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Encyclopedia > Sodium bisulfite

Sodium hydrogen sulfite or sodium bisulfite is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NaHSO3. This sulfite is a white powder with a melting point 150 °C at which it decomposes. Solubility in water @ 20 °C is 515 g/l and the pH-value @ 54 g/l and 20 °C is 3.5 to 5.0. Sodium bisulfite is a food additive with E-number E-222. Sodium bisulfite can be prepared by bubbling sulfur dioxide in a solution of sodium carbonate in water. Be aware that sodium bisulfite in contact with chlorine bleach (aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite) will release harmful fumes. A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sulfites (also sulphite) are compounds that contain the sulfite ion SO32−. They are often used as preservatives in wines (to prevent spoilage and oxidation), dried fruits, and dried potato products. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... Chemical decomposition or analysis is the fragmentation of a chemical compound into elements or smaller compounds. ... The correct title of this article is . ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... For the mathematical concept in sports, see Magic number (sports). ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ...

Uses in chemistry

In organic chemistry sodium bisulfite has several uses. It forms a bisulfite adduct with aldehyde groups and with certain cyclic ketones to a sulfonic acid. This reaction has limited synthetic value but it is used in purification procedures. Contaminated aldehydes in a solution precipitate as the bisulfate adduct which can be isolated by filtration. The reverse reaction takes place in presence of a base such as sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydroxide and the bisulfite is liberated as sulfur dioxide. Procedures in Organic Syntheses are described for benzaldehyde (OS 5:437), tetralone (OS 4:903), citral (OS 3:747), the ethyl ester of pyruvic acid (OS 4:467) and glyoxal (OS 3:438). In the ring-expansion reaction of cyclohexanone with diazald, the bisulfite reaction is reported to be able to differentiate between the primary reaction product cycloheptanone and the main contaminant cyclooctanone (OS 4:221). Image File history File links Bisulfitereaction. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting of primarily carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... An aldehyde. ... Ketone group A ketone(key tone) is either the functional group characterized by a carbonyl group (O=C) linked to two other carbon atoms or a chemical compound that contains this functional group. ... It has been suggested that Sulfonic acid/Temp be merged into this article or section. ... Sodium bicarbonate is the chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye or caustic soda or sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Organic Syntheses is a scientific journal that Since 1921 has provided the chemistry community with annual collections of detailed and checked procedures for the organic synthesis of organic compounds. ... Benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO) is a chemical compound consisting of a benzene ring with an aldehyde substituent. ... Geranial Neral Citral, or 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal or lemonal, is either of a pair of terpenoids with the molecular formula C10H16O. The two compounds are double bond isomers. ... Pyruvic acid (CH3COCO2H) is an alpha-keto acid which plays an important role in biochemical processes. ... Glyoxal is an organic compound with the formula OCHCHO. This yellow-coloured liquid is the smallest dialdehyde. ... Cyclohexanone is six-carbon cyclic molecule with a ketone functional group. ... A diazo compound is any class of organic substances that have the characteristic atomic grouping: as a part of their molecular structure. ...

The other main use of sodium bisulfite is as a mild reducing agent in organic synthesis in particular in purification procedures. It can efficiently remove traces or excess amounts of chlorine, bromine, iodine, hypochlorite salts, osmate esters, chromium trioxide and potassium permanganate. Image File history File links Bisulfite_adduct. ... A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is the element or a compound in a redox (reduction-oxidation) reaction (see electrochemistry) that reduces another species. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bromine, Br, 35 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 4, p Appearance gas/liquid: red-brown solid: metallic luster Atomic mass 79. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ... The hypochlorite ion The hypochlorite ion is ClO−. A hypochlorite compound is a chemical compound containing this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +1. ... The chemical compound osmium tetroxide (OsO4), also known as osmium tetraoxide, osmium(VIII) oxide, or osmic acid, is an oxide of the element osmium. ... In chemistry, chromic acid (or Jones reagent) is a chromium (Cr) compound, yet to be isolated, that would have the formula H2CrO4. ... Potassium permanganate is the chemical compound KMnO4. ...

A third use of sodium bisulfite is as a decoloration agent in purification procedures obviously because it can reduce strongly colorized oxidizing agents and conjugated alkenes and carbonyl compounds.

Sodium bisulfite is also the key ingredient in the Bucherer reaction. In this reaction an aromatic hydroxyl group is replaced by an aromatic amine group en vice versa because it is a reversible reaction. The first step in this reaction is an addition reaction of sodium bisulfite to an aromatic double bond. The Bucherer carbazole synthesis is a related organic reaction. The Bucherer reaction in organic chemistry is the reversible conversion of Naphthol to naphtylamine in presence of ammonia and sodium bisulfite [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. The French chemist Lepetit was the first to discover the reaction in 1898 but it was the German chemist Hans Bucherer who discovered (independent... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ... A reversible reaction is a chemical reaction that may proceed in both the forward and reverse directions. ... An addition reaction, in chemistry, is in its simplest terms an organic reaction where two or more molecules combine to form a larger one. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... The Bucherer carbazole synthesis is a chemical reaction used to synthesize carbazoles from naphthols and aryl hydrazines using sodium bisulfite. ... Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. ...

Bisulfite DNA Sequencing

Further information: Bisulfite sequencing

Sodium bisulfite is used in the analysis of methylation status of cytosines in DNA. Figure 1: Outline of bisulfite conversion of sample sequence of genomic DNA. Nucleotides in blue are unmethylated cytosines converted to uracils by bisulfite, while red nucleotides are 5-methylcytosines resistant to conversion. ... Methylation is a term used in the chemical sciences to denote the attachment or substitution of a methyl group on various substrates. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...

In this technique, sodium bisulfite deaminates cytosine into uracil, but does not effect 5-methylcytosine, a methylated form of cytosine with a methyl group attached to carbon 5. Cytosine is one of the 5 main nucleobases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at... Uracil is a pyrimidine which is common and naturally occurring. ... 5-methylcytosine is the methylated form of cytosine. ...

When the bisulfite-treated DNA is amplified via polymerase chain reaction, the uracil is amplified as thymine and the methylated cytosines are amplified as cytosine. DNA sequencing techniques are then used to read the sequence of the bisulfite-treated DNA. Those cytosines that are read as cytosines after sequencing represent methylated cytosines, while those that are read as thymines represent unmethylated cytosines in the genomic DNA. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1827-31.) PCR tubes in a stand after a colony PCR The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biochemistry and molecular biology technique[1] for exponentially amplifying DNA, via enzymatic replication, without using a living organism (such as E. coli or yeast). ... The term DNA sequencing encompasses biochemical methods for determining the order of the nucleotide bases, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, in a DNA oligonucleotide. ...

External links

  Results from FactBites:
567. Sulfur dioxide and sulfites (WHO Food Additives Series 18) (7945 words)
Sodium bisulfite was not mutagenic in the host-mediated assay in mice, the dominant lethal assay in rats, or the in vivo cytogenic assay in rats at doses up to 150 mg/kg; it showed no mutagenic activity on human tissue culture cells in vitro at levels up to 200 µg/ml (Anon., 1972b).
For sodium bisulfite (Anon., 1972a) the doses in mg/kg bw in mice, rats and hamsters were up to 150, 110 and 120 respectively; for sodium metabisulfite (Anon., 1972a) in mice, rats and hamsters up to 160, 110 and 120 respectively; for potassium metabisulfite (Anon., 1975a) in mice and rats up to 125 and 155 respectively.
Sodium bisulfite was given to two dogs by the same method and for the same length of time as in the preceding experiment in daily doses of 1.08-2.51 g.
Treatment of arthritis with bisulfite - Patent 4462988 (2195 words)
Sodium bisulfite (usually shown by formula to be NaHSO.sub.3) has heretofore been used for many commercial purposes, such as a preservative for prevention of the deterioration of liquids, such as food stuffs and pharmaceutical solids and solutions, and has been used medically externally for parasitic skin diseases and internally as a gastrointestinal antiseptic.
The sodium bisulfite of commerce consists chiefly of sodium metabisulfite, Na.sub.2 S.sub.2 O.sub.5, and for purposes of this invention such is believed to possess the same properties as (and to be equivalent to) the true sodium bisulfite when dissolved in an aqueous solution.
It has now been discovered that sodium bisulfite is useful in low doses and over extended periods in the treatment of the symptoms of arthritis and arthritic conditions when administered to humans in an aqueous dilute solution.
  More results at FactBites »



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