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Encyclopedia > Sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate
IUPAC name sodium hydrogencarbonate
Other names Sodium bicarbonate; bicarbonate of soda; baking soda
Identifiers
CAS number 144-55-8
RTECS number VZ0950000
Properties
Molecular formula NaHCO3
Molar mass 84.007 g/mol
Appearance White crystalline solid.
Density 2.159 g/cm3, solid.
Melting point

Decomposes Image File history File links SodiumBicarbonate. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Solubility in water 7.8g/100ml water at 18 °C
Acidity (pKa) 6.3
Refractive index (nD) 1.500
Hazards
Main hazards Irritant, esp. to respiratory system
NFPA 704

Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The acid dissociation constant (Ka), also known as the acidity constant or the acid-ionization constant, is a specific equilibrium constant for the reaction of an acid with its conjugate base in aqueous solution [1]. // When an acid dissolves in water, it partly dissociates forming hydronium ions and its conjugate... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ...

0
1
0
 
Flash point Non-flammable.
Related Compounds
Other anions Sodium carbonate; carbonic acid
Related compounds Sodium hydrogen sulphate; sodium hydrogen phosphate
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Sodium bicarbonate is the chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. Because it has long been known and is widely used, the salt has many other names including sodium hydrogencarbonate, sodium bicarb, baking soda, bread soda, cooking soda, bicarb soda, saleratus or bicarbonate of soda. It is soluble in water. Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slight alkaline taste resembling that of sodium carbonate. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs. The natural mineral form is known as nahcolite. It is also produced artificially. For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3. ... Sodium bisulfate, also sodium hydrogen sulfate, has the chemical formula NaHSO4. ... Disodium hydrogen phosphate (Na2HPO4) is a white powder that is highly hygroscopic and water soluble salt. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... A magnified crystal of salt In chemistry, salt is a term used for ionic compounds composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Natron is a white, crystalline hygroscopic mineral salt, primarily a mixture of sodium bicarbonate (common baking soda) and sodium carbonate (soda ash) with small amounts of sodium chloride (table salt) and sodium sulfate. ... Mineral water is water containing minerals or other dissolved substances that alter its taste or give it therapeutic value. ...

Contents

Production

Main article: Solvay process

NaHCO3 is mainly prepared by the Solvay process, which entails the reaction of sodium chloride, ammonia, and carbon dioxide in water. It is produced on the scale of about 100,000 ton/year (year: 2001).[1] Chemistry The Solvay process calcium carbonate: CaCO3 → CO2 + CaO The solid sodium bicarbonate is then filtered out and converted to sodium carbonate by heating it, recovering some carbon dioxide in the process: 2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2 Meanwhile, ammonia is recovered from the ammonium chloride byproduct by treating the ammonium... Chemistry The Solvay process calcium carbonate: CaCO3 → CO2 + CaO The solid sodium bicarbonate is then filtered out and converted to sodium carbonate by heating it, recovering some carbon dioxide in the process: 2 NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2 Meanwhile, ammonia is recovered from the ammonium chloride byproduct by treating the ammonium... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


Commercial quantities of baking soda are also produced by this method: soda ash, mined in the form of the ore trona, is dissolved in water and treated with carbon dioxide. Sodium bicarbonate precipitates as a solid from this method: Trona, hydrated sodium bicarbonate carbonate (Na3HCO3CO3·2H2O), is an evaporite mineral. ...

Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2 NaHCO3

Chemistry

Acid-base reactions

NaHCO3 is a salt which consists of the ions Na+ and the bicarbonate anion, HCO3-. It has a pKa of 6.3 in water which causes aqueous solutions to be mildly alkaline: An anion is an ion with negative charge. ... The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ...

HCO3- + H2O ⇋ H2CO3 + OH-

Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ...

Reaction of sodium hydroxide with carbon dioxide

NaHCO3 may be obtained by the reaction of carbon dioxide with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide : Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ...


The initial reaction produces sodium carbonate:

CO2 + 2NaOH → Na2CO3 + H2O

Further addition of carbon dioxide produces sodium bicarbonate, which at sufficiently high concentration will precipitate out of solution: Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...

Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O → 2NaHCO3

Decomposition

Treatment of sodium bicarbonate with acids, releases carbon dioxide and water: For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...

NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2O + CO2 (gas)
NaHCO3 + CH3COOHCH3CO2Na + H2O + CO2 (gas)

For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3COOH best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ... Sodium acetate, (also rarely, sodium ethanoate) is the sodium salt of acetic acid. ...

Thermal decomposition

Above 60 °C, it gradually decomposes into sodium carbonate, water and carbon dioxide. The conversion is fast at 200 °C: Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...

2NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2

Most bicarbonates undergo this dehydration reaction. Further heating converts the carbonate into the oxide: In chemistry, a dehydration reaction is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule. ...

Na2CO3Na2O + CO2

These conversions are relevant to the use of NaHCO3 as a fire-suppression agent ("BC powder") in some dry powder fire extinguishers. Sodium oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Na2O. It is used in ceramics and glasses. ... Fire extinguisher A fire extinguisher is a device used to put out a fire, often in an emergency situation. ...


History

The word saleratus, from Latin sal æratus meaning "aerated salt", was widely used in the 19th century for both sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate. The term has now fallen out of common usage. Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Potassium bicarbonate (also known as potassium hydrogen carbonate or potassium acid carbonate), is a colorless, odorless, slightly basic, salty substance. ...


Applications

Cooking

Main article: leavening agent

Sodium bicarbonate is primarily used in cooking (baking) where it reacts with other components to release carbon dioxide, that helps dough "rise." The acidic compounds that induce this reaction include cream of tartar, lemon juice, yogurt, etc. Some forms of baking powder contain sodium bicarbonate combined with cream of tartar. A leavening agent (sometimes called just leavening or leaven) is a substance used in doughs and batters that causes a foaming action. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Baking Baking is the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by conduction, and not by radiation, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. ... Dough Dough is a paste made out of any cereals (grains) or leguminous crops by grinding with small amount of water. ... Cream of tartar is the potassium salt of tartaric acid, KHC4H4O6. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... Baking powder Baking Powder is a dry chemical leavening agent used in baking and deodorizing. ...

  • A small amount can be added to a beef stew to make tough meat tenderize faster.
  • It is used by the Chinese to make meat tender for stir fries. Use 1/2 teaspoon for 500g meat and marinate for 30 minutes.
  • Was formerly used as a source of carbon dioxide for soda water.
  • Can be used when preparing tomato sauce to neutralize the tomato's acidity.
  • It is added to beans in water to prevent flatulence produced by digesting them.
  • It is effective in extinguishing grease fires which may occur when deep frying.
  • In Thailand, soaking insects in baking soda for three to five hours prior to cooking produces a sweeter, more mushroom-like taste in the finished cuisine.[citation needed]

Bubbles in carbonated water float to the surface. ... Flatulence (expelled through the anus in a process commonly known as farting or emitting gas) is the presence of a mixture of gases known as flatus in the digestive tract of mammals. ...

For neutralization of acids

The reaction of acids with sodium bicarbonate is a common method for neutralizing acid spills. The advantage to this method is that one can use excess sodium carbonate, which is relatively innocuous. The neutralization process is signaled by the release of gaseous CO2. A wide variety of applications follow from its neutralization properties including ameliorating the effects of white phosphorus in incendiary bullets, from spreading inside a soldier's afflicted wounds. Military Application This article is about the chemical element. ...

  • It is commonly used to increase the pH and total alkalinity of the water for pools and spas. Sodium bicarbonate can be added as a simple solution for restoring the pH balance of water that has a high level of chlorine.
  • It is sometimes used in septic tanks to control pH and bacteria.
  • It neutralizes acids, i.e. sulfuric acid (H2SO4):
2 NaHCO3 + H2SO4 ––> Na2SO4 + 2 H2O + 2 CO2

For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ...

Miscellaneous and domestic uses

Baking soda has many uses. [1]


As a deodorizer

  • An absorbent for moisture and odors e.g; an open box can be left in a refrigerator for this purpose. However, according to one source, baking soda does not actually absorb odors well when used in a refrigerator.
  • To help relieve itching due to bacterial infections

Dew on a spider web Moldy bread Moisture generally refers to the presence of water, often in trace amounts. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor or odour (see spelling differences) is a chemical dissolved in air, generally at a very low concentration, which we perceive by the sense of olfaction. ... “Freezer” redirects here. ...

Medical uses

  • It is used as an antacid to treat acid indigestion and heartburn.
  • Mixed with water and drunk, it can relieve cystitis.
  • Mixed with water in a 10% solution can soften earwax for removal.
  • In paramedicine, sodium bicarbonate 7.9% is administered intravenously for cases of acidosis and overdoses of acidic toxic substances, such as tricyclic antidepressants and aspirin.
  • Adverse reactions to emergency administration include congestive heart failure, with edema secondary to sodium overload, and the metabolic complication of hyperosmolarity, metabolic acidosis, and hypernatremia.
  • Aids in itch relief from poison ivy rashes.
  • Added to a bath or made into a paste it can be used to relieve the itching caused by chicken pox.
  • For local injections of anesthetics subdermally or subcutaneously, it may be added to lessen the burning sensation of the anesthetic to the patient. For example. 9 milliliters of lidocaine mixed with 1 milliliter of sodium bicarb in a 10 cc syringe will greatly lessen the feeling of burning, pressure and overall pain from the injection.
  • Relieves mosquito bites and bee stings (but not wasp stings).

A bottle of antacid tablets An antacid is any substance, generally a base, which counteracts stomach acidity. ... Acid indigestion is a type of indigestion involving an excess of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. ... Wet-type human earwax on a cotton swab. ... The Star of Life, a globally recognised symbol for emergency medical services A paramedic is a medical professional, usually a member of the emergency medical service, who responds to medical and trauma emergencies in the pre-hospital environment, provides emergency treatment and, when appropriate, transports a patient to definitive care... For other uses, see Mosquito (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bee sting (disambiguation). ...

Cosmetic uses

  • It is marketed as a whitener because of its abrasive properties in some toothpaste brands.

As a cleaning agent

  • A paste from baking soda can be very effective when used in cleaning and scrubbing.
  • A solution in warm water will remove the tarnish from silver when the silver is in contact with a piece of aluminum foil[2].
  • With water, it cleans the impurities on contact lenses. Rinse completely before wearing contacts to avoid stinging residue.
  • Cleans brushes and combs to prevent residues.
  • Use to clean juice, wine, and coffee stains.
  • Pouring 1 cup of baking soda down a drain and following with 1/2 gallon of vinegar will degrease the drain.

Tarnish is a layer of corrosion that develops over copper, brass, silver, aluminum as well as a degree of semi-reactive metals as they undergo oxidation. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Aluminium foil (aluminum foil in North American English) is aluminium prepared in thin sheets (on the order of . ...

Other uses

  • It is used as a fabric softener in laundry.
  • It is used to test garden soil for acidity. If it bubbles, the soil is too acidic.
  • Sodium bicarbonate has been used as a performance enhancer for sprinters, by countering build up of lactate through induced metabolic alkalosis.[citation needed]
  • If mixed with super glue, it makes a suitable filling for cracks in walls.
  • Baking soda can be used as a low-cost alternative to raise pH in swimming pools.[3]
  • Combined with cocaine to make crack cocaine.
  • As a desiccant, sprinkle on wet pages of books and then put them out to dry under the sun.
  • Sodium bicarbonate is used in BC Dry Chemical fire extinguishers as an alternative to the corrosive ammonium phosphate in ABC extinguishers. The alkali nature of Sodium Bicarbonate makes it the only dry powder, excluding Purple-K, agent allowed for use on commercial deep fat fryers, the agent forms a crust over the surface similar to the effects of a wet chemical.
  • Sodium bicarbonate is often used in the pharmaceutical industry as an additive to cell culture media. It acts as a weak buffer.
  • It is also used in a process for cleaning paint called sodablasting.

Sprints are short running races in athletics. ... Metabolic alkalosis results from altered metabolism. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Cocaine is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... A pile of crack cocaine ‘rocks’. Crack cocaine is a highly addictive form of cocaine. ... Purple-K is a dry chemical fire suppression agent used in some dry powder fire extinguishers. ... // Is a non-destructive method for many applications in cleaning, paint stripping, automotive restoration, industrial equipment maintenance, rust removal, molecular steel pacification against rust, oil removal by saponification and translocation, masonry cleaning and restoration, soot remediation , boat hull cleaning, food processing facilities and equipment. ...

Safety

Sodium bicarbonate is considered to be relatively safe, however consumption of large amounts should be avoided. See MSDS. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


References

  1. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. "Inorganic Chemistry" Academic Press: San Diego, 2001. ISBN 0-12-352651-5.

Further reading

  1. Bishop, D., J. Edge, C. Davis, and C. Goodman. Induced Metabolic Alkalosis Affects Muscle Metabolism and Muscle Metabolism and Repeated-Sprint Ability. Medicine and Science in Sports Exercise, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 807-813, 2004.

See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on

Baking powder Baking Powder is a dry chemical leavening agent used in baking and deodorizing. ... Natron is a white, crystalline hygroscopic mineral salt, primarily a mixture of sodium bicarbonate (common baking soda) and sodium carbonate (soda ash) with small amounts of sodium chloride (table salt) and sodium sulfate. ... Gem animals. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sodium Bicarbonate Official FDA information, side effects and uses. (2003 words)
Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP is indicated in the treatment of metabolic acidosis which may occur in severe renal disease, uncontrolled diabetes, circulatory insufficiency due to shock or severe dehydration, extracorporeal circulation of blood, cardiac arrest and severe primary lactic acidosis.
Sodium bicarbonate is further indicated in the treatment of certain drug intoxications, including barbiturates (where dissociation of the barbiturate-protein complex is desired), in poisoning by salicylates or methyl alcohol and in hemolytic reactions requiring alkalinization of the urine to diminish nephrotoxicity of hemoglobin and its breakdown products.
Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP is contraindicated in patients who are losing chloride by vomiting or from continuous gastrointestinal suction, and in patients receiving diuretics known to produce a hypochloremic alkalosis.
sodium bicarbonate – FREE sodium bicarbonate Information | Encyclopedia.com: Facts, Pictures, Information! (915 words)
Because the bicarbonate is less soluble than the carbonate, carbon dioxide gas is bubbled into a saturated solution of pure carbonate, and the bicarbonate precipitates out to be collected and dried.
Poisoning: sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate: Nicola Bates discusses the clinical effects and management of salt and sodium bicarbonate overdose in adults and children.
Development and characterization of an inorganic foam obtained by using sodium bicarbonate as a gas generator.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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