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Encyclopedia > Sockeye salmon
Sockeye salmon

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Salmoniformes
Family: Salmonidae
Genus: Oncorhynchus
Species: O. nerka
Binomial name
Oncorhynchus nerka
(Walbaum, 1792)

Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), also called red salmon or blueback salmon, is an anadromous species of salmon found in the Pacific Ocean. The same species when it occurs in landlocked bodies of water is called the kokanee. This species is the third most common type of Pacific salmon, after Pink and Chum salmon.[1] Sockeye refers to a species of salmon. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2250x1006, 510 KB) Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Orders See text The Actinopterygii are the ray-finned fish. ... Genera (see text) Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only family of order Salmoniformes. ... Genera (see text) Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only family of order Salmoniformes. ... Species See text. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Johann Julius Walbaum Johann Julius Walbaum (1724 – 1799), a native of Lübeck, Germany was a physician, naturalist and taxonomist. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Many types of fish undertake migrations on a regular basis, on time scales ranging from daily to annual, and with distances ranging from a few meters to thousands of kilometers. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... Illustration of a male Coho Salmon The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow to 1. ... Binomial name Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum, 1792) The pink salmon or humpback salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) (from the Russian gorbuscha--горбуша) is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family. ... Binomial name Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum, 1792) Keta redirects here. ...

Sockeye salmon caught on an Alaskan stream

Contents

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 873 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) {{Information| |Description = Sockeye salmon caught on an Alaskan stream |Source = self-made |Date = 2099-10-02 |Author = Jon Warrenchuk Akdude |Permission = Use only for good. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 873 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) {{Information| |Description = Sockeye salmon caught on an Alaskan stream |Source = self-made |Date = 2099-10-02 |Author = Jon Warrenchuk Akdude |Permission = Use only for good. ...

Range

Its current range is as far south as the Columbia River in the eastern Pacific and northern Hokkaidō Island in Japan in the western Pacific, and as far north as Bathurst Inlet in the Canadian Arctic in the east and the Anadyr River in Siberia in the west.[2] Landlocked populations occur in the Yukon Territory and British Columbia in Canada, and in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Utah, Idaho, Montana, Colorado,New Mexico, and Wyoming in the United States. The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... Bathurst Inlet is a deep inlet located in Nunavut on the Arctic Ocean north of the Arctic Circle. ... The North, the Canadian Arctic defined politically. ... Anadyr (Ана́дырь) is a river in the extreme northeast of Siberia, Russia. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour Without Sunset (diminishment)) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Largest metro area Boise metropolitan area Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26N to 49°N  - Longitude 104°2W to 116°2W Population  Ranked... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ...


Physical Description

Male and female sockeye salmon.
Male and female sockeye salmon.

A Sockeye can be as long as 33 inches (84 cm) and weigh 6 to 8 pounds (2.5 to 3.5 kilos). It has an elongated, torpedo shaped body, with an adipose fin, and a bluntly pointed snout. The gill rakers located just behind the head are long and closely spaced. Its colouration changes as it migrates from saltwater to freshwater in preparation for spawning. In freshwater, its colour is bright red with a pale green head; females may have green and yellow marks or stains. Its colour in saltwater is bluish-green on top, silvery on the bottom, with uniform, shiny skin. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x1997, 5847 KB) Male and female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) specimens. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3000x1997, 5847 KB) Male and female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) specimens. ...


Reproduction

Prior to spawning the sockeye are blue tinged with silver in color during their ocean life. The males develop a hump on their back and their jaw and teeth become hooked when they move from salt to fresh water. Males and females both turn red with green heads, and a dark stripe on their sides prior to spawning.


Sockeye salmon spawn mostly in streams having lakes in their watershed. The young fish, known as fry, spend from zero to three years in the freshwater lake before migrating to the ocean, some stay in the lake and do not migrate to the sea. The fish that migrate spend from one to four years in the salt water, and thus are four to six years old when they return to spawn in autumn (September-December). Migration back to the home river, is thought to be done using the characteristic smell of the stream, and possibly the sun. For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some young fish spend as long as four years in fresh water lakes before migrating to the sea. In rivers without lakes, many of the young move to the ocean quite soon after hatching. These salmon mature after one to four years in the ocean. Some Sockeye Salmon live and reproduce in lakes and are called "kokanee." They are much smaller than the ones that go to the ocean and are rarely over 350mm (14 inches) long.


Ecology/Behavior

Sockeyes, unlike the other species of Pacific Salmon, feed almost exclusively on plankton.[2] They are able to do this as a result of their many gill rakers, which strain the plankton from the water. It is speculated that this diet is the reason for the striking hue of their flesh as well as their very low concentration of methyl mercury. They also tend to feed on small aquatic organisms such as shrimp. Photomontage of plankton organisms Plankton are any drifting organism that inhabits the water column of oceans, seas, and bodies of fresh water. ... For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ...


Sockeye salmon are currently listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act with the National Marine Fisheries Service as an endangered species in Snake River (Idaho, Oregon and Washington area) and as a threatened species in Lake Ozette, Washington. Other sockeye populations in the upper Columbia River and in Puget Sound (Washington) are not listed under the Endangered Species Act. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) is a part of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ... For other uses, see Snake River (disambiguation). ... Lake Ozette is the third largest natural lake in Washington state at 29. ...


Commerce

This species is netted commercially using seines and gillnets for fresh or frozen fillet sales and canning, especially in Bristol Bay, Alaska, site of the largest harvest of sockeye salmon in the world, according to the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. The species has been preferred for canning due to the rich orange-red color of the flesh. More than half of the sockeye salmon caught today are sold frozen. Sockeye also tends to fetch a higher price than other salmon when sold fresh, as they are considered the most flavorful and flexible of the family. For other uses, see Canning (disambiguation). ... Shore of Bristol Bay near Naknek. ... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ...


When smoked, Sockeye has a stronger flavour and firmer texture than Coho salmon. Sockeye salmon is a popular sportfish for flyfishermen. It can be caught on a fly-rod when it returns to freshwater to spawn and is an acrobatic and powerful fighter. Binomial name Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum, 1792) The Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch, from the Russian кижуч kisutch) is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family. ... Fly rod and reel with a wild brown trout from a chalk stream. ...


References

  1. ^ Sockeye Salmon. NOAA Fisheries Office of Protected Resources. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  2. ^ a b Sockeye Salmon. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Retrieved on 2006-11-17.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Technical Reports

  • Bristol Bay sockeye salmon inriver test fishing, 2004 / by Frederick W. West. Hosted by the Alaska State Publications Program.
  • Hetta and Eek Lakes subsistence sockeye salmon project : 2004 annual report / by Jan M. Conitz ... [et al.. ] Hosted by Alaska State Publications Program.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Oncorhynchus nerka

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sockeye Salmon: Wildlife Notebook Series - Alaska Department of Fish and Game (1322 words)
Today sockeye salmon support one of the most important commercial fisheries on the Pacific coast of North America, are increasingly sought after in recreational fisheries, and remain an important mainstay of many subsistence users.
Most sockeye salmon are harvested with gillnets either drifted from a vessel or set with one end on the shore, some are captured with purse seines, and a relatively small number are caught with troll gear in the southeastern portion of the state.
Sockeye salmon are the preferred species for canning due to the rich orange-red color of their flesh.
Eagle Charters - Sockeye Salmon (1378 words)
General description: Sockeye salmon can be distinguished from chinook, coho, and pink salmon by the lack of large, fl spots and from chum salmon by the number and shape of gill rakers on the first gill arch.
Maturing sockeye salmon return to freshwater systems from the ocean during the summer months, and most populations show little variation in their arrival time on the spawning grounds from year to year.
Most sockeye salmon are harvested with gillnets either drifted from a vessel or set with one end on the shore, some are captured with purse seines, and a relatively small number are caught with troll gear in the southeastern portion of the state.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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