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Encyclopedia > Sociology in medieval Islam

Medieval Islamic sociology refers to the study of sociology and the social sciences in the medieval Islamic world. Early Islamic sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic Caliphate, including the Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid periods, as well as the Mamluk period in Egypt. It was rooted in methods from early Islamic philosophy and science in medieval Islam, and it reflected the strong concern of Islam with social cohesion. Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyid caliphs. ... The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of Egypt Saudi Arabia Syria Palestine Israel Lebanon Jordan Turkey Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Structural cohesion is the sociological and graph theory conception [1][2] and measurement of cohesion for maximal social group or graphical boundaries where related elements cannot be disconnected except by removal of a certain minimal number of other nodes. ...

Contents

Sociology

Early Islamic period

Sociologist Robert Bellah (Beyond belief) argues that Islam in its seventh-century origins was, for its time and place, "remarkably modern...in the high degree of commitment, involvement, and participation expected from the rank-and-file members of the community." This because, he argues, that Islam emphasized on the equality of all Muslims. Leadership positions were open to all men. However, there were restraints on the early Muslim community that kept it from exemplifying these principles, primarily from the "stagnant localisms" of tribe and kinship. Dale Eickelman writes that Bellah suggests "the early Islamic community placed a particular value on individuals, as opposed to collective or group responsibility."[1] Many Reforms took place under Islam between 610 and 661, including the period of Muhammads mission and the rule of his four immediate successors. ... Robert Neelly Bellah is a sociologist at University of California at Berkeley and author of a number of books including Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The Islamic idea of community (that of umma), established by Muhammad, is flexible in social, religious, and political terms and includes a diversity of Muslims who share a general sense of common cause and consensus concerning beliefs and individual and communal actions.[2]


Corporate social responsibility in commerce

Social responsibility and corporate social responsibility in commerce was stressed in early Islamic sociology during Muhammad's time. The development of Islamic banks and Islamic economics was a side effect of this sociology: usury was rather severely restrained, no interest rate was allowed, and investors were not permitted to escape the consequences of any failed venture - all financing was equity financing (Musharaka). In not letting borrowers bear all the risk/cost of a failure, an extreme disparity of outcomes between "partners" is thus avoided. Ultimately this serves a social harmony purpose. Muslims also could not and cannot (in shariah) finance any dealings in forbidden goods or activities, such as wine, pork, gambling, etc. Thus ethical investing is the only acceptable investing, and moral purchasing is encouraged.[3] Social responsibility is an ethical or ideological theory that an entity whether it is a government, corporation, organization or individual has a responsibility to society. ... Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a concept whereby organizations consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities on customers, employees, shareholders, communities and the environment in all aspects of their operations. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For more information please refer to http://www. ... Islamic economics is economics in accordance with Islamic law. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Of Usury, from Brants Stultifera Navis (the Ship of Fools); woodcut attributed to Albrecht Dürer Usury (//,comes from the Medieval Latin usuria, interest or excessive interest, from the Latin usura interest) originally meant the charging of interest on loans. ... An interest rate is the price a borrower pays for the use of money he does not own, and the return a lender receives for deferring his consumption, by lending to the borrower. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... Gamble redirects here. ... Ethical investing, also known as Socially responsible investing or SRI attempts to ensure that invested funds are not used to violate the investors most basic moral values or ethical codes. ... Ethical consumerism is the practice of boycotting products which a consumer believes to be associated with unnecessary exploitation or other unethical behaviour. ...


Ecological responsibility and environmentalism

Further information: Muslim Agricultural Revolution - Agricultural sciences

Perhaps due to resource scarcity in most Islamic nations, there was an emphasis on limited (and some claim also sustainable) use of natural capital, i.e. producing land. Traditions of haram and hima and early urban planning were expressions of strong social obligations to stay within carrying capacity and to preserve the natural environment as an obligation of khalifa or "stewardship".[4][5] Natural capital, as described in the book Natural Capitalism, is a metaphor for the mineral, plant, and animal formations of the Earths biosphere when viewed as a means of production of oxygen, water filter, erosion preventer, or provider of other ecosystem services. ... This article covers the word as used in Islamic urban planning. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... The supportable population of an organism, given the food, habitat, water and other necessities available within an ecosystem is known as the ecosystems carrying capacity for that organism. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... Omdurman, Sudan. ...


Muhammad is considered a pioneer of environmentalism for his teachings on environmental preservation. His hadiths on agriculture and environmental philosophy were compiled in the "Book of Agriculture" of the Sahih Bukhari, which included the following saying:[4][6] Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Envirnonmental preservation is the strict setting aside of natural resources to prevent the use or contact by humans or by human intervention. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Environmental philosophy is a branch of philosophy dealing with the natural environment. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ...

"There is none amongst the believers who plants a tree, or sows a seed, and then a bird, or a person, or an animal eats thereof, but it is regarded as having given a charitable gift [for which there is great recompense]."[7]

Several such statements concerning the environment are also found in the Qur'an, such as the following:[8] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

"And there is no animal in the earth nor bird that flies with its two wings, but that they are communities like yourselves."[9]

Comparative sociology

Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973-1048), in the introduction to his study of India, declares that "to execute our project, it has not been possible to follow the geometric method" and develops comparative sociology as a scientific method in the field.[10] Al-Biruni is considered the "father of Indology".[11] (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian (TājÄ«k)[1][2][3] mathematician, physicist, scholar, encyclopedist, philosopher, astronomer, astrologer, traveller, historian, anthropologist, pharmacist, and teacher, who contributed greatly to the fields of mathematics, philosophy, history, anthropology, medicine, and science. ... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ... Comparative Sociology Comparative sociology generally refers to sociological analysis that involves comparison of social processes between nation-states, or across different types of society (for example capitalist and socialist). ... -1... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ...


In the 12th century, Muhammad al-Idrisi wrote the Nozhat al-mushtaq fi ikhtiraq al-afaq, a compendium of the geographic and sociological knowledge of his time as well as descriptions of his own travels illustrated with over seventy maps. Al-Idrisis world map from 1154. ...


Ibn Khaldun

Without doubt the most important figure in early Muslim sociology was Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406), who is regarded as the father of demography,[12] cultural history,[13] historiography,[14] the philosophy of history,[15] sociology,[12][15] and the social sciences,[16] and is viewed as a father of modern economics.[17][18] He is best known for his Muqaddimah "Prolegomenon". Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... The Muqaddimah, or the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (Arabic: مقدّمة ابن خلدون), records an early Muslim view of universal history. Many modern thinkers view it as one of the first works of sociology. ... Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Cultural history (from the German term Kulturgeschichte), at least in its common definition since the 1970s, often combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. ... Historiography is the aspect of history, and of semiotics, that is the study of how knowledge of the past, recent or distant, is obtained and transmitted; simply put, historiography is the history of history. ... Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... Cultural history (from the German term Kulturgeschichte), at least in its common definition since the 1970s, often combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. ... Historiography is the aspect of history, and of semiotics, that is the study of how knowledge of the past, recent or distant, is obtained and transmitted; simply put, historiography is the history of history. ... Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The Muqaddimah, or the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (Arabic: مقدّمة ابن خلدون), records an early Muslim view of universal history. Many modern thinkers view it as one of the first works of sociology. ...


Sati' al-Husri suggested that Ibn Khaldun's Muqaddimah is essentially a sociological work, sketching over its six books a general sociology; a sociology of politics; a sociology of urban life; a sociology of economics; and a sociology of knowledge. Sati al-Husri was a Syrian writer and intellectual whose ideas are widely considered to have played a fundamental role in the development of Arab Nationalism. ... The Muqaddimah, or the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (Arabic: مقدّمة ابن خلدون), records an early Muslim view of universal history. Many modern thinkers view it as one of the first works of sociology. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Political sociology is the study of power and the intersection of personality, social structure and politics. ... Urban culture is the culture of cities. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The sociology of knowledge is the study of the relationship between human thought and the social context within which it arises, and of the effects prevailing ideas have on societies. ...


Scientific method

Ibn Khaldun often criticized "idle superstition and uncritical acceptance of historical data." As a result, he introduced the scientific method to the social sciences, which was considered something "new to his age", and he often referred to it as his "new science" and developed his own new terminology for it.[19] Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ... -1... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... Terminology is the study of terms and their use — of words and compound words that are used in specific contexts. ...


His historical method also laid the groundwork for the observation of the role of state, communication, propaganda and systematic bias in history,[12] leading to his development of historiography. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... A systemic bias is a bias which is endemic in a system – especially a human system – making it tend to err consistently in a certain direction. ... Historiography is the aspect of history, and of semiotics, that is the study of how knowledge of the past, recent or distant, is obtained and transmitted; simply put, historiography is the history of history. ...


Conflict theory

Ibn Khaldun conceived both a central social conflict ("town" versus "desert") as well as a theory (using the concept of a "generation") of the necessary loss of power of city conquerors coming from the desert. Social conflict is a conflict or confrontation of social powers. ...


Asibiyah

Khaldun's central concept of asabiyah, or "social cohesion", seems to anticipate modern conceptions of social capital arising in social networks: Asabiyyah refers to social solidarity with an emphasis on group conciousness and unity. ... Structural cohesion is the sociological and graph theory conception [1][2] and measurement of cohesion for maximal social group or graphical boundaries where related elements cannot be disconnected except by removal of a certain minimal number of other nodes. ... Social capital, referring to connections within and between social networks, is a core concept in business, economics, organisational behaviour, political science, public health, and sociology. ... Not to be confused with social network services such as MySpace, etc. ...


This cohesion arises spontaneously in tribes and other small kinship groups; and it can be intensified and enlarged by a religious ideology. Khaldun's analysis looks at how this cohesion carries groups to power but contains within itself the seeds - psychological, sociological, economic, political - of the group's downfall, to be replaced by a new group, dynasty or empire bound by a stronger (or at least younger and more vigorous) cohesion.


Interestingly, Khaldun's concept is instinctive and does not involve any social contract or explicit forms of constitution or other instructional capital that would provide a basis for appeals, in law or otherwise. John Lockes writings on the Social Contract were particularly influential among the American Founding Fathers. ... Instructional capital is a term used in educational administration, to reflect capital resulting from investment in producing learning materials. ...


Economic thought

See Economics section below

Historiography

The Muqaddimah emphasized the role of systemic bias in affecting the standard of evidence. Khaldun was quite concerned with the effect of raising standard of evidence when confronted with uncomfortable claims, and relaxing it when given claims that seemed reasonable or comfortable. He was a jurist, and sometimes participated reluctantly in rulings that he felt were coerced, based on arguments he didn't respect. The Muqaddimah, or the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (Arabic: مقدّمة ابن خلدون), records an early Muslim view of universal history. Many modern thinkers view it as one of the first works of sociology. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... The Muqaddimah, or the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (Arabic: مقدّمة ابن خلدون), records an early Muslim view of universal history. Many modern thinkers view it as one of the first works of sociology. ... Systemic bias is the inherent tendency of a process to favor particular outcomes. ... The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ...


His Muqaddimah also laid the groundwork for the observation of the role of state, communication, propaganda and systematic bias in history,[12] and he discussed the rise and fall of civilizations in his theory of Asabiyyah. Ibn Khaldun had few successors in his thinking about history until Arnold J. Toynbee, a 20th century British historian. This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... A systemic bias is a bias which is endemic in a system – especially a human system – making it tend to err consistently in a certain direction. ... Central New York City. ... Asabiyyah refers to social solidarity with an emphasis on group conciousness and unity. ... This page is about the universal historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee; for the economic historian Arnold Toynbee see this article. ...


In the Muqaddimah, Ibn Khaldun warned of seven mistakes that he thought that historians regularly committed. In this criticism, he approached the past as strange and in need of interpretation. The originality of Ibn Khaldun was to claim that the cultural difference of another age must govern the evaluation of relevant historical material, to distinguish the principles according to which it might be possible to attempt the evaluation, and lastly, to feel the need for experience, in addition to rational principles, in order to assess a culture of the past. Ibn Khaldun often criticized "idle superstition and uncritical acceptance of historical data." As a result, he introduced a scientific method to the study of history, which was considered something "new to his age", and he often referred to it as his "new science", now associated with historiography.[20] His historical method also laid the groundwork for the observation of the role of state, communication, propaganda and systematic bias in history,[12] and he is thus considered to be the "father of historiography"[21][22] or the "father of the philosophy of history".[15] For other uses, see Superstition (disambiguation). ... -1... Historiography is the aspect of history, and of semiotics, that is the study of how knowledge of the past, recent or distant, is obtained and transmitted; simply put, historiography is the history of history. ... For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... A systemic bias is a bias which is endemic in a system – especially a human system – making it tend to err consistently in a certain direction. ... Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ...


Similarities to modern sociology

Early Muslim sociology is more similar to the theories developed by Hegel or Marx in emphasizing dialectic or feedback loops, or systems theory as applied to fields such as corporate social responsibility, than to the theories of Durkheim and others who emphasized structures. There is a remarkable similarity between modern economic ideas and some ideas developed by the thinkers evoked here, especially Ibn Khaldun. Marx is a common German surname. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is controversy, Viz. ... In cybernetics and control theory, feedback is a process whereby some proportion or in general, function, of the output signal of a system is passed (fed back) to the input. ... Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field of science. ... Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a concept whereby organizations consider the interests of society by taking responsibility for the impact of their activities on customers, employees, shareholders, communities and the environment in all aspects of their operations. ... David Émile Durkheim (April 15, 1858 - November 15, 1917) is known as the founder of modern sociology. ...


Anthropology

See also Indology section below
Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, "the first anthropologist" and the father of Indology.

Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973-1048) has been described as "the first anthropologist". Like modern anthropologists, he engaged in extensive participant observation with a given group of people, learnt their language and studied their primary texts, and presented his findings with objectivity and neutrality using cross-cultural comparisons.[23] He wrote detailed comparative studies on the anthropology of religions, peoples and cultures in the Middle East, Mediterranean and South Asia, especially in India's case, for which he is considered the "father of Indology".[11] Biruni's anthropology of religion was only possible for a scholar deeply immersed in the lore of other nations.[24] Biruni and Ibn Khaldun have also been praised by several scholars for his Islamic anthropology.[25] This article is about the social science. ... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian (TājÄ«k)[1][2][3] mathematician, physicist, scholar, encyclopedist, philosopher, astronomer, astrologer, traveller, historian, anthropologist, pharmacist, and teacher, who contributed greatly to the fields of mathematics, philosophy, history, anthropology, medicine, and science. ... Participant observation is a major research strategy which aims to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or deviant group) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment. ... Objectivity has several meanings: Objectivity (philosophy) Objectivity (journalism) Categories: Disambiguation ... Neutral means balanced between two or more opposites. ... Cross-Cultural Studies is a specialization in Anthropology that uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and culture. ... The anthropology of religion involves the study of religious institutions in relation to other social institutions, and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Biruni developed a sophisticated methodology for his anthropological studies. For example, he wrote the following in the opening passages of his Indica: Meethodology is defined as the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline, the systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been applied within a discipline or a particular procedure or set of procedures [1]. It should be noted that methodology is...

"No one will deny that in questions of historic authenticity hearsay does not equal eyewitness; for in the latter the eye of the observer apprehends the substance of that which is observed, both in the time when and in the place where it exists, whilst hearsay has its peculiar drawbacks."[26]

He was also aware that there are limitations to eye-witness accounts: This article is about witnesses in law courts. ...

"The object of eye-witness can only be actual momentary existence, whilst hearsay comprehends alike the present, the past and the future"[26]

Comparative religion

Biruni was a pioneer in comparative religion and the anthropology of religion. According to Arthur Jeffery, "It is rare until modern times to find so fair and unprejudiced a statement of the views of other religions, so earnest an attempt to study them in the best sources, and such care to find a method which for this branch of study would be both rigorous and just."[27] In the introduction to his Indica, Biruni himself writes that his intent behind the work was to engage dialogue between Islam and the Indian religions, particularly Hinduism as well as Buddhism. He writes:[27] The Major religious groups of the world. ... Arthur Jeffery ([[18 October 1892 in Melbourne]–2 August 1959 in South Milford, Nova Scotia Canada ) was a Protestant Australian professor of Semitic languages fist at the School of Oriental Studies in Cairo, and from 1938 until his death jointly at Columbia University and Union Theological Seminary in New York... For other uses, see Dialogue (disambiguation). ... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ...

"Abu-Sahl at-­Tiflisi incited me to write down what I know about the Hindus as a help to those who want to discuss religious questions with them, and as a repertory of information to those who want to associate with them. We think now that what we have related in this book will be sufficient for anyone who wants to converse with the Hindus, and to discuss with them questions of religion, science or literature, on the very basis of their own civilisation."

Biruni was aware that statements about a religion would be open to criticism by its adherents, and insisted that a scholar should follow the requirements of a strictly scientific method. According to William Montgomery Watt, Biruni "is admirably objective and unprejudiced in his presentation of facts" but "selects facts in such a way that he makes a strong case for holding that there is a certain unity in the religious experience of the peoples he considers, even though he does not appear to formulate this view explicitly."[27] Biruni's tradition of comparative cross-cultural study continued in the Muslim world through to Ibn Khaldun's work in the 14th century.[23] William Montgomery Watt is a English Islamic scholar. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ...


Economics

To some degree, the early Muslims based their economic analyses on the Qu'ran (such as opposition to riba, meaning usury or interest), and from sunnah, the sayings and doings of Muhammad. Islamic economics in practice. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The Quran ( Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; its literal meaning is the recitation and is often called Al Quran Al Karim: The Noble Quran, also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Riba is the (Arabic: ربا ) term for intrest, the charging of which is forbidden by the Quran here, among other places: And that which you give in gift (loan) (to others), in order that it may increase (your wealth by expecting to get a better one in return) from other... Of Usury, from Brants Stultifera Navis (the Ship of Fools); woodcut attributed to Albrecht Dürer Usury (//,comes from the Medieval Latin usuria, interest or excessive interest, from the Latin usura interest) originally meant the charging of interest on loans. ... For other senses of this word, see interest (disambiguation). ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


Perhaps the most well known Islamic scholar who wrote about economics was Ibn Khaldun of Tunisia (1332–1406),[28] who is considered a father of modern economics.[29][30] Ibn Khaldun wrote on economic and political theory in the introduction, or Muqaddimah (Prolegomena), of his History of the World (Kitab al-Ibar). In the book, he discussed what he called asabiyya (social cohesion), which he sourced as the cause of some civilizations becoming great and others not. Ibn Khaldun felt that many social forces are cyclic, although there can be sudden sharp turns that break the pattern.[31] His idea about the benefits of the division of labor also relate to asabiyya, the greater the social cohesion, the more complex the successful division may be, the greater the economic growth. He noted that growth and development positively stimulates both supply and demand, and that the forces of supply and demand are what determines the prices of goods.[32] He also noted macroeconomic forces of population growth, human capital development, and technological developments effects on development.[33] In fact, Ibn Khaldun thought that population growth was directly a function of wealth. [34] Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... The Muqaddimah, or the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (Arabic: مقدّمة ابن خلدون), records an early Muslim view of universal history. Many modern thinkers view it as one of the first works of sociology. ... Human capital refers to the stock of productive skills and technical knowledge embodied in labor. ...


Other important early Muslim scholars who wrote about economics include Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man (699-767), Abu Yusuf (731-798), Ishaq bin Ali al-Rahwi (854–931), al-Farabi (873–950), Qabus (d. 1012), Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980–1037), Ibn Miskawayh (b. 1030), al-Ghazali (1058–1111), al-Mawardi (1075–1158), Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī (1201-1274), Ibn Taymiyyah (1263–1328) and al-Maqrizi (1364-1442). Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man Al-Imam al-Azam Muhammad Nu’man bin Thabit bin Zuta bin Maah (), better known by his kunya as AbÅ« HÌ£anÄ«fah, () (699 — 767 CE / 80 — 148 AH) was the founder of the Hanafi school... Yaqub ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari, better known as Abu Yusuf (Arabic:أبو يوسف) (d. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Shams al-Moali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir (alt. ... For the lunar crater, see Avicenna (crater). ... Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Miskawayh, (ابن مسكوويه) also known as Ibn Miskawayh (932-1030) was a prominent Persian philosopher, scientist, poet and historian from Ray, Iran. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi (d. ... Tusi couple from Vat. ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: )(January 22, 1263 - 1328), was a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364 - 1442); Arabic: ‎, was an Egyptian historian more commonly known as al-Maqrizi or Makrizi. ...


History

The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ...

Science of hadith

The "science of hadith" is the process that Muslim scholars use to evaluate hadith. The classification of Hadith into Sahih (sound), Hasan (good) and Da'if (weak) was firmly established by Ali ibn al-Madini (161-234 AH). Later, al-Madini's student Muhammad al-Bukhari (810-870) authored a collection that he believed contained only Sahih hadith, which is now known as the Sahih Bukhari. Al-Bukhari's historical methods of testing hadiths and isnads is seen as the beginning of the method of citation and a precursor to the scientific method which was developed by later Muslim scientists. I. A. Ahmad writes:[35] The Science of hadith is the process that Muslim scholars use to evaluate hadith. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Sahih is a Islamic term that means authentic. ... Hasan is a Arabic word. ... In Islamic context, Daif is a the categorization of a hadiths authenticity as weak. Other categorizations include sound (as in, a sound proposal), good and fabricated. ... Ali ibn al-Madini (161 AH [1] - 234 AH [2]) was a well known Sunni Islamic scholar that contributed to the Science of hadith. ... 161 AH is a year in the Islamic calendar that corresponds to X – X CE. Ali ibn al-Madini [citation needed] Categories: | ... 234 AH is a year in the Islamic calendar that corresponds to X – X CE. Ali ibn al-Madini [1] ^ http://www. ... For other uses, see Al-Bukhari (name) Popularly known as just Bukhari, Al-Bukhari or Imam Bukhari (810-870), he was a famous Sunni Islamic scholar of Persian ancestry,[1] most known for authoring the hadith collection named Sahih Bukhari, a collection which Sunni regard as the most authentic (Arabic... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. ... The isnad (Arabic اسناد or in Quranic era Arabic اسند) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. ... For other uses, see Citation (disambiguation). ... -1... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ...


World history

The study of world history in the Islamic world was inspired by the concept of the oneness of humanity emphasized in the Qur'an and hadiths. A sense of common origin motivated early Muslim historians such as Wahb ibn Munabbih (d. 732) and Al-Asma'i (c. 740-828) to collect historical materials on pre-Islamic Arabian kings. The Qur'an also treats historical narrative as "eternally present, thereby forming the foundation which distinguishes Arabic historiography - its universality, a genre which is to be understood within the concept of the oneness of humanity as well as within the valued diversity of its ways."[36] The Qur'an (Sura 49:13) states:[37] World History is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Wahb ibn Munabbih (Abu Abd Allah al-Ṣanaani al-Dhimari) was a Mohammedan traditionist of Dhimar (two days journey from Sanaa) in Yemen; died at the age of ninety, in a year variously given by Arabic authorities as 725, 728, 732, and 737 C.E. On his fathers... Al-Asmai or Asma`i [Abu Sa`id `Abd al-Malik ibn Qurayb al-Asma`i] (c. ... Pre-Islamic Arabia, the history of Arabia before the rise of Islam in the 630s, is not known in great detail. ...

"O human beings, We (God) created you of a male and a female (from a single pair) and made you into (different) nations and tribes that you may (seek to) know each other."

Other verses in the Qur'an urge Muslims to visit and study other lands, cultures and languages, and specifically to study ancient civilizations, such as:[38]

"Do they not travel through the land, so that their hearts (minds) may thus learn wisdom and their ears may thus learn wisdom and their ears may thus leam to hear? For it is not the eyes which are blind, but the heart in the breast." (Sura 22:46) This is the Quran verse, not to be confused with The Hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca Surat Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage, The Hajj) is the 22nd sura of the Quran with 78 ayat. ...

"Say: Travel through the earth and see how creation started." (Sura 29:20) Surat Al-Ankabut (The Spider) is the 29th sura of the Quran with 69 ayat. ...

"Do they not travel through the earth and see what was the end of those before them (who) were more numerous and superior in strength and monuments in the land?" (Sura 40:82) Surat Ghafir (Arabic: سورة غافر ) (The Forgiver (Allah)) is the 40th sura of the Quran with 85 ayat. ...

Some early Muslim scholars regarded the study of history as a human necessity, as noted by he Afro-Arab scholar Al-Jahiz in the 9th century:[36] Majed Abdullah Afro-Arab refers to a people identified as having mixed African and Arab origins, and whose native language is Arabic. ... Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ...

"God made inherent in us the need for knowledge of the history of our predecessors, just as was the need of our predecessors for history of their predecessors, and just as will be the need of those who shall come after us for our history."

Said Al-Andalusi (1029-1168) stated that people in all corners of the world have a common origin but differ in certain aspects: "ethics, appearance, landscape and language". He treated the history of Egypt as part of the universal history of all humanity, and he linked Egypt and Sudan to the history of the Arabs through a common ancestry.[37] Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... Universal history is basic to the Western tradition of historiography, especially the Judeo-Christian wellspring of that tradition. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


Early writers on world history include Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838-923), who is known for writing a detailed and comprehensive chronicle of Mediterranean and Middle Eastern history in his History of the Prophets and Kings in 915. Abu al-Hasan 'Alī al-Mas'ūdī (896-956), known as the "Herodotus of the Arabs", was the first to combine history and scientific geography in a large-scale work, Muruj adh-dhahab wa ma'adin al-jawahir (The Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems), a book on world history. Along with his Researches on India, Biruni (973-1048) discussed more on his idea of history in his chronological work The Chronology of the Ancient Nations.[11] Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica, from Greek Χρόνος) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Further information: Timeline of Middle Eastern history Map of the Middle East. ... The History of the Prophets and Kings (Arabic: تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly Tarikh al-Tabari) is a history by Persian author and historian Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) from the Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Arab and Muslim... Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn íbn Ali al-Masudi (transl: ) (born c. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... This article is about the social science. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... World History is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s. ... For the novel by Michael Crichton, see Timeline (novel). ...


Archeology

While it is sometimes assumed that Muslims were intent on destroying pagan monuments, such destruction was in fact very rare in Muslim history. In reality, Muslim rulers most often preserved and protected pre-Islamic artifacts and monuments, for which the 12th-century Muslim historian Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi (1162–1231), who was well aware of the value of ancient monuments, praised them for. He noted that the preservation of antiquities presented a number of benefits for Muslims:[39] Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Abdallatif, Abd-el-latif or Abd-Ul-Latif (1162-1231), a celebrated physician and traveller, and one of the most voluminous writers of the East, was born at Baghdad. ...

  • "monuments are useful historical evidence for chronologies;"
  • "they furnish evidence for Holy Scriptures, since the Qur'an mentions them and their people;"
  • "they are reminders of human endurance and fate;"
  • "they show, to a degree, the politics and history of ancestors, the richness of their sciences, and the genius of their thought."

The following verse in the Qur'an also urges Muslims to study the remains of ancient civilizations:[38] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

"Do they not travel through the earth and see what was the end of those before them (who) were more numerous and superior in strength and monuments in the land?" (Sura 40:82) Surat Ghafir (Arabic: سورة غافر ) (The Forgiver (Allah)) is the 40th sura of the Quran with 85 ayat. ...

Antiquarianism and treasure hunting
See also Egyptology section below

The Egyptian historian Al-Maqrizi (1364–1442) wrote a chapter on archeology entitled "Hidden Treasures", in which he gave a religious justification for archeological excavations of pre-Islamic ancient Near Eastern sites. He cites a hadith narration which reports that Muhammad passed by a tomb of Abu Righal, a chief of the Banu Thaqif tribe, and stated that there was a gold sceptre with him; his companions then excavated the tomb and found the object. Al-Maqrizi cited this incident as proof that the excavations of pre-Islamic sites was sanctioned.[40] Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364 - 1442); Arabic: ‎, was an Egyptian historian more commonly known as al-Maqrizi or Makrizi. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Overview map of the ancient Near East The terms ancient Near East or ancient Orient encompass the early civilizations predating classical antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey, Israel, Palestinian Authority, Lebanon, Jordan, Syria), during the time roughly spanning... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For the New York prison see The Tombs. ... The Thaqif was one of the tribes of Arabia during Muhammads era. ... For the record label, see Scepter Records. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ...


The archeological professions of antiquarianism and treasure hunting were established as careers in the 9th century by Ahmad ibn Tulun, founder of the Tulunid dynasty. Since then, treasure hunting was studied as a serious topic by Islamic scholars, beginning with Al-Kindi (Alkindus). In the 11th century, the Egyptian caliph, Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah, established the profession of Emir al-Matalabin ("Overseer of Treasure Hunters"), whose role was described in 1050 by the Persian traveller Nasir Khusraw while he was in Egypt as follows:[41] An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... Gems may be found by treasure hunters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... which is in mecca the city Category: ... The Tulunids were the first independent dynasty in Islamic Egypt (868-905). ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Al-Mustansir (July 2, 1029 - January 10, 1094), was born in Cairo on 16th Jamada II, 420/ and eight months afterwards was declared to succeed his father. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... 20th century Artistic rendition of Nasir Khusraw from the USSR Abu Mo’in Hamid ad-Din Nasir ibn Khusraw al-Qubadiani or Nasir Khusraw Qubadyani [also spelled Khusrow] (1004 - 1088 CE) (Persian: ) was a Persian poet, philosopher, Ismaili scholar and a traveler. ...

"The Sultan had a servant called 'Omdat al-Dawla' who was the Emir of the Matalibeen and enormously rich and propertied. Matalibi is what they call the people who dig for buried treasure in the graves of Egypt. From the Maghreb (Morocco) and the lands of Egypt and Syria come people who endure many hardships and spend a lot of (their own) money in those graves and rock piles. Many a time buried treasure is discovered, although often much outlay is made without anything being found. They say that in those places the wealth of the pharaohs is buried. Whenever anyone does find something, one fifth is given to the Sultan and the rest belongs to the finder. At any rate the Sultan dispatched this 'Omdat al-Dawla' to that province with great pomp and circumstance, outfitting him with all the trappings of kings, such as canopies, pavilions, and so on. When he reached Aleppo he waged war and was killed. He had so much wealth that it took two months for it to be transferred from his treasury to the Sultan's." For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... This article is about the region. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... Aleppo (Arabic: ‎ [ħalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate; the Governate extends around the city for over 16,000 km² and has a population of 4,393,000, making it the largest Governate in Syria (followed by Damascus). ...

During the Fatimid Caliphate, the supervision of treasure hunters developed into a guild with its head known as Naqeeb al-Mutalibeen ("Chairman of the Guild"). The Egyptian historian Al-Maqrizi regarded the death of one such chairman, Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Ibrahim al-Nursi, in 1010 as an important event in his annals. Treasure hunters from Egypt, North Africa and Greater Syria were encouraged to search for hidden treasures at their own expense under the government's supervision. Treasure hunting was also a hobby for some, such as Sheikh Muhammad ibn Mubarak al-Athari ("The Antiquarian"), also known as "Keeper of the Relics of the Prophet", whose death in 1403 was noted by Ibn Qadi Shuhba.[41] The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... A chair or seat is also a seat of office, authority, or dignity, such as the chairperson of a committee, or a professorship at a college or university, or the individual that presides over business proceedings. ... Annals (Latin Annales, from annus, a year) are a concise form of historical writing which record events chronologically, year by year. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ...


With the establishment of treasure hunting as a new industry, many treasure hunting manuals and guide books were written by experienced treasure hunters and alchemists which became best sellers in the medieval Arab world. They were used by treasure hunters as sources to utilize in their search for treasure. Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi in the 12th century notes that poorer treasure hunters were often sponsored by rich businessmen to go on archeological expeditions. In some cases, an expedition could turn out to be fraud, with the treasure hunter dissappearing with large amounts of money extracted from sponsors. This fraudulent practice continues to the present day, with rich businessmen in Egypt still being deceived by local treasure hunters.[42] A guide book is a book for tourists or travelers that provides details about a geographic location, tourist destination, or itinerary. ... Arab States redirects here. ... Abdallatif, Abd-el-latif or Abd-Ul-Latif (1162-1231), a celebrated physician and traveller, and one of the most voluminous writers of the East, was born at Baghdad. ...


A number of stories within the One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights) deal with lost ancient technologies, advanced ancient civilizations that went astray, and catastrophes which overwhelmed them.[43] "The City of Brass" features a group of travellers on an archaeological expedition[44] across the Sahara to find an ancient lost city and attempt to recover a brass vessel that Solomon once used to trap a jinn,[45] and, along the way, encounter a mummified queen, petrified inhabitants,[46] life-like humanoid robots and automata, seductive marionettes dancing without strings,[47] and a brass horseman robot who directs the party towards the ancient city.[48] "The City of Brass" can be considered an early example of proto-science fiction.[49] A story within a story is a literary device or conceit in which one story is told during the action of another story. ... Arabian Nights redirects here. ... The 2000-year-old remains of Ancient Rome, Italy, are being excavated and mapped by these archaeologists Roman theater, Alexandria, Egypt Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek: αρχαίος, archaios, combining form in Latin archae-, ancient; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the science that studies human cultures through the recovery, documentation, analysis... This article is about the Biblical character . ... For other uses, see Genie (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mummy (disambiguation). ... Petrified wood In geology, petrifaction or petrification is the process by which organic material is converted into stone or a similar substance. ... Hondas ASIMO, an example of a humanoid robot A humanoid robot is a robot with its overall appearance based on that of the human body. ... The Canard Digérateur of Jacques de Vaucanson, hailed in 1739 as the first automaton capable of digestion. ... A marionette is a type of puppet with strings controlled by a puppeteer from above. ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ...

Archeological methodology
See also Paleography section below

Abu al-Hassan al-Hamadani of Yemen (d. 945) developed an early archeological methodology in his encyclopedic work Al-Iklil, which covers the archeology and history of South Arabia, including the pre-Islamic period, though only the eighth volume of his work has survived.[50] The archeological method he employed can be summarized as follows:[51]-1... The term South Arabia commonly refers to either: the Federation of South Arabia or the Protectorate of South Arabia Category: ... Pre-Islamic Arabia, the history of Arabia before the rise of Islam in the 630s, is not known in great detail. ...

  • "observing and describing the site;"
  • "excavating and recording of finds with exact provenance, descriptions and measurements;"
  • "using knowledge of ancient writings to read Himyarite inscriptions;"
  • "analysing the finds in light of religious and historical texts and oral history."

Al-Idrisi (d. 1251), an Egyptian historian, described a more elaborate archeological methodology in his book Anwar, a book on Egyptology which mainly focused on the Egyptian pyramids. The archeological methods described in his book include:[52] The Himyarite language was a Semitic tongue spoken in the south-western Arabian peninsula until the the 10th century. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ... A view of the pyramids at Giza from the plateau to the south of the complex. ...

  • "reasons for the study of the importance of the pyramids;"
  • "description of the route to the site;"
  • "description of the pyramids and their inscriptions;"
  • "measuring, and checking previous measurements;"
  • "analysis of the form of the pyramid and reasons for building, with a critical review of literature (more than 22 authorities quoted) on the subject;"
  • "study of sediments as an indication of the flood level;"
  • "chemical analysis of clay in building material, by studying its mineral content in order to check place of origin;"
  • "regular visits to the site to see it in different conditions, and to recheck measurements;"
  • "noting stones reused at Jeremias Monastery, Saqqara as evidence of earlier dates, an observation confirmed by modern research."

It was also a widespread practice among medieval Muslim archeologists to give the exact pronunciations of the names of places, people and things according to local tradition, which has led to many ancient place names being preserved in the Arabic language.[52] For example, the name for the land of Punt was preserved in Arabic as Punta, as recorded in the book of geography by Ibn Sa'id al-Maghribi (d. 1286).[53] For other meanings, see pyramid (disambiguation). ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... Saqqara Saqqara or Sakkara, Saqqarah (Arabic: سقارة) is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the worlds oldest standing step pyramid (). It is located some 30 km south of modern-day Cairo and covers an area of around 7 km by 1. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet[1] by the ancient Egyptians, at times synonymous with Ta netjer, the land of the god [2], was a fabled site in the Horn of Africa and was the source of many exotic products, such as gold, aromatic resins, African blackwood, ebony, ivory...


Medieval Arabic treasure hunter manuals often gave remarkable advice on locating and identifying ancient tombs. One such manual advised its readers to "look out for areas where the earth is covered by broken pottery as an indication of ancient tombs." Another manual entitled Ghayat al-Ma'rib indicated that "the presence of bones of saluki dogs was a certain sign of royal tombs", which has been attested in Egyptian royal burials. The Egyptologist Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi established another important aspect of archeological methodology, which was to "search unopened tombs to answer specific questions", which he did during his quest to investigate the absence of camel, donkey and horse burials, after having questioned the local people who could not give him a convincing answer.[54] This question has partly been resolved in modern times with the hypothesis that domestication of the horse was not introduced to the Near East until the Indo-Iranians invaded from Central Asia. For the New York prison see The Tombs. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ... For the passenger train service, see Saluki (Amtrak). ... Abdallatif, Abd-el-latif or Abd-Ul-Latif (1162-1231), a celebrated physician and traveller, and one of the most voluminous writers of the East, was born at Baghdad. ... There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to...


As a physician, al-Baghdadi examined hundreds of ancient Egyptian mummies in order to resolve medical and anatomical questions. He also demonstrated another important archeological methdology, which is the ethno-historical approach where contemporary practices are observed and traced back to the past. He often obtained information both from the educated urban population and from local peasants in the countryside. Geography in medieval Islam also played an important role in Arabic archeological methdology, with historians and geographers such as Estakhri, Ibn Hawqal and Al-Muqaddasi accompanying their accounts of Egypt with national maps displaying details of its landscape. This high regard for regional maps was uncommon in Europe until the late Middle Ages.[54] For other uses, see Mummy (disambiguation). ... Ethnohistory uses both historical and ethnographic data as its foundation. ... 10th century map of the World by Ibn Hawqal. ... Muhammad ibn Ahmad Shams al-Din Al-Muqaddasi (Arabic: محمد بن امحد شمس الدين المقدسي) (also known as Al-Maqdisi) was a notable medieval Arab geographer, author of Ahsan at-Taqasim fi Ma`rifat il-Aqalim (The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions). ... Dante by Michelino The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th to 16th centuries (AD 1300–1500). ...


Egyptology

See also Archeology section above

The study of Egyptology began in Arab Egypt from the 9th century. Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi (787-886) divided the history of pre-Islamic ancient Egypt into the pre-flood and post-flood periods, in reference to Noah's flood. He dated the flood to 3,671 years before Hijra (approximately 3100 BC), coinciding with the founding of the First dynasty of Egypt.[39] Said Al-Andalusi (1029-1168) treated the history of Egypt as part of the universal history of all humanity. He and other Muslim historians linked Egypt and Sudan to the history of the Arabs through a common ancestry. They linked ancient Egypt to Muslim history through Hajar (Hagar), the wife of Ibrahim (Abraham) and mother of Ismail (Ishmael), the patriarch of the Arabs,[37] thus making Hajar the mother of the Arabs;[38] and through Maria al-Qibtiyya, one of Muhammad's wives. Muhammad himself often praised Egypt, its produce, and its people, and according to this tradition, the Copts had kinship with the Arabs and enjoyed a close relationship with the new Islamic government after the Muslim conquest of Egypt from the Byzantines.[37] According to a hadith narrated by Ibn Zahira, Muhammad stated:[38] The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ... During the initial Islamic invasion in 639 AD, Egypt was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Ummayad Caliphs in Damascus but, in 747, the Ummayads were overthrown and the power of the Arabs slowly began to weaken. ... Jafar ibn Muhammad Abu Mashar al-Balkhi (787 - 886) was a Persian astronomer and mathematician from Balkh, in todays Afghanistan. ... The pyramids are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... This article is about great floods. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the First Dynasty. ... Universal history is basic to the Western tradition of historiography, especially the Judeo-Christian wellspring of that tradition. ... A Muslim historian is a person that professes Islam and is engaged in the historical aspect of Islamization of knowledge. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... The dismissal of Hagar, 1612 by Pieter Pietersz Lastman Hagar (Hebrew הָגָר Stranger, Standard Hebrew Hagar, Tiberian Hebrew ; Arabic هاجر; Hagar), according to the Abrahamic faiths, was an Egyptian handmaiden (or slave-girl) of Sarah, wife of Abraham. ... For information on the racehorse, see Ibrahim (horse) (Arabic: ), the biblical patriarch Abraham, is an important prophet in Islam, son of Azar, and the father of the Prophet Ismail (Ishmael), his firstborn son, who is considered the Father of the Arabs. ... In Islam, Ishmael is known as the first-born son of Abraham (Ibrahim in Arabic) from Hagar, and as an appointed prophet and messenger (Rasul) of God. ... Maria al-Qibtiyya (Arabic: مارية القبطية) (alternatively, especially in non-Arabic traditions, Maria Qupthiya), or Maria the Copt, was a Coptic Christian slave who was sent as a gift from Muqawqis, a Byzantine official, to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 628 CE. According to most Islamic accounts, she was Muhammads wife. ... Muhammad (570-632 C.E.) is regarded by non-Muslims as the founder of the religion of Islam and by Muslims as the last and greatest of the prophets of Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Religions Predominantly: Coptic Orthodox Christianity. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ...

"You are going to enter Egypt a land where qirat (money unit) is used. Be extremely good to them as they have with us close ties and marriage relationships."

The Qur'an (Sura 2:127) credits Abrahim and Ishmael as the builders of the Kaaba, the most holy place of Islam, while the 9th century writer Al-Kindi (Alkindus) refers to Egyptian craftsmen rebuilding it. According to other hadiths attributed to Muhammad, he stated the following regarding Egypt:[38] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sūrata’l-Baqarah (Arabic: ‎ the Cow) is the second, and the longest, chapter of the Quran, with 286 verses. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ...

"When you enter Egypt after my death, recruit many soldiers from among the Egyptians because they are the best soldiers on earth, as they and their wives are permanently on duty until the Day of Resurrection."

"Be good to the Copts of Egypt; you shall take them over, but they shall be your instrument and help."

"Egypt has the best soil on earth and its people are the most generous of all people."

"Blessing (al-baraka) was divided into ten parts, nine for Egypt and one part for the other lands. This will be always manifest (baraka) in Egypt more than in all other lands." For other uses, see Baraka. ...

"Be Righteous to Allah about the Copts."

Muslim geographers and historians such as Ibn Abd-el-Hakem (d. 871) and Muhammad al-Idrisi (1100-1166) explained that it was Muhammad's praise for Egypt that inspired them to write about Egypt's monuments, history, knowledge and practice.[38] In order to study Egyptian history, early Muslim historians drew on the study of native Egyptian culture; the critical examination of Egyptian oral traditions; discourses with Coptic monks; ancient Demotic, Greek and Latin literature; ethnographic and geographical studies; and the remains of Egyptian antiquities.[55] Ibn Abd-el-Hakem (d. ... Al-Idrisis world map from 1154. ... Demotic (from δημοτικά dimotika popular) refers to both the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Delta, as well as the stage of the Egyptian language following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ...


The first known attempts at deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs were made by made by Muslim historians in medieval Egypt during the 9th and 10th centuries. By then, hieroglyphs had long been forgotten in Egypt, and were replaced by the Coptic and Arabic alphabets. Dhul-Nun al-Misri and Ibn Wahshiyya (who was attempting to uncover the secrets of alchemy) were the first historians to be able to at least partly decipher what was written in the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs,[56] by relating them to the contemporary Coptic language used by Coptic priests in their time.[57] A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... A Muslim historian is a person that professes Islam and is engaged in the historical aspect of Islamization of knowledge. ... During the initial Islamic invasion in 639 AD, Egypt was ruled at first by governors acting in the name of the Ummayad Caliphs in Damascus but, in 747, the Ummayads were overthrown and the power of the Arabs slowly began to weaken. ... The Coptic alphabet is an alphabet used for writing the Coptic language. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Dhul-Nun al-Misri (Arabic:ذو النون المصري) (d. ... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ...


Abd-al Latif al-Baghdadi, a teacher at Cairo's Al-Azhar University in the 13th century, wrote detailed descriptions on ancient Egyptian monuments.[56] The Arabic manuscript of his Account of Egypt was discovered in 1665 by Edward Pococke the orientalist, and preserved in the Bodleian Library. He then published the Arabic manuscript in the 1680s. His son, Edward Pococke the Younger, translated the work into Latin, though he was only able to publish less than half of his work. Thomas Hunt attempted to publish Pococke's complete translation in 1746, though his attempt was unsuccessful.[58] Pococke's complete Latin translation was eventually published by Professor Joseph White of Oxford in 1800. The work was then translated into French, with valuable notes, by Silvestre de Sacy in 1810.[59] The 15th-century Egyptian historian Al-Maqrizi also wrote detailed accounts of Egyptian antiquities, and described Egyptian history from the pre-dynastic period up until the Islamic period of his time.[39] Abdallatif, Abd-el-latif or Abd-Ul-Latif (1162-1231), a celebrated physician and traveller, and one of the most voluminous writers of the East, was born at Baghdad. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University (Arabic: الأزهر الشريف; al-Azhar al-Shareef, the Noble Azhar), is a premier Egyptian institution of higher learning, world-renowned for its position as a center of Islamic scholarship and education. ... The well preserved temple of Horus at Edfu is an exemplar of Egyptian architecture The Nile valley has been the site of one of the most influential civilizations which developed a vast array of diverse structures encompassing ancient Egyptian architecture. ... Edward Pococke (1604-1691) was an English Orientalist and biblical scholar. ... Orientalism is the study of Near and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages and peoples by Western scholars. ... Entrance to the Library, with the coats-of-arms of several Oxford colleges The Bodleian Library, the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, and in England is second in size only to the British Library. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Antoine Isaac, baron Silvestre de Sacy (September 21, 1758 - February 21, 1838), was a French orientalist. ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364 - 1442); Arabic: ‎, was an Egyptian historian more commonly known as al-Maqrizi or Makrizi. ... The Predynastic Period of Egypt (prior to 3100 BC) is traditionally the period between the Early Neolithic and the beginning of the Pharaonic monarchy beginning with King Narmer. ...


The Egyptian Muslim historian Mourtadi wrote an Arabic book on ancient Egyptian monuments, which was later published in France and Britain in the 17th century. An Arabic manuscript of Ibn Wahshiyya's book on Egyptology, in which he deciphered a number of Egyptian hieroglyphs, was later read by Athanasius Kircher in the 17th century, and then translated and published in English by Joseph Hammer in 1806 as Ancient Alphabets and Hieroglyphic Characters Explained; with an Account of the Egyptian Priests, their Classes, Initiation, and Sacrifices in the Arabic Language by Ahmad Bin Abubekr Bin Wahishih, 16 years before Jean-François Champollion's complete decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs.[57] Arabic redirects here. ... Athanasius Kircher ( ) (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner) was a 17th century German Jesuit scholar who published around 40 works, most notably in the fields of oriental studies, geology and medicine. ... For the Champollion comet rendezvous spacecraft, see Champollion (spacecraft). ...


Indology

See also Anthropology section above

Until the 10th century, history most often meant political and military history, but this was not so with Persian historian Biruni (973-1048). In his Kitab fi Tahqiq ma l'il-Hind (Researches on India), he did not record political and military history in any detail, but wrote more on India's cultural, scientific, social and religious history.[11] Biruni is considered the father of Indology for his detailed studies on Indian history and anthropology.[60] This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... The culture of India has been shaped by the long history of India, its unique geography and the absorption of customs, traditions and ideas from some of its neighbors as well as by preserving its ancient heritages, from the Indus Valley Civilization onward. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An Indian Muslim couple weds on the bank of Karnatakas Tungabhadra River. ... Indology refers to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of the Indian subcontinent, and as such a subset of Asian studies. ...


Paleography

See also Archeology and Egyptology sections above

Abu al-Hassan al-Hamadani of Yemen (d. 945), who wrote the encyclopedic work, Al-Iklil, on the archeology and history of South Arabia, also wrote the earliest known manual on the subject of paleography. This subject not introduced in Europe until Bernard de Montfaucon wrote Palaeographia graeca in 1708. Al-Hamadani wrote the following reason for writing his paleography manual:[52] The term South Arabia commonly refers to either: the Federation of South Arabia or the Protectorate of South Arabia Category: ... Palaeography, literally old writing, (from the Greek words paleos = old and grapho = write) is the study of script. ... Bernard de Montfaucon (1655 - 1741) was a French Benedictine monk and scholar. ...

"Most of the disagreement among people with regard to Himyarite inscriptions centres on the variations in form of the character [of its alphabet]. A character or letter may have four or five forms, while the person who reads it is familiar with only one form. Since, as a result, mistakes have crept in, we have decided to record underneath each letter in the alphabet various forms of its Himyarite equivalent." The Himyarite language was a Semitic tongue spoken in the south-western Arabian peninsula until the the 10th century. ... The ancient South Arabian alphabet (also known as musnad) branched from the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in ca. ...

History of science

Al-Saghani (d. 990) wrote some of the earliest comments on the history of science. These included the following comparison between the "ancients" (including the ancient Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks and Indians) and the "modern scholars" (the Muslim scientists of his time): Abu Hamid Ahmed ibn Mohammed al-Saghani al-Asturlabi, i. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of scientific methods, which emphasize the observation, explanation, and adequate prediction of real world phenomena by experiment. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ...

"The ancients distinguished themselves through their chance discovery of basic principles and the invention of ideas. The modern scholars, on the other hand, distinguish themselves through the invention of a multitude of scientific details, the simplification of difficult (problems), the combination of scattered (information), and the explanation of (material which already exists in) coherent (form). The ancients came to their particular achievements by virtue of their priority in time, and not on account of any natural qualification and intelligence. Yet, how many things escaped them which then became the original inventions of modern scholars, and how much did the former leave for the latter to do."[61]

Historiography

See Historiography above

Psychology

In psychology, Islamic medicine stressed the need for individual understanding of their mental health. The first psychiatric hospitals and insane asylums were built in the Islamic world as early as the 8th century. The first psychiatric hospitals were built by Arab Muslims in Baghdad in 705, Fes in the early 8th century, and Cairo in 800. Other famous psychiatric hospitals were built in Damascus and Aleppo in 1270.[62] Unlike medieval Christian physicians who relied on demonological explanations for mental illness, medieval Muslim physicians relied mostly on clinical psychiatry and clinical observations on mentally ill patients. They made significant advances to psychiatry and were the first to provide psychotherapy and moral treatment for mentally ill patients, in addition to other new forms of treatment such as baths, drug medication, music therapy and occupational therapy.[63] Psychological science redirects here. ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ... A psychiatric hospital (also called, at various places and times, mental hospital or mental ward, historically often asylum, lunatic asylum, or madhouse), is a hospital specialising in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... FES is a three-letter acronym that may refer to: Family Expenditure Survey, a national survey in UK Functional electrical stimulation, a neurological treatment technique Flat Earth Society, an organization that advocates the belief that the Earth is flat Flywheel energy storage Fellowship of Evangelical Students Foundation for Ecological Security... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Aleppo (Arabic: ‎ [ħalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate; the Governate extends around the city for over 16,000 km² and has a population of 4,393,000, making it the largest Governate in Syria (followed by Damascus). ... “Fiend” redirects here. ... Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. ... Moral treatment marks a period in psychiatry where asylums began to offer humane care to the mentally ill. ... Children bathing in a small metal bathtub Bathing is the immersion of the body in fluid, usually water, or an aqueous solution. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a qualified professional who has completed an approved music therapy program. ... Occupational therapy refers to the use of meaningful occupation to assist people who have difficulty in achieving healthy and balanced life; and to enable an inclusive society so that all people can participate to their potential in daily occupations of life. ...


The concepts of mental health and "mental hygiene" were introduced by the Muslim physician Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi (850-934). In his Masalih al-Abdan wa al-Anfus (Sustenance for Body and Soul), he was the first to successfully discuss diseases related to both the body and the mind, and argued that "if the nafs [psyche] gets sick, the body may also find no joy in life and may eventually develop a physical illness."[64] Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ... Abu Zaid Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi was a Persian mathematician who lived in the 10th century. ...


Najab ud-din Muhammad (10th century) described a number of mental diseases in detail. He made many careful observations of mentally ill patients and compiled them in a book which "made up the most complete classification of mental diseases theretofore known." The mental illnesses first described by Najab include agitated depression, neurosis, priapism and sexual impotence (Nafkhae Malikholia), psychosis (Kutrib), and mania (Dual-Kulb).[63] Symptoms resembling schizophrenia were also reported in later Arabic medical literature.[65] For other uses, see Observation (disambiguation). ... In the context of mental illness, a mixed state (also known as dysphoric mania, agitated depression, or a mixed episode) is a condition during which symptoms of mania and depression occur simultaneously (e. ... Neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a catch all term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but, unlike a psychosis or some personality disorders, does not prevent or affect rational thought. ... Priapism (Ancient Greek: ) is a potentially harmful medical condition in which the erect penis does not return to its flaccid state (despite the absence of both physical and psychological stimulation) within about four hours. ... Impotence or, more clinically, erectile dysfunction is the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis for satisfactory sexual intercourse regardless of the capability of ejaculation. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ...


Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi was a pioneer of psychotherapy, psychophysiology and psychosomatic medicine. He recognized that the body and the soul can be healthy or sick, or "balanced or imbalanced", and that mental illness can have both psychological and/or physiological causes. He wrote that imbalance of the body can result in fever, headaches and other physical illnesses, while imbalance of the soul can result in anger, anxiety, sadness and other mental symptoms. He recognized two types of depression: one caused by known reasons such as loss or failure, which can be treated psychologically; and the other caused by unknown reasons possibly caused by physiological reasons, which can be treated through physical medicine.[64] Abu Zaid Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi was a Persian mathematician who lived in the 10th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... Psychology (ancient Greek: psyche = soul and logos = word) is the study of mind, thought, and behaviour. ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... This article is about the emotion. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components[1]. These components combine to create the feelings that we typically recognize as anger and known as fear, apprehension, or worry. ... Sadness is a mood that displays feeling of disadvantage and loss. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Look up loss in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Fail and Phail redirect here. ...


Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) and al-Balkhi were the first known physicians to study psychotherapy. Razi was a Persian and Zoroasterian who adopted Islam only in name. He had a disdain for Islam. Razi in particular made significant advances in psychiatry in his landmark texts El-Mansuri and Al-Hawi in the 10th century, which presented definitions, symptoms and treatments for problems related to mental health and mental illness. He also ran the psychiatric ward of a Baghdad hospital. Such institutions could not exist in Europe at the time because of fear of demonic possessions.[63] For other uses, see Definition (disambiguation). ... A symptom is a manifestation of a disease, indicating the nature of the disease, which is noticed by the patient. ... Treatment may refer to: // Health Therapy - the act of remediation of a health problem. ... Mental health is a term used to describe either a level of cognitive or emotional wellbeing or an absence of a mental disorder. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Demonic possession, in supernatural belief systems, is a form of spiritual possession whereby certain malevolent extra-dimensional entities, demons, gain control over a mortal persons body, which is then used for an evil or destructive purpose. ...


In al-Andalus, Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), the father of modern surgery, developed material and technical designs which are still used in neurosurgery. Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) gave the first accurate descriptions on neurological disorders, including meningitis, intracranial thrombophlebitis, and mediastinal germ cell tumors, and made contributions to modern neuropharmacology. Averroes suggested the existence of Parkinson's disease and attributed photoreceptor properties to the retina. Maimonides wrote about neuropsychiatric disorders and described rabies and belladonna intoxication.[66] Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, and scientist. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Insertion of an electrode during neurosurgery for Parkinsons disease. ... Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar, Abumeron, ibn-Zohr) (1090? - 1162) was an Arab (Spanish-born) physician. ... Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into deep vein thrombosis. ... Malignant mediastinal germ cell tumors of various histologies were first described as a clinical entity approximately 50 years ago. ... Neuropharmacology is the branch of health science concerned with the study of drugs on the nervous system. ... AbÅ« l-WalÄ«d Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Rushd (Arabic:أبو الوليد محمد بن احمد بن رشد), better known just as Ibn Rushd (Arabic: ابن رشد), and in European literature as Averroes (pronounced ) (1126 – December 10, 1198), was a Muslim Andalusian philosopher, physician, and polymath: a master of philosophy, theology, Maliki law and jurisprudence, astronomy, geography, mathematics... A photoreceptor, or photoreceptor cell, is a specialized type of neuron found in the eyes retina that is capable of phototransduction. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Neuropsychiatry, as a subspecialty of Psychiatry, is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... Binomial name L. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), also known as belladonna or dwale, is a well-known perennial herbaceous plant, with leaves and berries that are highly toxic and hallucinogenic. ...


Ibn al-Haytham is considered by some to be the founder of experimental psychology and psychophysics,[67] for his pioneering work on the psychology of visual perception in the Book of Optics.[68] In Book III of the Book of Optics, Ibn al-Haytham was the first scientist to argue that vision occurs in the brain, rather than the eyes. He pointed out that personal experience has an effect on what people see and how they see, and that vision and perception are subjective.[68] This article is about the scientist. ... Experimental psychology approaches psychology as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Psychophysics is a subdiscipline of psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their subjective correlates, or percepts. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret information from visible light reaching the eyes. ... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... The title page of a 1572 Latin manuscript of Ibn al-Haythams Book of Optics The Book of Optics (Arabic: Kitab al-Manazir, Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva) was a seven volume treatise on optics written by the Iraqi Muslim scientist Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhacen or Alhazen... This article is about the scientist. ... A scientist, in the broadest sense, refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices and traditions that are linked to schools of thought or philosophy. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


Along with al-Kindi and Ibn al-Haytham, al-Biruni was also a pioneer of experimental psychology, as he was the first to empirically describe the concept of reaction time:[69] For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ... Reaction time (RT) is the elapsed time between the presentation of a sensory stimulus and the subsequent behavioral response. ...

"Not only is every sensation attended by a corresponding change localized in the sense-organ, which demands a certain time, but also, between the stimulation of the organ and consciousness of the perception an interval of time must elapse, corresponding to the transmission of stimulus for some distance along the nerves."

Avicenna was a pioneer of psychophysiology and psychosomatic medicine. He recognized 'physiological psychology' in the treatment of illnesses involving emotions, and developed a system for associating changes in the pulse rate with inner feelings, which is seen as an anticipation of the word association test attributed to Carl Jung.[63] Avicenna was also a pioneer of neuropsychiatry. He first described numerous neuropsychiatric conditions, including hallucination, insomnia, mania, nightmare, melancholia, dementia, epilepsy, paralysis, stroke, vertigo and tremor.[70] For the lunar crater, see Avicenna (crater). ... For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pulse (disambiguation). ... Word Association is a common word game involving an exchange of words that are associated together. ... Jung redirects here. ... Neuropsychiatry is the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system. ... A hallucination is a perception in the absence of a stimulus that the person may or may not believe is real. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... The current usage of the term nightmare refers to a dream which causes the sleeper a strong unpleasant emotional response. ... Melancholy redirects here. ... For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... Paralysed redirects here. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Vertigo, a specific type of dizziness, is a major symptom of a balance disorder. ... For the film, see Tremors (film). ...


Social psychology

Al-Farabi (Alpharabius) was a pioneer of social psychology.

The earliest works on social psychology and animal psychology were written by al-Jahiz (766–868), an Afro-Arab scholar who wrote a number of works dealing with the social organization of ants and with animal communication and psychology.[71] Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... The scope of social psychological research. ... The scope of social psychological research. ... A brain of a cat Psychologists and scientists do not always agree on what should be considered Comparative Psychology. ... Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ... Majed Abdullah Afro-Arab refers to a people identified as having mixed African and Arab origins, and whose native language is Arabic. ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Communication (disambiguation). ...


Al-Farabi's Social Psychology and Model City were also some of the first treatises to deal with social psychology. Al Farabi's parents were both Persian/Iranian. His family was forced to adopt Islam. His thinking and writings were intrinsically derived from his Persian heritage. His name is based on the name of the Farab river in Iran. He stated that "an isolated individual could not achieve all the perfections by himself, without the aid of other individuals." He wrote that it is the "innate disposition of every man to join another human being or other men in the labor he ought to perform." He concluded that in order to "achieve what he can of that perfection, every man needs to stay in the neighborhood of others and associate with them." Al-Farabi's treatise Meanings of the Intellect dealt with music therapy, where he discussed the therapeutic effects of music on the soul.[72] Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... The scope of social psychological research. ... Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a qualified professional who has completed an approved music therapy program. ... Look up Therapy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ...


See also

Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Many Reforms took place under Islam between 610 and 661, including the period of Muhammads mission and the rule of his four immediate successors. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of the Islamic civilization. ...

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The Traditionalist School of thought (not to be confused with Traditionalist Catholicism), attained its current form with the French metaphysician René Guénon, although its precepts are considered to be timeless and to be found in all authentic traditions. ... // Cosmology Subtle bodies Rooh ( Soul ) Nasma ( Astral Body ) Physical body Concepts in Gnosis Fana Baqa Haal Maqaam Other concepts Haqiqa Marifa Ihsan Categories: Sufi philosophy | Mystic philosophy ... Although there is no consensus with regard to Sufi cosmology, one can disentangle various threads that led to the crystallization of more or less coherent cosmological doctrines. ... This is an incomplete list of notable Muslim theologians. ... Jafar Al-Sadiq (Arabic: جعفر الصادق in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn (702 AD - 765 AD ) is the sixth infallible Imam and one of Ahl al-Bayt of the Shia Muslims. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man Al-Imam al-Azam Muhammad Nu’man bin Thabit bin Zuta bin Maah (), better known by his kunya as AbÅ« HÌ£anÄ«fah, () (699 — 767 CE / 80 — 148 AH) was the founder of the Hanafi school... The Shāfi‘ī madhab () is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Amr al-Asbahi (Arabic مالك بن أنس) (c. ... Ahmed ibn Hanbal (Arabic: ‏‎‎‎‎‎‎‎‎أحمد بن حنبل‏‎‎‎‏‎‎‎ ‎‎‎‎‎‎‎ Ahmad bin Hanbal ) (780 - 855 CE, 164 - 241 AH) was an important Muslim scholar and theologian of arabic background [9] and descendant from the Banu Shayban Arabian tribe and native of Merw [10]. He is considered the founder of the Hanbali school of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence). ... Yaqub ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari, better known as Abu Yusuf (Arabic:أبو يوسف) (d. ... Wasil ibn Ata (700–748) (Arabic: ‎) was a Muslim theologian, and by some accounts is considered the founder of the Mutazilite school of Islamic thought. ... Amr Ibn Ubayd ibn Bāb (d. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Abu al-Wafa Ali Ibn Aqil ibn Ahmad al-Baghdadi (1040-1119) was an Islamic theologian from Baghdad, Iraq. ... AbÅ« al-Hasan AlÄ« ibn Ismāīl al-AsharÄ« (874 – 936) (Arabic: ابو الحسن بن إسماعيل اﻷشعري) was a Muslim Arab theologian and the founder of the Ashari school of early Islamic philosophy and Islamic theology. ... Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Mahmud Abu Mansur al-Samarqandi al-Maturidi al-Hanafi (d. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ... Abu Ali Muhammad al-Jubbai was a Mutazili philosopher of the 10th century. ... Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn íbn Ali al-Masudi (transl: ) (born c. ... Shaykh Tusi(Persian: –) Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Hassan Tusi(Persian: –), known as Shaykh al-Tayefah(Arabic: –) is a Persian of the Shia Twelver Islamic belief, born in Tus, Khorasan, Iranin the year 385 AH. At the age of 23, He moved to Baghdad to join the great center of... This article is about the scientist. ... Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي ) known as ibn Al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس ), was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi (Urdu: ابو الاعلى مودودی, Arabic: أبو الأعلى المودودي; alternative spellings of last name Maudoodi, and Mawdudi) (September 25, 1903) - September 22, 1979),[1] also known as Mawlana (Maulana) Sayyid Abul Ala Mawdudi, is considered an influential Islamic thinker of the 20th century. ... Prof. ... Justice (Retired) Allama Mufti Muhammad Taqi Uthmani (Usmani) (Urdu: محمد تقی عثمانی) is a renowned literalist Islamic scholar from Pakistan who has served as a judge on the Shariah Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan from 1982 to 2002 and as a judge of the Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan from... Ayatollah Morteza Motahhari (مرتضی مطهری; February 3, 1920 – May 1, 1979) was an Iranian scholar, cleric, professor, and politician. ... A Muslim philosopher is a person that professes Islam and engaged in the philosophical aspect of Islamic studies, for example theology or eschatology and other fields of Islamic philosophy. ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... ابوالحسن عامرى Al-Amiri, an Iranian philosopher, who spent most of his life in Eastern provinces of Iran & died in Neyshaboor 992/381, was the most prominent muslim philosopher following the tradition of Al-Kindi in Islamic Philosophy. ... Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Miskawayh, (ابن مسكوويه) also known as Ibn Miskawayh (932-1030) was a prominent Persian philosopher, scientist, poet and historian from Ray, Iran. ... For the lunar crater, see Avicenna (crater). ... Arabic manuscript from the 12th century for Brethren of Purity (Arabic , Ikhwan Alsafa اخوان الصفا) The Brethren of Purity (Arabic اخوان الصفا Ikhwan al-Safa ; also translated as Brethren of Sincerity) [1] were an obscure and mysterious [2] organization of neo-Platonic Arabic[3] philosophers in Basra, Iraq - which was the seat of the... Born in Spain on 883CE/269, ابن مسره or Ibn Massarah was a famous Islamic Philosopher who lived in a severely rigid era that made him to present his ideas secretly just to a few student. ... Abu Muhammad Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa`id ibn Hazm (أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم) (November 7, 994 – August 15, 1069) was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and theologian of Persian descent [1] born in Córdoba, present day Spain. ... Ibn Tufail (c. ... AbÅ« l-WalÄ«d Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Rushd (Arabic:أبو الوليد محمد بن احمد بن رشد), better known just as Ibn Rushd (Arabic: ابن رشد), and in European literature as Averroes (pronounced ) (1126 – December 10, 1198), was a Muslim Andalusian philosopher, physician, and polymath: a master of philosophy, theology, Maliki law and jurisprudence, astronomy, geography, mathematics... Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Haq Ibn Sab’in (محمدبن عبدالحق بن سبعين) is the last philosopher of the Andalous in the west land of Islamic world and his school is a combination of philosophical and Gnostic thoughts. ... Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi (from the Arabicشهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) (born 1153 in North-West-Iran; died 1191 in Aleppo) was a persian philosopher and Sufi, founder of School of Illumination, one of the most important islamic doctrine in Philosophy. ... Ibn Arabi, was an Arab Muslim mystic and philosopher. ... (1200–1265) was a Persian philosopher, astronomer and mathematician from Abhar. ... Nasir Tusi Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201–1274) was a Persian scientist, of Shia Islamic belief, born in Tus, Khorasan, Iran. ... Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236–1311) was a 13th century Persian scientist and astronomer from Shiraz, Iran. ... ملاصدرا or Mulla Sadra (aka Molla Sadra or Mollasadra) also called Sadr Ad-Din Ash- Shirazi (c. ... Mulla Hadi Sabzevari or Hajj Molla Hadi Sabzevari was an Iranian philosopher and poet. ... Mir Damad (Persian: ميرداماد) was a philosopher, teacher, & leader in the cultural renaissance of Iran during Safavid dynasty and the main founder of the Isfahan School. ... Mir Fendereski (1562-1640), was a renowned Iranian philosopher, poet and mystic of the Safavid era. ... Allameh Tabatabaei (1892-1981) is one of the most prominent thinkers of contemporary Shia Islam. ... Sir Muhammad Iqbāl (Urdu/Persian: ‎ ) (November 9, 1877 – April 21, 1938) was an Indian Muslim poet, philosopher and politician, whose poetry in Persian and Urdu is regarded as among the greatest in modern times. ... Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Muḥammad Bāqir al-á¹¢adr (Arabic: آية الله العظمى السيد محمد باقر الصدر ) (March 1, 1935 – April 9, 1980) was an Iraqi Shia cleric born in al-Kazimiya, Iraq. ... René Guénon (November 15, 1886 – January 7, 1951) was a French author and intellectual who remains an influential figure in the domain of metaphysics, having written on topics ranging from metaphysics, sacred science[1] and traditional studies [2] to symbolism and initiation. ... Frithjof Schuon (June 18, 1907 – May 5, 1998) is a metaphysician, poet, painter, and a leading figure of traditional metaphysics. ... Nasr is an internationally acclaimed scholar [1]. Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Persian: سيد حسين نصر), (1933-), a University Professor of the department of Islamic studies at George Washington University, is a leading Iranian Muslim philosopher. ... Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas Syed Muhammad al Naquib bin Ali bin Abdullah bin Muhsin al Attas (born September 5, 1931) is a prominent contemporary Muslim philosopher and thinker from Malaysia. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic economics in practice. ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... Islamic economics in practice. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Islamic ethics (akhlāq), defined as good character, historically took shape only gradually and was finally established in the 11th century. ... In Islamic philosophy, logic played an important role. ... Malaysian Islamic philosopher Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas maintains that modern science sees things as mere things, and that it has reduced the study of the phenomenal world to an end in itself. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... The oculist or kahhal, a somewhat despised professional in Galen’s time, was an honored member of the medical profession by the Abbasid period, occupying a unique place in royal households. ... A symbol of Islamic feminism, incorporating the Crescent Moon and Star of Islam into the female symbol Islamic feminism is a form of feminism that aims for the full equality of all Muslims, regardless of sex or gender, in public and private life. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... Sufi studies: a particular branch of comparative studies that uses a. ... Sufism (Arabic: ‎ - taá¹£awwuf, Kurdish Sufayeti, Persian: صوفی‌گری, sufigari, Turkish: tasavvuf), is generally understood by scholars to be the inner or mystical dimension of Islam. ...

 
 

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