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Encyclopedia > Sodium
 11 neon ← sodium → magnesium Li ↑ Na ↓ K
General
Name, symbol, number sodium, Na, 11
Chemical series alkali metals
Group, period, block 13, s
Appearance silvery white
Standard atomic weight 22.98976928(2) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 1
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 0.968 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 0.927 g·cm−3
Melting point 370.87 K
(97.72 °C, 207.9 °F)
Boiling point 1156 K
(883 °C, 1621 °F)
Critical point (extrapolated)
2573 K, 35 MPa
Heat of fusion 2.60 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 97.42 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 28.230 J·mol−1·K−1
 P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k at T/K 554 617 697 802 946 1153
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic body centered
Oxidation states 1
(strongly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 0.93 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 495.8 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 4562 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 6910.3 kJ·mol−1
Van der Waals radius 227 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering paramagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 47.7 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 142 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 71 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 3200 m/s
Young's modulus 10 GPa
Shear modulus 3.3 GPa
Bulk modulus 6.3 GPa
Mohs hardness 0.5
Brinell hardness 0.69 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-23-5
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of sodium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
22Na syn 2.602 y β+γ 0.5454 22Ne*
1.27453(2)[1] 22Ne
εγ - 22Ne*
1.27453(2) 22Ne
β+ 1.8200 22Ne
23Na 100% 23Na is stable with 12 neutrons
References
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At room temperature, sodium metal is so soft that it can be easily cut with a knife. In air, the bright silvery luster of freshly exposed sodium will rapidly tarnish. The density of alkali metals generally increases with increasing atomic number, but sodium is denser than potassium. See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ...

### Chemical properties

Compared with other alkali metals, sodium is generally less reactive than potassium and more reactive than lithium,[2] in accordance with "periodic law": for example, their reaction in water, chlorine gas, etc.; the reactivity of their nitrates, chlorates, perchlorates, etc. This article is about the chemical element. ... In the beginning People have known about basic chemical elements such as gold, silver, and copper from antiquity, as these can all be discovered in nature in native form and are relatively simple to mine with primitive tools. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... The chlorate ion Structure and bonding in the chlorate ion The chlorate ion ClO3âˆ’. A chlorate (compound) is a compound that contains this group, with chlorine in oxidation state +5. ... Perchlorates are the salts derived from perchloric acid (HClO4). ...

In chemistry, most sodium compounds are considered soluble but nature provides examples of many insoluble sodium compounds such as the feldspars. There are other insoluble sodium salts such as sodium bismuthate NaBiO3, sodium octamolybdate Na2Mo8O25• 4H2O, sodium thioplatinate Na4Pt3S6, sodium uranate Na2UO4. Sodium meta-antimonate's 2NaSbO3•7H2O solubility is 0.3g/L as is the pyro form Na2H2Sb2O7• H2O of this salt. Sodium metaphosphate NaPO3 has a soluble and an insoluble form.[3]

### Isotopes

Main article: Isotopes of sodium

There are thirteen isotopes of sodium that have been recognized. The only stable isotope is 23Na[4]. Sodium has two radioactive cosmogenic isotopes (22Na, half-life = 2.605 years; and 24Na, half-life ≈ 15 hours). There are thirteen isotopes of sodium that have been recognized. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Cosmogenic refers to rare radioactive isotopes created when cosmic radiation interacts with an atomic nucleus. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ...

Acute neutron radiation exposure (e.g., from a nuclear criticality accident) converts some of the stable 23Na in human blood plasma to 24Na. By measuring the concentration of this isotope, the neutron radiation dosage to the victim can be computed. A criticality accident (also sometimes referred to as an excursion or power excursion) occurs when a nuclear chain reaction is accidentally allowed to occur in fissile material, such as enriched uranium or plutonium. ...

### Atomic spectral lines

Sodium spectral lines.
A FASOR tuned to the D2A component of the sodium D line, used at the Starfire Optical Range to excite sodium atoms in the upper atmosphere.

One notable atomic spectral line of sodium vapor is the so-called D-line, which may be observed directly as the sodium flame-test line (see Applications) and also the major light output of low-pressure sodium lamps (these produce an unnatural yellow, rather than the peach-colored glow of high pressure lamps). The D-line is one of the classified Fraunhofer lines observed in the visible spectrum of the sun's electromagnetic radiation. Sodium vapor in the upper layers of the sun creates a dark line in the emitted spectrum of electromagnetic radiation by absorbing visible light in a band of wavelengths around 589.5 nm. This wavelength corresponds to transitions in atomic sodium in which the valence-electron transitions from a 3p to 3s electronic state. Closer examination of the visible spectrum of atomic sodium reveals that the D-line actually consists of two lines called the D1 and D2 lines at 589.6 nm and 589.0 nm, respectively. This fine structure results from a spin-orbit interaction of the valence electron in the 3p electronic state. The spin-orbit interaction couples the spin angular momentum and orbital angular momentum of a 3p electron to form two states that are respectively notated as $3p(^2P^o_{1/2})$ and $3p(^2P^o_{3/2})$ in the LS coupling scheme. The 3s state of the electron gives rise to a single state which is notated as 3s(2S1 / 2) in the LS coupling scheme. The D1-line results from an electronic transition between 3s(2S1 / 2) lower state and $3p(^2P^o_{1/2})$ upper state. The D2-line results from an electronic transition between 3s(2S1 / 2) lower state and $3p(^2P^o_{3/2})$ upper state. Even closer examination of the visible spectrum of atomic sodium would reveal that the D-line actually consists of a lot more than two lines. These lines are associated with hyperfine structure of the 3p upper states and 3s lower states. Many different transitions involving visible light near 589.5 nm may occur between the different upper and lower hyperfine levels.[5][6] In physics, atomic spectral lines are of two types: An emission line is formed when an electron makes a transition from a particular discrete energy level of an atom, to a lower energy state, emitting a photon of a particular energy and wavelength. ... A sodium vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp which uses sodium in an excited state to produce light. ... A sodium vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp which uses sodium in an excited state to produce light. ... Solar Fraunhofer lines In physics and optics, the Fraunhofer lines are a set of spectral lines named for the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787--1826). ... This box:      Electromagnetic (EM) radiation is a self-propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. ... Electronic state is a quantum state of a system consisting of electrons (usually orbitals or chemical bonds in crystals or molecules). ... In atomic physics, the fine structure describes the splitting of the spectral lines of atoms. ... Spin-orbit interaction, in quantum mechanics, is a shift in energy levels due to the potential energy of the spin magnetic moment of the electron in the magnetic field it feels as it moves through the electric field of the nucleus. ... Electronic state is a quantum state of a system consisting of electrons (usually orbitals or chemical bonds in crystals or molecules). ... In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is generated by the motion of its center of mass about an external point. ... The Azimuthal quantum number (or orbital angular momentum quantum number) l is a quantum number for an atomic orbital which determines its orbital angular momentum. ... ... In atomic physics, hyperfine structure is a small perturbation in the energy levels (or spectra) of atoms or molecules due to the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, arising from the interaction of the nuclear magnetic dipole with the magnetic field of the electron. ...

### Phase behavior under pressure

Under extreme pressure, sodium departs from common melting behavior. Most materials require higher temperatures to melt under pressure than they do at normal atmospheric pressure. This is because they expand on melting due to looser molecular packing in the liquid, and thus pressure forces equilibrium in the direction of the denser solid phase.

At a pressure of 30 gigapascals (300,000 times sea level atmospheric pressure), the melting temperature of sodium begins to drop. At around 100 gigapascals, sodium will melt at near room temperature. A possible explanation for the aberrant behavior of sodium is that this element has one free electron that is pushed closer to the other 10 electrons when placed under pressure, forcing interactions that are not normally present. While under pressure, solid sodium assumes several odd crystal structures suggesting that the liquid might have unusual properties such as superconduction or superfluidity.[7] The gigapascal, symbol GPa is an SI unit of pressure. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor, cooled with liquid nitrogen. ... Helium II will creep along surfaces in order to find its own level - after a short while, the levels in the two containers will equalize. ...

### Occurrence

Owing to its high reactivity, sodium is found in nature only as a compound and never as the free element.

## Biological role

### Physiology and sodium ions

Main article: action potential

Sodium ions are necessary for regulation of blood and body fluids, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and certain metabolic functions. Interestingly, although sodium is needed by animals, which maintain high concentrations in their blood and extracellular fluids, the ion is not needed by plants, and is generally phytotoxic. A completely plant-based diet, therefore, will be very low in sodium. This requires some herbivores to obtain their sodium from salt licks and other mineral sources. The animal need for sodium is probably the reason for the highly-conserved ability to taste the sodium ion as "salty." Receptors for the pure salty taste respond best to sodium, otherwise only to a few other small monovalent cations (Li+, NH4+, and somewhat to K+). Calcium ion (Ca2+) also tastes salty and sometimes bitter to some people but like potassium, can trigger other tastes. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ... A salt lick is a salt deposit that animals regularly lick. ... Taste (or, more formally, gustation) is a form of direct chemoreception and is one of the traditional five senses. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ...

Sodium ions play a diverse and important role in many physiological processes. Excitable animal cells, for example, rely on the entry of Na+ to cause a depolarization. An example of this is signal transduction in the human central nervous system, which depends on sodium ion motion across the nerve cell membrane, in all nerves. In biology, depolarization is the event a cell undergoes when its membrane potential grows more positive with respect to the extracellular solution. ... In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ...

Some potent neurotoxins, such as batrachotoxin, increase the sodium ion permeability of the cell membranes in nerves and muscles, causing a massive and irreversible depolarization of the membranes, with potentially fatal consequences. However, drugs with smaller effects on sodium ion motion in nerves may have diverse pharmacological effects which range from anti-depressant to anti-seizure actions. A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells â€“ neurons â€“ usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ion channels. ... Batrachotoxins are extremely potent cardiotoxic and neurotoxic steroidal alkaloids found in certain species of frogs (poison dart frog), Melyridae beetles and birds (Pitohui, Ifrita kowaldi). ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane, plasmalemma or phospholipid bilayer) is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer found in all cells. ... In biology, depolarization is the event a cell undergoes when its membrane potential grows more positive with respect to the extracellular solution. ...

Sodium is the primary cation (positive ion) in extracellular fluids in animals and humans. These fluids, such as blood plasma and extracellular fluids in other tissues, bathe cells and carry out transport functions for nutrients and wastes. Sodium is also the principal cation in seawater, although the concentration there is about 3.8 times what it is normally in extracellular body fluids. The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... Hypernatremia is an electrolyte disturbance consisting of an elevated sodium level in the blood (compare to hyponatremia, meaning a low sodium level). ... This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as vasopressin, argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone found in most mammals, including humans. ... A cation is an ion with positive charge. ...

Although the system for maintaining optimal salt and water balance in the body is a complex one, one of the primary ways in which the human body keeps track of loss of body water is that osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus sense a balance of sodium and water concentration in extracellular fluids. Relative loss of body water will cause sodium concentration to rise higher than normal, a condition known as hypernatremia. This ordinarily results in thirst. Conversely, an excess of body water caused by drinking will result in too little sodium in the blood (hyponatremia), a condition which is again sensed by the hypothalamus, causing a decrease in vasopressin hormone secretion from the posterior pituitary, and a consequent loss of water in the urine, which acts to restore blood sodium concentrations to normal. An osmoreceptor is a sensory receptor primarily found in the hypothalamus of most homeothermic organisms that detects changes in osmotic pressure. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... Hypernatremia is an electrolyte disturbance consisting of an elevated sodium level in the blood (compare to hyponatremia, meaning a low sodium level). ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as vasopressin, argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone found in most mammals, including humans. ... The posterior pituitary (also called the neurohypophysis) comprises the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is part of the endocrine system. ...

Severely dehydrated persons, such as people rescued from ocean or desert survival situations, usually have very high blood sodium concentrations. These must be very carefully and slowly returned to normal, since too-rapid correction of hypernatremia may result in brain damage from cellular swelling, as water moves suddenly into cells with high osmolar content. In chemistry, the osmole (Osm) is a non-SI unit of measurement that defines the number of moles of a chemical compound that contribute to a solutions osmotic pressure. ...

Because the hypothalamus/osmoreceptor system ordinarily works well to cause drinking or urination to restore the body's sodium concentrations to normal, this system can be used in medical treatment to regulate the body's total fluid content, by first controlling the body's sodium content. Thus, when a powerful diuretic drug is given which causes the kidneys to excrete sodium, the effect is accompanied by an excretion of body water (water loss accompanies sodium loss). This happens because the kidney is unable to efficiently retain water while excreting large amounts of sodium. In addition, after sodium excretion, the osmoreceptor system may sense lowered sodium concentration in the blood and then direct compensatory urinary water loss in order to correct the hyponatremic (low blood sodium) state. The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ... An osmoreceptor is a sensory receptor primarily found in the hypothalamus of most homeothermic organisms that detects changes in osmotic pressure. ... This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do. ... An osmoreceptor is a sensory receptor primarily found in the hypothalamus of most homeothermic organisms that detects changes in osmotic pressure. ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia or hyponatraemia exists in humans when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ...

In humans, a high-salt intake was demonstrated to attenuate nitric oxide production. Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to vessel homeostasis by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle contraction and growth, platelet aggregation, and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium [9] R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of...

## Dietary uses

The most common sodium salt, sodium chloride (table salt), is used for seasoning (for example the English word "salad" refers to salt) and warm-climate food preservation, such as pickling and making jerky (the high osmotic content of salt inhibits bacterial and fungal growth). The human requirement for sodium in the diet is about 500 mg per day,[10] which is typically less than a tenth as much as many diets "seasoned to taste." Most people consume far more sodium than is physiologically needed. For certain people with salt-sensitive blood pressure, this extra intake may cause a negative effect on health. Edible salt is a mineral, one of the few rocks people eat. ... For other uses, see Pickle. ... Hong Kong style unpackaged jerky Jerky is meat that has been cut into strips trimmed of fat, marinated in a spicy, salty or sweet liquid, and then dried with low heat (usually under 70Â°C/160Â°F) or occasionally salted and sun-dried. ...

## Applications

A low pressure sodium lamp, glowing with the light of sodium D spectral lines.

Sodium in its metallic form can be used to refine some reactive metals, such as zirconium and potassium, from their compounds. This alkali metal as the Na+ ion is vital to animal life. Other uses: Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Na-lamp-3. ... Image File history File links Na-lamp-3. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ...

• In certain alloys to improve their structure.
• In soap, in combination with fatty acids. Sodium soaps are harder (higher melting) soaps than potassium soaps.
• To descale metal (make its surface smooth).
• To purify molten metals.

An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with fats. ... A low pressure sodium/sodium oxide (LPS/SOX) streetlamp at full power A low pressure sodium/sodium oxide (LPS/SOX) streetlamp at full power (detail) A sodium vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp which uses sodium in an excited state to produce light. ... Solar Fraunhofer lines In physics and optics, the Fraunhofer lines are a set of spectral lines named for the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787--1826). ... A coolant, or heat transfer fluid, is a fluid which flows through a device in order to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that utilize or dissipate it. ... Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ... // These water valves are operated by handles. ... A colorized automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with formula NaCl. ... The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine picks up one electron to form an anion (negatively-charged ion) Clâˆ’. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. ... In thermal physics, heat transfer is the passage of thermal energy from a hot to a colder body. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... The Birch reduction is the organic reduction of aromatic rings by sodium in liquid ammonia invented by Arthur Birch. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... NaK (often pronounced as such, rhyming with sack) is an alloy of sodium and potassium, and particularly one that is liquid at room temperatures. ... Benzophenone, also known as diphenylmethanone, phenyl ketone, diphenyl ketone, or benzoylbenzene. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...

## Commercial production

Sodium was first produced commercially in 1855 by thermal reduction of sodium carbonate with carbon at 1100 °C, in what is known as the Deville process.[11] A process based on the reduction of sodium hydroxide was developed in 1886.[11] Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ...

Na2CO3 (liquid) + 2 C (solid) → 2 Na (vapor) + 3 CO (gas).

It is now produced commercially through the electrolysis of liquid sodium chloride, based on a process patented in 1924.[12][13] This is done in a Downs Cell in which the NaCl is mixed with calcium chloride to lower the melting point below 700 °C. As calcium is less electropositive than sodium, no calcium will be formed at the anode. This method is less expensive than the previous Castner process of electrolyzing sodium hydroxide. In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... The Downs process is a method for the commercial preparation of metallic sodium, in which molten NaCl is electrolyzed in a special apparatus called the Downs cell. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , Related Compounds Other anions calcium fluoride calcium bromide calcium iodide Other cations magnesium chloride strontium chloride Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, Îµr, etc. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... An electropositive atom, or element, is one that easily loses electrons. ... The Castner process is a process for manufacturing sodium metal. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ...

Very pure sodium can be isolated by the thermal decomposition of sodium azide.[14] Sodium azide (NaN3) is a highly toxic chemical that exists as an odorless white solid. ...

Metallic sodium costs about 15 to 20 US cents per pound (US\$0.30/kg to US\$0.45/kg) in 1997 but reagent grade (ACS) sodium cost about US\$35 per pound (US\$75/kg) in 1990. Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... This article is about the year. ...

## History

The flame test for sodium displays a brilliantly bright yellow emission due to the so called "sodium D-lines" at 588.9950 and 589.5924 nanometers.

Salt has been an important commodity in human activities, as testified by the English word salary, referring to salarium, the wafers of salt sometimes given to Roman soldiers along with their other wages. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x2500, 249 KB) Gas flame used for flame test of sodiumcarbonate. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x2500, 249 KB) Gas flame used for flame test of sodiumcarbonate. ... The flame test carried out on a copper halide. ...

Sodium (sometimes called "soda" in English) has long been recognized in compounds, but was not isolated until 1807 by Sir Humphry Davy through the electrolysis of caustic soda. In medieval Europe a compound of sodium with the Latin name of sodanum was used as a headache remedy. The name sodium probably originates from the Arabic word suda meaning headache as the headache curing properties of sodium carbonate or soda were well known in early times.[15] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet FRS (17 December 1778 â€“ 29 May 1829) was a British chemist and physicist. ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as caustic soda or lye in North America, is a caustic metallic base used in industry (mostly as a strong chemical base) in the manufacture of paper, textiles, and detergents. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ...

Sodium's chemical abbreviation Na was first published by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in his system of atomic symbols (Thomas Thomson's Annals of Philosophy[16]) and is a contraction of the element's new Latin name natrium which refers to the Egyptian natron[17] word for a natural mineral salt whose primary ingredient is hydrated sodium carbonate. Which historically had several important industrial and household uses later eclipsed by soda ash, baking soda and other sodium compounds. Friherre JÃ¶ns Jakob Berzelius (August 20, 1779 â€“ August 7, 1848) was a Swedish chemist. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Natron is a white, crystalline hygroscopic mineral salt, primarily a mixture of sodium bicarbonate (common baking soda) and sodium carbonate (soda ash) with small amounts of sodium chloride (table salt) and sodium sulfate. ... Sodium carbonate or soda ash, Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or sodium hydrogen carbonate, also known as baking soda and bicarbonate of soda, is a soluble white anhydrous or crystalline compound, with a slight alkaline taste resembling that of sodium carbonate. ...

Sodium imparts an intense yellow color to flames. As early as 1860, Kirchhoff and Bunsen noted the high sensitivity that a flame test for sodium could give. They state in Annalen der Physik und der Chemie in the paper "Chemical Analysis by Observation of Spectra": Kirchhoff redirects here. ... Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (31 March 1811 â€“ 16 August 1899) was a German chemist. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ...

In a corner of our 60 cu.m. room farthest away from the apparatus, we exploded 3 mg. of sodium chlorate with milk sugar while observing the nonluminous flame before the slit. After a while, it glowed a bright yellow and showed a strong sodium line that disappeared only after 10 minutes. From the weight of the sodium salt and the volume of air in the room, we easily calculate that one part by weight of air could not contain more than 1/20 millionth weight of sodium.

## Precautions

Extreme care is required in handling elemental/metallic sodium. Sodium is potentially explosive in water (depending on quantity) and is a caustic poison, since it is rapidly converted to sodium hydroxide on contact with moisture. The powdered form may combust spontaneously in air or oxygen. Sodium must be stored either in an inert (oxygen and moisture free) atmosphere (such as nitrogen or argon), or under a liquid hydrocarbon such as mineral oil or kerosene. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... Mineral oil or liquid petrolatum is a by-product in the distillation of petroleum to produce gasoline. ... For other uses, see Kerosene (disambiguation). ...

Sodium is much more reactive than magnesium; a reactivity which can be further enhanced due to sodium's much lower melting point. When sodium catches fire in air (as opposed to just the hydrogen gas generated from water by means of its reaction with sodium) it more easily produces temperatures high enough to melt the sodium, exposing more of its surface to the air and spreading the fire. General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Reactivity refers to the rate at which a chemical substance tends to undergo a chemical reaction in time. ...

Few common fire extinguishers work on sodium fires. Water, of course, exacerbates sodium fires, as do water-based foams. CO2 and Halon are often ineffective on sodium fires, which reignite when the extinguisher dissipates. Among the very few materials effective on a sodium fire are Pyromet and Met-L-X. Pyromet is a NaCl/(NH4)2HPO4 mix, with flow/anti-clump agents. It smothers the fire, drains away heat, and melts to form an impermeable crust. This is the standard dry-powder canister fire extinguisher for all classes of fires. Met-L-X is mostly sodium chloride, NaCl, with approximately 5% Saran plastic as a crust-former, and flow/anti-clumping agents. It is most commonly hand-applied, with a scoop. Other extreme fire extinguishing materials include Lith+, a graphite based dry powder with an organophosphate flame retardant; and Na+, a Na2CO3-based material. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Halon 1211 is a trade name for Bromochlorodifluoromethane, it is also known as BCF,Halon 1211 BCF, or Freon 12B1. ... Saran is the trade name for a number of polymers made from vinylidene chloride (especially polyvinylidene chloride or PVDC), along with other monomers. ...

Because of the reaction scale problems discussed above, disposing of large quantities of sodium (more than 10 to 100 grams) must be done through a licensed hazardous materials disposer. Smaller quantities may be broken up and neutralized carefully with ethanol (which has a much slower reaction than water), or even methanol (where the reaction is more rapid than ethanol's but still less than in water), but care should nevertheless be taken, as the caustic products from the ethanol or methanol reaction are just as hazardous to eyes and skin as those from water. After the alcohol reaction appears complete, and all pieces of reaction debris have been broken up or dissolved, a mixture of alcohol and water, then pure water, may then be carefully used for a final cleaning. This should be allowed to stand a few minutes until the reaction products are diluted more thoroughly and flushed down the drain. The purpose of the final water soak and wash of any reaction mass which may contain sodium is to ensure that alcohol does not carry unreacted sodium into the sink trap, where a water reaction may generate hydrogen in the trap space which can then be potentially ignited, causing a confined sink trap explosion. Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ...

• Sodium compounds
• Alkali metals

## References

1. ^ Endt, P. M. ENDT, ,1 (1990) (12/1990). "Energy levels of A = 21-44 nuclei (VII)". Nuclear Physics A 521: 1. doi:10.1016/0375-9474(90)90598-G .
2. ^ Prof. N. De Leon. Reactivity of Alkali Metals. Indiana University Northwest. Retrieved on 2007-12-07.
3. ^ Lange's Handbook of Chemistry
4. ^ http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Na/isot.html
5. ^ Citron, M. L., et al. (1977). "Experimental study of power broadening in a two level atom". Physical Review A 16. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.16.1507.
6. ^ Daniel A. Steck. Sodium D. Line Data. Los Alamos National Laboratory (technical report).
7. ^ Gregoryanz, E., et al. (2005). "Melting of dense sodium". Physical Review Letters 94: 185502
8. ^ [1] accessed Feb. 5, 2008
9. ^ Relationship between Salt Intake, Nitric Oxide and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Its Relevance to Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease, Tomohiro Osanai, Naoto Fujiwara, Masayuki Saitoh, Satoko Sasaki, Hirofumi Tomita, Masayuki Nakamura, Hiroshi Osawa, Hideaki Yamabe, Ken Okumura, 2002, http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Aktion=ShowPDF&ProduktNr=223997&Ausgabe=228460&ArtikelNr=63555
10. ^ Implementing recommendations for dietary salt reduction: Where are we?. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 1428929096.
11. ^ a b Eggeman, Tim. Sodium and Sodium Alloys. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published online 2007. doi:10.1002/0471238961.1915040912051311.a01.pub2
12. ^ Pauling, Linus, General Chemistry, 1970 ed., Dover Publications
13. ^ Los Alamos National Laboratory – Sodium. Retrieved on 2007-06-08.
14. ^ Merck Index, 9th ed., monograph 8325
15. ^ Chemical Elements by David E Newton ISBN 0-7876-2847-6
16. ^ Elementymology & Elements Multidict by Peter van der Krogt. Retrieved on 2007-06-08.
17. ^ Chemical Elements by David E Newton ISBN 0-7876-2847-6
• Rebecca J. Donatelle. Health, The Basics. 6th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. 2005.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Results from FactBites:

 Sodium (336 words) To illustrate, the following are sources of sodium in the diet. When you must reduce the amount of sodium (salt) you eat, be aware of both natural and added sodium content. A statement of sodium content must be on labels of antacids that have 5 mg or more per dosage unit (tablet, teaspoon, etc.).
 Encyclopedia4U - Sodium - Encyclopedia Article (631 words) Sodium is a soft, waxy, silvery reactive metal belonging to the alkali metals that is abundant in natural compounds (especially salt water and halite). Sodium is relatively abundant in stars and the D spectral lines of this element are among the most prominent in star light. Sodium chloride, better known as common salt, is the most common compound of sodium, but sodium occurs in many other minerals, such as amphibole, cryolite, halite, soda niter, zeolite, etc. Sodium compounds are important to the chemical, glass, metal, paper, petroleum, soap, and textile industries.
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