBN 0-7514-0272-9.
  3. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 5th edition (online, account needed), John Wiley & Sons. Accessed November 21, 2005.
  4. Euro Chlor - How is chlorine made? Chlorine Online

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Sodium hydroxide - Encyclopedia Article (427 words)
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as caustic soda or lye in North America, is a caustic metallic base used in industry (mostly as a strong chemical base) in the manufacture of paper, textiles, and detergents.
Sodium hydroxide is occasionally used in the home as an agent for unclogging stuck drains, but it is highly corrosive and has a high danger of causing chemical burns, permanent injury or scarring, and blindness, due to its high reactivity.
Sodium hydroxide is manufactured by electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m