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Encyclopedia > Sociology of law
Sociology

Portal · History Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Sociology is a relatively new academic discipline among other social sciences including economics, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ...

General Aspects

Public sociology · Social research
Social theory · Sociological theory
Sociological practice Sociology is the study of society and human social interaction. ... Public sociology is an approach to the discipline which seeks to transcend the academy and engage wider audiences. ... Social research refers to research conducted by social scientists (primarily within sociology, but also within other disciplines such as social policy, human geography, social anthropology and education). ... Social theory refers to the use of abstract and often complex theoretical frameworks to explain and analyze social patterns and large-scale social structures. ... Sociological theory can refer to: contemporary sociological theory social theory sociological paradigms (also known as perespectives or frameworks) See also list of theories in sociology. ... Sociological practice is intervention using sociological knowledge whether it is in a clinical or applied setting. ...

Related fields & subfields

Comparative sociology · Criminology
Demography · Social movements
Social psychology · Sociolinguistics
Sociology of: culture · deviance
economics · education · gender
knowledge · law · politics · religion
science · stratification · work Sociology has many subfields. ... Comparative Sociology Comparative sociology generally refers to sociological analysis that involves comparison of social processes between nation-states, or across different types of society (for example capitalist and socialist). ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of human populations. ... Social movements are broader political associations focussed on specific issues. ... Social Psychology is a subfield of sociology which looks at the social behavior of humans in terms of associations and relationships that they have. ... Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The sociology of deviance is the sociological study of deviant behavior, the recognized violation of cultural norms, and the creation and enforcement of those norms. ... Economic sociology may be defined as the sociological analysis of economic phenomena. ... Sociology of gender is a prominent subfield of sociology. ... The sociology of knowledge is the study of the relationship between human thought and the social context within which it arises, and of the effects prevailing ideas have on societies. ... Political sociology is the study of power and the intersection of personality, social structure and politics. ... Sociology of science is the subfield of sociology that deals with the practice of science. ... social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ... Industrial Sociology (also known as sociology of industrial relations or sociology of work) is the study of the interaction of people within industry it includes the study of boss-subordinate, inter-departmental, and management / trade-union relationships´. Moreover, on a macrosociological scale, it is the study of the impact of...

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Sociology of law refers to both a sub-discipline of sociology and an approach within the field of legal studies. Sociology of law is a diverse field of study which examines the interaction of law with other aspects of society: such as the effect of legal institutions, doctrines, and practices on other social phenomena and vice versa. Some of its areas of inquiry include the social development of legal institutions, the social construction of legal issues, and the relation of law to social change. Sociology of law overlaps with jurisprudence, economic analysis of law and more specialized subjects such as criminology.[1] // Foundations The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Max Weber Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus, 1904 Online version Description: In The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Weber puts forward a thesis that Puritan ethic and ideas had influenced the development of capitalism. ... This is a list of terms in sociology. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... The School of Law at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Texas, USA. A law school (or school of law) is an institution specializing in legal education. ... This article is about institutions as social mechanisms. ... A social construction, social construct or social concept is an institutionalized entity or artifact in a social system invented or constructed by participants in a particular culture or society that exists because people agree to behave as if it exists, or agree to follow certain conventional rules, or behave as... For the jurisprudence of courts, see Case law. ... Law and economics, or economic analysis of law is an approach to legal theory that applies methods of economics to law. ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ...

Contents

History

Max Weber in 1917 - Weber who began as a lawyer and economic historian is regarded as one of the founders of sociology and sociology of law
Max Weber in 1917 - Weber who began as a lawyer and economic historian is regarded as one of the founders of sociology and sociology of law

Initially, legal theorists were suspicious of the sociology of law. Kelsen attacked one of its founders, Eugen Ehrlich, who wanted to emphasise the difference between positive law, which lawyers learn and apply, and other forms of 'law' or social norms that regulate everyday life, generally preventing conflicts from reaching lawyers and courts.[2] Around 1900 Max Weber defined his "scientific" approach to law, identifying the "legal rational form" as a type of domination, not attributable to people but to abstract norms.[3] Legal rationalism was his term for a body of coherent and calculable law which formed a precondition for modern political developments and the modern bureaucratic state and developed in parallel with the growth of capitalism.[4] Another sociologist, Émile Durkheim, wrote in The Division of Labour in Society that as society becomes more complex, the body of civil law concerned primarily with restitution and compensation grows at the expense of criminal laws and penal sanctions.[5] Other notable early legal sociologists included Hugo Sinzheimer, Theodor Geiger, Georges Gurvitch and Leon Petrażycki in Europe, and William Graham Sumner in the U.S.[6] Image File history File linksMetadata Max_Weber_1917. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Max_Weber_1917. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Hans Kelsen Hans Kelsen (Prague, October 11, 1881 – April 19, 1973) was an Austrian -American jurist of Jewish descent. ... Eugen Ehrlich (1862 - 1922) was an Austrian legal scholar. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Rational-legal authority (also known as rational authority, legal authority, rational domination, legal domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to legal rationality, legal legitimacy and bureaucracy. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Émile Durkheim Émile Durkheim (IPA: ; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist whose contributions were instrumental in the formation of sociology and anthropology. ... Hugo Sinzheimer (* 12 April 1875 in Worms, Germany; † 16 September 1945 in Bloemendaal-Overveen, the Netherlands) was a German legal scholar. ... Theodor Julius Geiger (9 November 1891 in Munich, Germany - 16 June 1952 at sea in Atlantic Ocean) was a German socialist lawyer and sociologist. ... Georges Gurvitch (or Jorge Gurvitch, born Georgij Davydovič Gurvič, November 11, 1894, Novorossiysk - December 12, 1965, Paris) was the Russian born French sociologist, jurist. ... Leon Petrażycki (13 April 1867 - 15 May 1931) was a philosopher, legal scholar and sociologist. ... William Graham Sumner (1840-1910) was the leading American advocate of a free-trade industrial society, which is what he believed the socialists meant by capitalism. ...


Perspectives

Law and Society

In legal studies, the sociology of law is part of a more broadly conceived law and society approach or socio-legal studies. Its focus is on theoretically guided empirical studies. As such it draws on and contributes to social theory. The sociology of law is not to be confused with sociological jurisprudence. The latter is a juristic perspective, developed in the United States by Roscoe Pound and by earlier jurists in various European countries, that seeks to base legal arguments on sociological insights. Sociology of law refers to both a sub-discipline of sociology and an approach within the field of legal studies. ... Roscoe Pound (1870 - 1964) was a distinguished American legal scholar and educator. ...


Additional perspectives

[These perspectives need discussion.]

  • Marxism
  • Types of authority and thought (Weber)
  • Social organization and morality (Durkheim)
  • Structural-Functionalism
  • Comparative legal studies
  • Critical legal studies
  • Feminist and anti-racism theories
  • Postmodern theories
  • Spatial theory
  • Other perspectives

Selected Topics

To be described:

  • Legal systems
  • Legal institutions
  • Law making (social construction of law and mores)
  • Social control
  • Dispute resolution
  • Social change
  • Legal profession

See also

Related sociological subfields include political sociology and the sociology of deviance. Other social sciences, such as Anthropology, Criminology, and Political Science, also include specialized approaches to the study of law. Political sociology is the study of power and the intersection of personality, social structure and politics. ... The sociology of deviance is the sociological study of deviant behavior, the recognized violation of cultural norms, and the creation and enforcement of those norms. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ...

Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... The International Institute for the Sociology of Law (IISL) in Oñati is the only international institution dealing with the sociology of law or socio-legal studies in the widest sense. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Legal realism is a family of theories about the nature of law developed in the first half of the 20th century in the United States (American Legal Realism) and Scandinavia (Scandinavian Legal Realism). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Jary, Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 636
  2. ^ Rottleuthner, La Sociologie du Droit en Allemagne, 109
    * Rottleuthner, Rechtstheoritische Probleme der Sociologie des Rechts, 521
  3. ^ Rheinstein, Max Weber on Law and Economy in Society, 336
  4. ^ Jary, Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 636
  5. ^ Johnson, The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology, 156
  6. ^ Gurvitch, Sociology of Law, 142
    * Papachristou, Sociology of Law, 81–82

References

  • Gurvitch, Georges; Hunt, Alan (1942—New edition 2001). "Max Webber and Eugene Ehlrich", Sociology of Law. Athens: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-765-80704-1. 
  • Jary, David; Julia Jary (1995). Collins Dictionary of Sociology. HarperCollins. ISBN 0004708040. 
  • Johnson, Alan (1995). The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology. Blackwells publishers. ISBN 1557861161. 
  • (Greek) Papachristou, T.K. (1999). "The Sociological Approach of Law", Sociology of Law. Athens: A.N. Sakkoulas Publishers. ISBN 9-601-50106-1. 
  • Rheinstein, M. (1954). Max Weber on Law and Economy in Society. Harvard University Press. 

Georges Gurvitch (or Jorge Gurvitch, born Georgij Davydovič Gurvič, November 11, 1894, Novorossiysk - December 12, 1965, Paris) was the Russian born French sociologist, jurist. ...

Further reading

  • Reza Banakar and Max Travers, eds, An Introduction to Law and Social Theory. Oxford: Hart, 2002
  • Reza Banakar and Max Travers, eds, Theory and Method in Socio-Legal Research. Oxford: Hart, 2005
  • Roger Cotterrell, The Sociology of Law: An Introduction 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press / Butterworths, 1992
  • Roger Cotterrell, Law's Community: Legal Theory in Sociological Perspective Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995
  • Vincenzo Ferrari, ed, Developing Sociology of Law: A World-Wide Documentary Enquiry. Milano: Giuffre, 1990
  • Michael Freeman, ed, Law and Sociology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006
  • Austin Sarat, ed, Blackwell Companion to Law and Society. Malden, Mass. and Oxford: Blackwell, 2004

External links

  • American Sociological Association Section: Sociology of Law
  • International Journal of the Sociology of Law
  • International Sociological Association: Research Committee on Sociology of Law RC12
  • Socio-Legal Studies Association
  • Law and Society Association
  • Foundation for Law, Justice and Society
  • ISA Research Committee in Sociology of Law

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sociology of Law - Lund University (264 words)
Sociology of Law (Rättssociologi) is only possible to study at Lund University in all the European countries.
Sociology of Law is an autonomous, academic discipline including a complete undergraduate education with separate courses for 80 points or 120 ECT and a postgraduate education (doctoral studies for a PhD).
Sociology of Law is studying the relation between law and society.
Sociology of Law Second Test (722 words)
First, law became an important ally of those seeking to maximize profit through capitalist market relations by defining many acts that disrupted the predictability of market relations as crimes, that is, as harms against the state, rather than as civil violations of contracts between individuals.
Second, criminal law came to be seen as an appropriate tool for insuring an adequate supply of cheap labor, first for the agrarian economy and later for the developing industrial-mercantile economy of early capitalist England.
Third, and perhaps most importantly for contemporary criminal law, members of the laboring class who turned to theft, violence, idleness, or other forms of deviance as an adaptation to the brutal conditions of their lives were defined as criminals.
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