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Encyclopedia > Socratic problem
 The Socratic problem results from the inability to determine what, in the writings of Plato, is an accurate portrayal of Socrates' thought and what is the thought of Plato with Socrates as a literary device. Socrates, often credited with founding and fuckn bull shit western philosophy and who was put to death by the democracy of Athens in May, 399 BC, was Plato's teacher and mentor; Plato, like some of his contemporaries, wrote dialogues about his departed teacher. 

Most of what we know about Socrates comes from the writings of Plato; however, it is widely believed that only some of Plato's dialogues are verbatim accounts of conversations or unmediated representations of Socrates' thought. Many of the dialogues seem to use Socrates as a device for Plato's thought, and inconsistencies occasionally crop up between Plato and the other accounts of Socrates; for instance, Plato has Socrates constantly denying that he would ever accept money for teaching, while Xenophon's Symposium clearly has Socrates stating that he is paid by students to teach wisdom and this is what he does for a living. Given the apparent evolution of thought in Plato's dialogues from his early years to his middle and later years, it is often believed that the dialogues began to represent less of Socrates and more of Plato as time went on. However, the question of exactly what aspects of Plato's dialogues are representative of Socrates and what are not is far from agreed upon. Template:Plato/Aristocles For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Socrates (Greek: , invariably anglicized as , SÇ’cratÄ“s; circa 470–399 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... Nickname: City of Athena or Cradle of Democracy Location of the city of Athens (red dot) within the Prefecture of Athens and Periphery of Attica Coordinates: Country Greece Peripheries Attica Prefecture Athens Founded circa 2000 BC Mayor Nikitas Kaklamanis Area    - City 38. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC - 390s BC - 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC Years: 404 BC 403 BC 402 BC 401 BC 400 BC - 399 BC - 398 BC 397 BC... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , c. ... Xenophons Symposium records the discussion of Socrates and company at a dinner given by Callias for the youth Autolycus. ...


Karl Popper treats the Socratic problem in his first book of The Open Society and Its Enemies (1945). Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH, MA, Ph. ... The Open Society and Its Enemies is an influential two-volume work by Karl Popper written during World War II. Failing to find a publisher in the United States, it was first printed in London, in 1945. ...


The German classical scholar Friedrich Schleiermacher made an attempt to solve the "Socratic problem". Schleiermacher maintains that the two dialogues Apology and Crito are purely Socratic, which is to say, rather accurate historical portrayals of the real man, Socrates, and, hence, history - and not Platonic philosophy at all. All of the other dialogues that Schleiermacher accepted as genuine, he considered to be integrally bound together and consistent in their Platonism. Their consistency is related into the three phases of Plato's development (1) Foundation works - culminating in Parmenides;(2) Transitional works - culminating in two so called families the first being the three dialogues (a) Sophist, Statesman and Symposium and the second being (b) Phaedo and Philebus; finally (3) Constructive works: Republic, Timaeus and Laws. In Scheiermacher's view, over time the character of Socrates evolves into "the "Stranger" in Plato's work, and fulfills a critical function in Plato's development as he appears in the first family above as the "Eleatic Stranger" in the first two, and the "Manitenean Stranger" in the Symposium. The "Athenian Stranger" is the main character of Plato's Laws. Also, the triad: Sophist-Statesman-Philosopher makes particularly good sense in this order as Schleiermacher also maintains that the two dialogues, Symposium and Phaedo show Socrates as the quintessential philosopher in life (guided by Diotima) and into death, the realm of "otherness." Thus the triad announced both in the Sophist and in the Statesman is completed, though the Philosopher, being divided dialectically into a "Stranger" portion and a "Socrates" portion, isn't called "The Philosopher" - this philosophical crux is left to the reader to figure out. Schleiermacher thus takes the position that the real "Socratic problem" is understanding the dialectic between the figures of the "stranger" and "Socrates." Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (November 21, 1768 - February 12, 1834) was a theologian and philosopher. ... The Apology is Platos version of the speech given by Socrates as he defends himself against the charges of being a man who corrupted the young, did not believe in the gods, and created new deities. ... The Crito (IPA [kriːtɔːn]; in English usually [ˈkɹiːtɘʊː]) is a short but important dialogue by the ancient Greek philosopher, Plato. ... Parmenides is one of the dialogues of Plato. ... Sophism was originally a term for the techniques taught by a highly respected group of philosophy and rhetoric teachers in ancient Greece. ... The term statesman is a respectful term used to refer to diplomats, politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means to drink together) but has since come to refer to any academic conference, whether or not drinking takes place. ... It has been suggested that Phaidon be merged into this article or section. ... Philebus is among the last of the late Socratic dialogues of the ancient Greek philosopher Plato. ... The Republic (Greek: ) is an influential work of philosophy and political theory by the Greek philosopher Plato, written in approximately 360 BC. It is written in the format of a Socratic dialogue. ... Timaeus (c. ... This article is about law in society. ... Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means to drink together) but has since come to refer to any academic conference, whether or not drinking takes place. ... This article is about law in society. ... Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means to drink together) but has since come to refer to any academic conference, whether or not drinking takes place. ...


Citation: Platon Werke, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1984 (6 volumes) and/or

 Ueber die Philosophie Platons, Meiner Verlag, Philos. Bibliotek, Band 486 

Schleiermacher's views as to the chronology of Plato's work are rather controversial.


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Philosophy of Socrates, Vol. I (290 words)
The philosophical implication of the daimonion of Socrates.
Socrates as an explorer of ergon and his successors.
The portrait of Socrates by Aristoxenus and Demetrius of Phaleron.
Socrates (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (9779 words)
Socrates was usually to be found in the marketplace and other public areas, conversing with a variety of different people—young and old, male and female, slave and free, rich and poor—that is, with virtually anyone he could persuade to join with him in his question-and-answer mode of probing serious matters.
Socrates alone among the Prytanes was left standing for the law and the generals; his refusal to allow the vote had the effect of allowing one last, eloquent speech from the floor that proposed a preliminary vote to decide between sentencing the group and permitting separate trials (Xenophon, Hellenica 1.7.16-33).
Socrates had the right to challenge the admissibility of the accusation in relation to existing law, but he did not, so the charge was published on whitened tablets in the agora and a date was set for the pre-trial examination.
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