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Encyclopedia > Socotra
Map of the Socotra archipelago

Socotra or Soqotra (Arabic سقطرى ; Suquṭra) is a small archipelago of four islands and islets in the Indian Ocean off the coast of the Horm Africa some 350 km south of the Arabian peninsula. It is a part of the 'Adan Governorate of the Republic of Yemen. The island is also claimed by Somalia. Map of the Socotra archipelago, Yemen Extracted from http://www. ... Map of the Socotra archipelago, Yemen Extracted from http://www. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... The Horn of Africa. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... The Arabian Peninsula Emirets towers in United Arab Emirates; the eastern part of Arabian Penisula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... Media:Example. ...

Contents

Geography and climate

Landsatview over Socotra 12°29′20.97″N, 53°54′25.73″E
Landsatview over Socotra 12°29′20.97″N, 53°54′25.73″E

Socotra is one of the most isolated landforms on Earth of continental origin (i.e., not of volcanic origin). The archipelago was once part of the supercontinent of Gondwana and detached during the Middle Pliocene (ca 6 million years ago), in the same set of rifting events that opened the Gulf of Aden to its northwest. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 593 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 948 pixel, file size: 159 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 593 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 948 pixel, file size: 159 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ... Gondwanaland redirects here. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rift valley. ... Gulf of Aden in 1860 The Gulf of Aden (Arabic: خليج عدن; transliterated: Khalyj Adan) is located in the Indian Ocean between Yemen on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula and Somalia in Africa. ...


The archipelago consists of the main island of Socotra (3625 km² or 1400mi²), three smaller islands known collectively as "the Brothers" — Abd al Kuri, Samhah, Darsa — and other uninhabitable rock outcrops. Abd al Kuri is an island between Socotra and Somalia. ... Samhah is an island between Socotra and Somalia. ... Darsah is an island between Socotra and Somalia. ...


The main island has three geographical terrains: the narrow coastal plains, a limestone plateau permeated with karstic caves, and the Haghier Mountains. The mountains rise to 5000 feet (1525 meters). The island is a little over 130 km / 80 mi long east to west and typically 30-35 km / 18-22 mi north to south. In geography, a plain is a large area of land with relatively low relief. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plateau (disambiguation). ... Karst topography occurs when a landscape is marked by underground drainage patterns. ...


The climate is generally tropical desert, with rainfall being light, seasonal (winter) and more abundant at the higher ground in the interior than along the coastal lowlands. The monsoon season brings strong winds and high seas. For the act of abandoning or withdrawing support from an entity, see desertion. ... Bold text[[ // [[Image:Media:Example. ...


Flora and fauna

See also List of spiders of Socotra
Trees of genus Dracaena
Trees of genus Dracaena

The long geological isolation of the Socotra archipelago and its fierce heat and drought have combined to create a unique and spectacular endemic flora (which may, therefore, be vulnerable to introduced species such as goats and to climate change). Surveys have revealed that more than a third of the 800 or so plant species of Socotra are found nowhere else. Botanists rank the flora of Socotra among the ten most endangered island flora in the world. The archipelago is a site of global importance for biodiversity conservation and a possible center for ecotourism. This is a list of spider species that occur on Socotra. ... Dragon tree (likely Dracaena draco) from pdphoto. ... Dragon tree (likely Dracaena draco) from pdphoto. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ... Sweet clover (), introduced and naturalized to the U.S. from Eurasia as a forage and cover crop. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Tapanti National Park in Costa Rica Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is a form of tourism which appeals to the ecologically and socially conscious. ...


One of the most striking of Socotra's plants is the dragon's blood tree (Dracaena cinnabari), which is a strange-looking, umbrella-shaped tree. Its red sap was the dragon's blood of the ancients, sought after as a medicine and a dye. Another unusual plant is Dorstenia gigas. Species See text. ... Dragons blood is a bright red resin that is obtained from different species of four distinct plants genera Croton, Dracaena, Daemonorops, and Pterocarpus. ...


The island group also has a fairly rich bird fauna, including a few types of endemic birds, such as the Socotra Starling Onychognathus frater, the Socotra Sunbird Nectarinia balfouri, Socotra Sparrow Passer insularis and Socotra Golden-winged Grosbeak Rhynchostruthus socotranus. For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881) The Socotra Starling (Onychognathus frater) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881) The Socotra Starling (Onychognathus frater) is a species of starling in the Sturnidae family. ... Binomial name (Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881) The Socotra Sunbird (Nectarinia balfouri) is a species of bird in the Nectariniidae family. ... Binomial name (Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881) The Socotra Sunbird (Nectarinia balfouri) is a species of bird in the Nectariniidae family. ... Binomial name Passer insularis Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881 The Socotra Sparrow (Passer insularis) is found on the islands of Socotra and Abd al Kuri in the Indian Ocean, off the Horn of Africa. ... Binomial name Passer insularis Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881 The Socotra Sparrow (Passer insularis) is found on the islands of Socotra and Abd al Kuri in the Indian Ocean, off the Horn of Africa. ... Binomial name Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881 The Golden-winged Grosbeak is an attractive, chunky, medium-sized, robust-billed finch endemic to the southern Arabian and Somalian regions, specifically Socotra Island, northern Somalia, Dhofar in Oman, and the mountains of north Yemen to Saudi Arabia as far north as Al Hara near... Binomial name Sclater & Hartlaub, 1881 The Golden-winged Grosbeak is an attractive, chunky, medium-sized, robust-billed finch endemic to the southern Arabian and Somalian regions, specifically Socotra Island, northern Somalia, Dhofar in Oman, and the mountains of north Yemen to Saudi Arabia as far north as Al Hara near...


As with many isolated island systems, bats are the only mammals native to Socotra. In contrast, the marine biodiversity around Socotra is rich, characterized by a unique mixture of species that have originated in farflung biogeographic regions: the western Indian Ocean, the Red Sea, Arabia, East Africa and the wider Indo-Pacific. “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


People and economy

Almost all inhabitants of Socotra live on the main island. The principal city is Hadiboh (estimated population 43,000 in 2004). Abd Al Kuri and Samha have a population of a few hundred people between them; Darsa is uninhabited. Hadiboh (also known as Tamrida) is a coastal town in northern Socotra, Yemen. ...


Traditionally, the archipelago has been inaccessible from June to September due to monsoon weather. However, in July 1999 a new airport opened Socotra to the outside year round. Most Socotris still live without electricity, running water or a paved road.


The Semitic language Soqotri is spoken only in Socotra, although it is related to other Modern South Arabian languages on the Arabian mainland such as Mehri. In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... Soqotri is the native language of the island of Socotra off the southern coast of Yemen. ... South Arabian is a technical designation within Semitic linguistics for one of two main branches of South Semitic. ... Mehri or Mahri is a Semitic language spoken by minority populations in the eastern part of Yemen and western Oman and is a remnant of the ancient indigenous language group spoken in the southern Arabian Peninsula before the spread of Arabic along with the Islamic religion in the 7th century...


The chief products of the island are dates, ghee, tobacco, and fish. Some residents also raise cattle and goats. Binomial name Phoenix dactylifera L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... Ghee in a jar Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Ghee Ghee (Hindi घी from Sanskrit ghṛta घृत sprinkled ) is a type of clarified butter important in Indian cuisine. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...


At the end of the 1990s a United Nations Development Program was launched with the aim of providing a close survey of the island of Socotra. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ...


History

Socotra appears as Dioskouridou ("of the Dioscurides") in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a 1st century A.D. Greek navigation aid. In the notes to his translation of the Periplus, G.W.B. Huntingford remarks that the name Socotra is not Greek in origin, but derives from the Sanskrit dvipa sukhadhara ("island of bliss"). Pedanius Dioscorides Pedanius Dioscorides (c. ... Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


A local tradition holds that the inhabitants were converted to Christianity by Thomas in AD 52. In the 10th century the Arab geographer Abu Mohammed Al-Hassan Al-Hamdani stated that in his time most of the inhabitants were Christians. Socotra is also mentioned briefly in The Travels of Marco Polo according to which "the inhabitants are baptized Christians and have an archbishop" who, it is further explained, "has nothing to do with the Pope at Rome, but is subject to an archbishop who lives at Baghdad". In 1507, Portugal landed an occupying force at the then capital of Suq, to "liberate" the assumed friendly Christians from Arab Islamic rule. However they were not welcomed as enthusiastically as they expected and abandoned the island four years later. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jude Thomas. ... This article is about the year 52. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... A page of The Travels of Marco Polo The Travels of Marco Polo is the usual English title of Marco Polos travel book, Il Milione. ... 1507 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The islands passed under the control of the Mahra sultans in 1511. Later in 1886 it became a British protectorate, along with the remainder of the Mahra State of Qishn and Socotra. For the British it was an important strategic stop-over. The P&O ship Aden sank after being wrecked on a reef near Socotra, in 1897, with the loss of 78 lives. Map of the Protectorate of South Arabia in 1965 Map of contemporary Yemen showing Al Mahrah governorate. ... Year 1511 (MDXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Map of the Protectorate of South Arabia in 1965 Map of contemporary Yemen showing Al Mahrah governorate. ... The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company or P&O is a shipping line which started in 1840 after the Peninsular Steam Navigation Company won the British Admiralty contract to carry the mail overseas in 1837. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


In October 1967 the Mahra sultanate was abolished. On November 30th Socotra became part of the People's Republic of South Yemen (later to become the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen). Today it is part of the Republic of Yemen. The Peoples Republic of South Yemen was the name of South Yemen briefly between independence in 1967 and the rise to power of Salim Ali Rubai and his Yemeni Socialist Party. ...   Capital Aden Language(s) Arabic Government Socialist state President Haidar Abu Bakr al-Attas Prime Minister Yasin Said Numan Historical era Cold War  - Independence November 30 1967  - UN membership December 14, 1967  - Constitution October 31, 1978  - Reunification May 22 1990 Area  - 1990 332,970 km2 Expression error: unrecognised punctuation character...


References

  • Biedermann, Zoltán. 2006. Soqotra, Geschichte einer christlichen Insel im Indischen Ozean vom Altertum bis zur frühen Neuzeit (Maritime Asia 17). Wiesbaden, Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3-447-05421-8
  • Casson, Lionel. 1989. The Periplus Maris Erythraei. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04060-5 .
  • Cheung, Catherine & DeVantier, Lyndon. 2006. Socotra: A Natural History of the Islands and their People. Edited by Kay Van Damme. Odyssey Books & Guides, ISBN 962-217-770-0.
  • Doe, D. Brian. 1970. Socotra: An Archaeological Reconnaissance in 1967. Edited by Henry Field and Edith M. Laird. Field Research Projects, Miami.
  • Doe, D. Brian. Socotra: Island of Tranquility. London: Immel, 1992.
  • Elie, D. Serge. Soqotra: South Arabia’s Strategic Gateway and Symbolic Playground. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, November 2006, 33(2), 131–160 ISSN 1353-0194 ISSN 1469-3542
  • Elie, D. Serge. Hadiboh: From Peripheral Village to Emerging City. Chroniques Yemenites, 12 (2004)
  • RBGE Soqotra Bibliography: at RBGE and Friends of Soqotra websites.
  • Schoff, Wilfred H. 1912. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Longmans, Green, and Co., New York, Second Edition. Reprint: New Delhi, Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1974. (A new hardback edition is available from Coronet Books Inc. Also reprinted by South Asia Books, 1995, ISBN 81-215-0699-9)

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Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Socotra Archipelago, Republic of Yemen (118 words)
The Socotra Archipelago Conservation and Development Programme (SCDP), is an effort of the Republic of Yemen.
The SCDP is supported by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Governments of the Netherlands, Italy and Poland in partnership with a pool of International Donors and NGOs.
The main aim of the SCDP is to coordinate all government and donor efforts towards sustainable human development for the people of the Socotra Archipelago, while conserving the globally significant biodiversity of these unique islands.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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