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Encyclopedia > Sociology
Sociology

Portal · History Sociology is a relatively new academic discipline among other social sciences including economics, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ...

General Aspects

Public sociology · Social research
Social theory · Sociological theory
Sociological practice Sociology is the study of society and human social interaction. ... Public sociology is an approach to the discipline which seeks to transcend the academy and engage wider audiences. ... Social research refers to research conducted by social scientists (primarily within sociology and social psychology), but also within other disciplines such as social policy, human geography, political science, social anthropology and education. ... Social theory refers to the use of abstract and often complex theoretical frameworks to explain and analyze social patterns and large-scale social structures. ... Sociological theory can refer to: contemporary sociological theory social theory sociological paradigms (also known as perespectives or frameworks) See also list of theories in sociology. ... Sociological practice is intervention using sociological knowledge whether it is in a clinical or applied setting. ...

Related fields & subfields

Comparative sociology · Criminology
Demography · Social movements
Social psychology · Sociolinguistics
Sociology of: culture · deviance
economics · education · gender
knowledge · law · politics · religion
science · stratification · work Sociology has many subfields. ... Comparative Sociology Comparative sociology generally refers to sociological analysis that involves comparison of social processes between nation-states, or across different types of society (for example capitalist and socialist). ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... Social movements are broader political associations focussed on specific issues. ... Social Psychology is a subfield of sociology which looks at the social behavior of humans in terms of associations and relationships that they have. ... Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The sociology of deviance is the sociological study of deviant behavior, the recognized violation of cultural norms, and the creation and enforcement of those norms. ... Economic sociology may be defined as the sociological analysis of economic phenomena. ... Sociology of gender is a prominent subfield of sociology. ... The sociology of knowledge is the study of the relationship between human thought and the social context within which it arises, and of the effects prevailing ideas have on societies. ... Sociology of law refers to both a sub-discipline of sociology and an approach within the field of legal studies. ... Political sociology is the study of power and the intersection of personality, social structure and politics. ... Sociology of science is the subfield of sociology that deals with the practice of science. ... social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ... Industrial Sociology (also known as sociology of industrial relations or sociology of work) is the study of the interaction of people within industry it includes the study of boss-subordinate, inter-departmental, and management / trade-union relationships´. Moreover, on a macrosociological scale, it is the study of the impact of...

Categories & Lists
Journals · Publications · Topics

Sociology (from Latin: socius, "companion"; and the suffix -ology, "the study of", from Greek λόγος, lógos, "knowledge" [1]) is the scientific or systematic study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous individuals on the street to the study of global social interaction. Numerous fields within the discipline concentrate on how and why people are organized in society, either as individuals or as members of associations, groups, and institutions. Sociology is considered a branch of social science. // Foundations The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Max Weber Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus, 1904 Online version Description: In The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Weber puts forward a thesis that Puritan ethic and ideas had influenced the development of capitalism. ... This is a list of topics covered in sociology. ... Social contact is a pair of social actions with no further consequence - i. ... As commonly used, individual refers to a person or to any specific object in a collection. ... A voluntary association (also sometimes called an unincorporated association, or just an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ... In sociology, a group is usually defined as a collection of humans or animals, who share certain characteristics, interact with one another, accept expectations and obligations as members of the group, and share a common identity. ... A social institution is any institution in a socity that works to socialize the groups or people in it. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ...


Sociological research provides educators, planners, lawmakers, administrators, developers, business leaders, and people interested in resolving social problems and formulating public policy with rationales for the actions that they take. Social research refers to research conducted by social scientists (primarily within sociology and social psychology), but also within other disciplines such as social policy, human geography, political science, social anthropology and education. ... Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. ... An Urban planner is a professional who works in the field of urban planning. ... A legislator is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... A real estate developer (American English) or property developer (British English) makes improvements of some kind to real property, thereby increasing its value. ... “Tycoon” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Public policy is a course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a problem. ... In sociology, rationalization is the process whereby an increasing number of social actions and interactions become based on considerations of efficiency or calculation rather than on motivations derived from custom, tradition, or emotion. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of sociology

Sociology, including economic, political, and cultural systems, has origins in the common stock of human knowledge and philosophy. Social analysis has been carried out by scholars and philosophers at least as early as the time of Plato. Sociology is a relatively new academic discipline among other social sciences including economics, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... Download high resolution version (490x709, 23 KB)from fr: This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (490x709, 23 KB)from fr: This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Auguste Comte (full name: Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte; January 17, 1798 - September 5, 1857) was a French thinker who coined the term sociology. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...


There is evidence of early Greek (e.g. Xenophanes[3], Xenophon[4] , Polybios[5]) and Muslim sociological contributions, especially by Ibn Khaldun,[6] whose Muqaddimah is viewed as the earliest work dedicated to sociology as a social science.[7][8] Several other forerunners of sociology, from Giambattista Vico up to Karl Marx, are nowadays considered classical sociologists. Xenophanes of Colophon (Greek: Ξενοφάνης, 570 BC-480 BC) was a Greek philosopher, poet, and social and religious critic. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ... Polybius (c. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name, Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH – March 19, 1406 AD/808 AH), was a famous Berber Muslim polymath: a historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher, political theorist, sociologist and social scientist born in present-day Tunisia. ... The Muqaddimah, or the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (Arabic: مقدّمة ابن خلدون), records an early Muslim view of universal history. Many modern thinkers view it as one of the first works of sociology. ... The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was an Italian philosopher, historian, and jurist. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ...


Sociology later emerged as a scientific discipline in the early 19th century as an academic response to the challenges of modernity and modernization, such as industrialization and urbanization. Sociologists hope not only to understand what holds social groups together, but also to develop responses to social disintegration and exploitation. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... Modernization (also Modernisation) is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of individuals. ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... Social disintegration is a sociological term for the tendency for industrialised, or otherwise modernised, societies to tend towards their own destruction due to the breakdown in traditional social support systems. ... Exploitation means many different things. ...


The term "sociologie" was first used in 1780 by the French essayist Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (1748-1836) in an unpublished manuscript.[9]. The term was independently re-invented, and introduced as a neologism, by the French thinker Auguste Comte [10] in 1838. Comte had earlier used the term 'social physics', but that term had been appropriated by others, notably Adolphe Quetelet. Comte hoped to unify all studies of humankind - including history, psychology and economics. His own sociological scheme was typical of the 19th century; he believed all human life had passed through the same distinct historical stages (theology, metaphysics, positive science) and that, if one could grasp this progress, one could prescribe the remedies for social ills. Sociology was to be the 'queen of positive sciences'.[11] Thus, Comte has come to be viewed as the "Father of Sociology".[11] Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes, 1817, by Jacques-Louis David Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (May 3, 1748 – June 20, 1836) (IPA: or ) was a French abbé and statesman, one of the chief theorists of the French Revolution, French Consulate, and First French Empire. ... Auguste Comte (full name: Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte; January 17, 1798 - September 5, 1857) was a French thinker who coined the term sociology. ... Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quételet (February 22, 1796 – February 17, 1874) was a Belgian astronomer, mathematician, statistician and sociologist. ... In the humanities and social sciences, the term positive is used in a number of ways. ...


"Classical" theorists of sociology from the late 19th and early 20th centuries include Ferdinand Tönnies, Émile Durkheim, Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, Vilfredo Pareto, Ludwig Gumplowicz, Georg Simmel and Max Weber. Like Comte, these figures did not consider themselves only "sociologists". Their works addressed religion, education, economics, law, psychology, ethics, philosophy and theology, and their theories have been applied in a variety of academic disciplines. Their influence on sociology was foundational. Ferdinand Tönnies (July 26, 1855, near Oldenswort (Eiderstedt) - April 9, 1936, Kiel, Germany) was a German sociologist. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Émile Durkheim Émile Durkheim (IPA: ; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist whose contributions were instrumental in the formation of sociology and anthropology. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... For other persons named Herbert Spencer, see Herbert Spencer (disambiguation). ... Vilfredo Pareto Vilfredo Federico Damaso Pareto [vilfre:do pare:to] (July 15, 1848, Paris – August 19, 1923, Geneva) was a French-Italian sociologist, economist and philosopher. ... Ludwig Gumplowicz, born March 9, 1838 in Kraków, Poland, died August 19, 1909 in Graz, Austria, was one of the founders of European sociology. ... Georg Simmel Georg Simmel (March 1, 1858 – September 28, 1918, Berlin, Germany) was one of the first generation of German sociologists. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Psychological science redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


Institutionalizing sociology

The discipline was taught by its own name for the first time at the University of Kansas, Lawrence in 1890 by Frank Blackmar, under the course title Elements of Sociology. It remains the oldest continuing sociology course in the United states. The Department of History and Sociology at the University of Kansas was established in 1891 [12] [13], and the first full-fledged independent university. The department of sociology was established in 1892 at the University of Chicago by Albion W. Small, who in 1895 founded the American Journal of Sociology.[14] The University of Kansas (often referred to as KU or just Kansas) is an institution of higher learning in Lawrence, Kansas. ... Lawrence is a river city in and the seat of Douglas County, Kansas, United States, 41 miles (66 km) west of Kansas City, along the banks of both the Kansas (Kaw) and Wakarusa Rivers. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... Albion Woodbury Small (May 11, 1854 - 1926) founded the first Department of Sociology in the USA at the University of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois in 1892. ... American Journal of Sociology (AJS) is one of the most important scientific journals in the field of sociology and the first U.S. scholarly journal in its field. ...


The first European department of sociology was founded in 1895 at the University of Bordeaux by Émile Durkheim, founder of L'Année Sociologique (1896). The first sociology department to be established in the United Kingdom was at the London School of Economics and Political Science (home of the British Journal of Sociology) [15] in 1904. In 1919 a sociology department was established in Germany at the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich by Max Weber, and in 1920 in Poland by Florian Znaniecki. The University of Bordeaux is an organisation consisting of four autonomous universities: Université Bordeaux 1 [1] - natural science Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 [2] - medicine and life sciences Université Michel de Montaigne Bordeaux 3 [3] - the liberal arts Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV [4] - political science and law Bordeaux 2 is... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Émile Durkheim Émile Durkheim (IPA: ; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist whose contributions were instrumental in the formation of sociology and anthropology. ... LAnnée Sociologique was a sociology journal founded in 1898 by Émile Durkheim, who also served as its editor. ... Mascot: Beaver Affiliations: University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Universities UK U8 Golden Triangle G5 Group Website: http://www. ... Main building of the Ludwig Maximilians University Main staircase of the university, Munich The Atrium at the main building The Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (German: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München), also known as LMU or simply University of Munich, is a university in the heart of Munich. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Florian Zaniecki // Florian Witold Znaniecki (January 15, 1882 - March 23, 1958) was a philosopher and a sociologist. ...


International cooperation in sociology began in 1893 when René Worms founded the Institut International de Sociologie, which was later eclipsed by the much larger International Sociological Association (ISA), founded in 1949.[16] In 1905, the American Sociological Association, the world's largest association of professional sociologists, was founded, and in 1909 the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Soziologie (German Society for Sociology) was founded by Ferdinand Tönnies and Max Weber, among others. René Worms (born at Rennes December 8, 1869 - February 12, 1926) was a French auditor of the council of state; son of Emile Worms; He educated at the lyceum of his native city and at the Lycée Charlemagne and the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris (docteur en droit... International Sociological Association is a non-profit organization dedicated to scientific purposes in the field of sociology and social sciences. ... The American Sociological Association (ASA), founded in 1905, is a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the discipline and profession of sociology by serving sociologists in their work and promoting their contributions. ... A voluntary association (also sometimes called an unincorporated association, or just an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement to form a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ... The German Society for Sociology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Soziology, DGS) has been founded January 3rd, 1909 at Berlin by its initiator Rudolf Goldscheid (1870-1931), Ferdinand Tönnies, Max Weber, Georg Simmel, et al. ... Ferdinand Tönnies (July 26, 1855, near Oldenswort (Eiderstedt) - April 9, 1936, Kiel, Germany) was a German sociologist. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ...


Positivism and anti-positivism

Articles: Positivism, Sociological positivism, and Antipositivism.

Early theorists' approach to sociology, led by Comte, was to treat it in much the same manner as natural science, applying the same methods and methodology used in the natural sciences to study social phenomena. The emphasis on empiricism and the scientific method sought to provide an incontestable foundation for any sociological claims or findings, and to distinguish sociology from less empirical fields such as philosophy. This methodological approach, called positivism assumes that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. ... This article describes the term positivism as used in social sciences, especially within the science of sociology. ... Antipositivism is the view in sociology that social sciences need to create and use different scientific methods than those used in the field of natural sciences. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... Meethodology is defined as the analysis of the principles of methods, rules, and postulates employed by a discipline, the systematic study of methods that are, can be, or have been applied within a discipline or a particular procedure or set of procedures [1]. It should be noted that methodology is... Social phenomena include all behavior which influences or is influenced by organisms sufficiently alive to respond to one another. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article describes the term positivism as used in social sciences, especially within the science of sociology. ...


One push away from positivism was philosophical and political, such as in the dialectical materialism based on Marx' theories. A second push away from scientific positivism was cultural, becoming sociological. As early as the 19th century, positivist and naturalist approaches to studying social life were questioned by scientists like Wilhelm Dilthey and Heinrich Rickert, who argued that the natural world differs from the social world because of unique aspects of human society such as meanings, symbols, rules, norms, and values. These elements of society inform human cultures. This view was further developed by Max Weber, who introduced antipositivism (humanistic sociology). According to this view, which is closely related to antinaturalism, sociological research must concentrate on humans' cultural values (see also: French Pragmatism). According to many followers of the theories of Karl Marx (or Marxists), dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... Social relation can refer to a multitude of social interactions, regulated by social norms, between two or more people, with each having a social position and performing a social role. ... Wilhelm Dilthey (November 19, 1833–October 1, 1911) was a German historian, psychologist, sociologist, student of Hermeneutics, the study of interpretations and meanings, and a philosopher. ... Heinrich John Rickert ( 25 May 1863 - 25 July 1936) was a German philosopher of the Baden School. ... Social reality is distinct from biological or individual cognitive reality, and consists of the accepted social tenets of a community. ... Look up rule, ruling in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ... Value redirects here. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Antipositivism is the view in sociology that social sciences need to create and use different scientific methods than those used in the field of natural sciences. ... // Rather than a naive belief that sociological practice should reflect humanist values, a Humanist Sociologist will actively study human values or more precisely systems of values. ... Antinaturalism is a view in sociology which states that the natural world and the social world are different. ... French Pragmatism is attended with theorists like Bruno Latour, Michel Crozier and Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot. ...


Twentieth century developments

In the early 20th century, sociology expanded in the United States, including developments in both macrosociology interested in evolution of societies and microsociology. Based on the pragmatic social psychology of George Herbert Mead, Herbert Blumer and others (later Chicago school) inspired sociologists developed symbolic interactionism. Macrosociology is one of the main branches of sociology (contrast with microsociology) which deals with primarily with the statistical nature of society. ... Cultural evolution is the structural development (change) of a society over time. ... Microsociology is one of the main branches of sociology (contrast with macrosociology) which concerns itself with the nature of human interaction on a small scale. ... Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ... George Herbert Mead (February 27, 1863 – April 26, 1931) was an American philosopher, sociologist and psychologist, primarily affiliated with the University of Chicago, where he was one of several distinguished pragmatists. ... Herbert Blumer (born March 7, 1900 in St. ... There are several Chicago schools, a name derived from programs and departments at the University of Chicago and not the city of Chicago itself. ... Symbolic interactionism is a sociological perspective which examines how individuals and groups interact, focusing on the creation of personal identity through interaction with others. ...


In Europe, in the Interwar period, sociology generally was both attacked by increasingly totalitarian governments and rejected by conservative universities. At the same time, originally in Austria and later in the U.S., Alfred Schütz developed social phenomenology (which would later inform social constructionism). Also, members of the Frankfurt school (most of whom moved to the U.S. to escape Nazi persecution) developed critical theory, integrating critical, idealistic and historical materialistic elements of the dialectical philosophies of Hegel and Marx with the insights of Freud, Max Weber (in theory, if not always in name) and others. In the 1930s in the U.S., Talcott Parsons developed structural-functional theory which integrated the study of social order and "objective" aspects of macro and micro structural factors. Interbellum redirects here. ... Alfred Schütz (1899-1959, aka Alfred Schutz) was a philosopher and sociologist. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... For the learning theory, see Social Constructivism (Learning Theory). ... For related articles, see Critical theory and Critical theory (Frankfurt School) Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist critical theory, social research, and philosophy. ... Critical theory, in sociology and philosophy, is shorthand for critical theory of society or critical social theory, a label used by the Frankfurt School, i. ... Broadly speaking, a dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a disagreement. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Marx is a common German surname. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Talcott Parsons Talcott Edgar Frederick Parsons (December 13, 1902–May 8, 1979) was for many years the best-known sociologist in the United States, and indeed one of the best-known in the world. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Social order is a concept used in sociology, history and other social sciences. ...


Since World War II, sociology has been revived in Europe, although during the Stalin and Mao eras it was suppressed in the communist countries. In the mid-20th century, there was a general (but not universal) trend for US-American sociology to be more scientific in nature, due partly to the prominent influence at that time of structural functionalism. Sociologists developed new types of quantitative and qualitative research methods. In the second half of the 20th century, sociological research has been increasingly employed as a tool by governments and businesses. Parallel with the rise of various social movements in the 1960s, theories emphasizing social struggle, including conflict theory (which sought to counter structural functionalism) and neomarxist theories, began to receive more attention. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Mao could refer to: Mao Zedong, (Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles) leader of the Communist Party of China from 1935 to 1976. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... This article is about functionalism in sociology. ... Quantitative research is the systematic scientific investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. ... Qualitative research is one of the two major approaches to research methodology in social sciences. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Social movements are broader political associations focussed on specific issues. ... In sociology, conflict theory states that the society or organization functions so that each individual participant and its groups struggle to maximize their benefits, which inevitably contributes to social change such as changes in politics and revolutions. ... This article is about functionalism in sociology. ... Neo-Marxism was a 20th century school that harkened back to the early writings of Marx before the influence of Engels which focused on dialectical idealism rather than dialectical materialism, and thus rejected the economic determinism of early Marx, focusing instead on a non-physical, psychological revolution. ...


In the late 20th century, some sociologists embraced postmodern and poststructuralist philosophies. Increasingly, many sociologists have used qualitative and ethnographic methods and become critical of the positivism in some social scientific approaches.[citation needed] Much like cultural studies, some contemporary sociological studies have been influenced by the cultural changes of the 1960s, 20th century Continental philosophy, literary studies, and interpretivism. Others have maintained more objective empirical perspectives, such as by articulating neofunctionalism, social psychology, and rational choice theory. Others began to debate the nature of globalization and the changing nature of social institutions. These developments have led some to reconceptualize basic sociological categories and theories. For instance, inspired by the thought of Michel Foucault, power may be studied as dispersed throughout society in a wide variety of disciplinary cultural practices. In political sociology, the power of the nation state may be seen as transforming due to the globalization of trade (and cultural exchanges) and the expanding influence of international organizations (Nash 2000:1-4). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with The 20th century in review. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used by philosophers, social scientists, art critics and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary art, culture, economics and social conditions that are the result of the unique features of late 20th century and early 21st century... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... Qualitative is an important qualifier in the following subject titles: Qualitative identity Qualitative marketing research Qualitative method Qualitative research THE BIG J This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = nation and graphe = writing) refers to the qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on months or years of fieldwork. ... Cultural studies is an academic discipline which combines political economy, communication, sociology, social theory, literary theory, media theory, film/video studies, cultural anthropology, philosophy, museum studies and art history/criticism to study cultural phenomena in various societies. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1958 to the end of 1974. ... Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Interpretivism is a school of thought in contemporary jurisprudence and the philosophy of law. ... Main International Relations Theories and derivates Realism & Neorealism Idealism, Liberalism & Neoliberalism Marxism & Dependency theory Functionalism & Neofunctionalism Constructivism Neofunctionalism is a theory of regional integration, building on the work of David Mitrany. ... The scope of social psychological research. ... Rational choice theory assumes human behavior is guided by instrumental reason. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... Michel Foucault (pronounced ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher, historian and sociologist. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Political sociology is the study of power and the intersection of personality, social structure and politics. ... For the political science journal, see International Organization. ...


However, the positivist tradition is still alive and influential in sociology. In the U.S., the most commonly cited journals, including the American Journal of Sociology and American Sociological Review, primarily publish research in the positivist tradition. There is also a minor revival for a more independent, empirical sociology in the spirit of C Wright Mills, and his studies of the Power Elite in the USA, according to Stanley Aronowitz. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... American Journal of Sociology (AJS) is one of the most important scientific journals in the field of sociology and the first U.S. scholarly journal in its field. ... The American Sociological Review is the flagship journal of the American Sociological Association (ASA). ... Charles Wright Mills (August 28, 1916, Waco, Texas – March 20, 1962, West Nyack, New York) was an American sociologist. ... A Power Elite, in political and sociological theory, is a small group of people who control a disproportionate amount of the means of production and access to decision-makers in a political system. ...


Social network analysis is an example of a new paradigm in this tradition which can go beyond the traditional micro vs. macro or agency vs. structure debates. The influence of social network analysis is pervasive in many sociological subfields such as economic sociology (see the work of J. Clyde Mitchell, Harrison White, or Mark Granovetter for example), organizational behavior, historical sociology, political sociology, or the sociology of education. A social network is a map of the relationships between individuals, indicating the ways in which they are connected through various social familiarities ranging from casual acquaintance to close familial bonds. ... For other uses, see Paradigm (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with social network services such as MySpace, etc. ... Economic sociology may be defined as the sociological analysis of economic phenomena. ... James Clyde Mitchell (usually known as J. Clyde Mitchell) b. ... Harrison C. White is Professor of sociology at Columbia University. ... Mark Granovetter is a sociologist who gave some of the most influential theories in modern sociology, since the 1970s. ... Organizational Studies (also known as Industrial Organizations, Organizational Behavior and I/O) is a distinct field of academic study which takes as its subject organizations, examining them using the methods of economics, sociology, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... Historical sociology is a branch of sociology focusing on how societies develop through history. ... Political sociology is the study of power and the intersection of personality, social structure and politics. ... The sociology of education is the study of how social institutions and individual experiences affect educational processes and outcomes. ...


Throughout the development of sociology, controversies have raged about how to emphasize or integrate concerns with subjectivity, objectivity, intersubjectivity and practicality in theory and research. The extent to which sociology may be characterized as a 'science' has remained an area of considerable debate, which has addressed basic ontological and epistemological philosophical questions. One outcome of such disputes has been the ongoing formation of multidimensional theories of society, such as the continuing development of various types of critical theory. Another outcome has been the formation of public sociology, which emphasizes the usefulness of sociological analysis to various social groups. This article is in need of attention. ... In science, the ideal of objectivity is an essential aspect of the scientific method, and is generally considered by the scientific community to come about as a result of strict observance of the scientific method, including the scientists willingness to submit their methods and results to an open debate by... Intersubjectivity refers to the the common-sense, shared meanings constructed by people in their interactions with each other and used as an everyday resource to interpret the meaning of elements of social and cultural life. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about the philosophical meaning of ontology. ... This article or section should include material from Episteme Epistemology (from the Greek words episteme=science and logos=word/speech) is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge. ... Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. ... In the humanities and social sciences, critical theory has two quite different meanings with different origins and histories, one originating in social theory and the other in literary criticism. ... Public sociology is an approach to the discipline which seeks to transcend the academy and engage wider audiences. ...


Scope and topics of sociology

Selected general topics: Discrimination, Deviance and social control, Migration, Power Elite , Social action, Social change, Social class, Social justice/injustice, Social order, Social status, Social stratification, Socialization, Society, Sociological imagination, Structure and agency, Subfields of sociology
Social interactions and their pros and cons are studied in sociology.
Social interactions and their pros and cons are studied in sociology.

Sociologists study society and social action by examining the groups and social institutions people form, as well as various social, religious, political, and business organizations. They also study the social interactions of people and groups, trace the origin and growth of social processes, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members and vice versa. The results of sociological research aid educators, lawmakers, administrators, and others interested in resolving social problems, working for social justice and formulating public policy. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Affirmative action in the United States Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity... DEViANCE ASCII logo by Strick9. ... Social control refers to social mechanisms that regulate individual and group behavior, in terms of greater sanctions and rewards. ... Look up migration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Power Elite, in political and sociological theory, is a small group of people who control a disproportionate amount of the means of production and access to decision-makers in a political system. ... In sociology, social action refer to any action that takes into account actions and reactions of another individuals (real or imagined) and is modified based on those events. ... Social change (or Social development) is a general term which refers to: change in the nature, the social institutions, the social behaviour or the social relations of a society, community of people, or other social structures. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... Justice is a concept involving the fair and moral treatment of all persons, especially in law. ... Social order is a concept used in sociology, history and other social sciences. ... Social status is the honor or prestige attached to ones position in society (ones social position). ... social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ... A family posing for a group photo socializes together. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... Sociological imagination is a sociological term coined by American sociologist C. Wright Mills in 1959 describing the ability to connect seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces to the incidents of an individual’s life. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Sociology has many subfields. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 443 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 443 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their actions and reactions due to the actions by their interaction partner(s). ... A social institution is any institution in a socity that works to socialize the groups or people in it. ... Business organizations is an area of law that covers the broad array of rules governing the formation and operation of different kinds of entities by which individuals can organize to do business. ... Social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their actions and reactions due to the actions by their interaction partner(s). ... Look up activity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Social issues are matters that can be explained only by factors outside an individual’s control and immediate environment. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ...


Sociologists research macro-structures and processes that organize or affect society, such as, but is not limited to race or ethnicity, gender, globalization, and social class stratification. They study institutions such as the family and social processes that represent deviation from, or the breakdown of, social structures, including crime and divorce. And, they research micro-processes such as interpersonal interactions and the socialization of individuals. Sociologists are also concerned with the effect of social traits such as sex, age, or race on a person’s daily life. See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... For other uses, see Race. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... In radio, frequency deviation is the result of frequency modulation. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... A family posing for a group photo socializes together. ...


Most sociologists work in one or more specialties, such as, but is not limited to social stratification, social organization, and social mobility; ethnic and race relations; education; family; social psychology; urban, rural, political, and comparative sociology; sex roles and relationships; demography; gerontology; criminology; and sociological practice. In short, sociologists study the many dimensions of society. social stratification is the division of people of a particular society on the basis if occupation, income, power, prestige, authority, status, dignity, education, class, castle, gender, race and ethnicity In sociology, social stratification is the hierarchical arrangement of social classes, castes and strata within a society. ... Social mobility is the degree to which, in a given society, an individuals social status can change throughout the course of their life (known as intragenerational mobility), or the degree to which that individuals offspring and subsequent generations move up and down the class system (intergenerational mobility). ... Race relations is the area of sociology that studies the social, political, and economic relations between races at all different levels of society. ... Sociology of the family is the study of the family unit from a sociological viewpoint. ... The scope of social psychological research. ... Urban sociology is the sociological study of the various statistics among the population in cities. ... Rural sociology is a field of sociology associated with the study of life in small towns and the country. ... Political sociology is the study of power and the intersection of personality, social structure and politics. ... Comparative Sociology Comparative sociology generally refers to sociological analysis that involves comparison of social processes between nation-states, or across different types of society (for example capitalist and socialist). ... It has been suggested that Masculinity be merged into this article or section. ... In the contexts of sociology and of popular culture, the concept of interpersonal relationships involves social associations, connections, or affiliations between two or more people. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ... Gerontology (from Greek: γερο, gero, old age; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... Sociological practice is intervention using sociological knowledge whether it is in a clinical or applied setting. ...


Although sociology was informed by Comte's conviction that sociology would sit at the apex of all the sciences, sociology today is identified as one of many social sciences (such as anthropology, economics, political science, psychology, etc.). At times, sociology does integrate the insights of various disciplines, as do other social sciences. Initially, the discipline was concerned particularly with the organization of complex industrial societies. In the past, anthropology had methods that would have helped to study cultural issues in a "more acute" way than sociologists.[17] Recent sociologists, taking cues from anthropologists, have noted the "Western emphasis" of the field. In response, sociology departments around the world are encouraging the study of many cultures and multi-national studies. The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... This article is about the social science. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... In sociology, industrial society refers to a society with a modern societal structure. ... See Anthropology. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...


Sociological research

Main article: social research

The basic goal of sociological research is to understand the social world in its many forms. Quantitative methods and qualitative methods are two main types of sociological research methods. Sociologists often use quantitative methods -- such as social statistics or network analysis - to investigate the structure of a social process or describe patterns in social relationships. Sociologists also often use qualitative methods - such as focused interviews, group discussions and ethnographic methods - to investigate social processes. Sociologists also use applied research methods such as evaluation research and assessment. Social research refers to research conducted by social scientists (primarily within sociology and social psychology), but also within other disciplines such as social policy, human geography, political science, social anthropology and education. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Quantitative research. ... The qualitative method in sociology is a research method. ... Social research refers to research conducted by social scientists (primarily within sociology and social psychology), but also within other disciplines such as social policy, human geography, political science, social anthropology and education. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Quantitative research. ... Social statistics is the use of statistical measurement systems to study human behavior in a social environment. ... Network analysis is the analysis of networks through network theory (or more generally graph theory). ... The qualitative method in sociology is a research method. ... For other uses, see Interview (disambiguation). ... Ethnography ( ethnos = people and graphein = writing) is the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ... Evaluation is the systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance of something or someone. ... For article assessment policy on Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Article assessment. ...


Methods of sociological inquiry

Sociologists use many types of social research methods, including:

  • Archival research - Facts or factual evidences from a variety of records are compiled.
  • Content Analysis - The contents of books and mass media are analyzed to study how people communicate and the messages people talk or write about.
  • Historical Method - This involves a continuous and systematic search for the information and knowledge about past events related to the life of a person, a group, society, or the world.
  • Experimental Research - The researcher isolates a single social process or social phenomena and uses the data to either confirm or construct social theory. The experiment is the best method for testing theory due to its extremely high internal validity. Participants, or subjects, are randomly assigned to various conditions or 'treatments', and then analyses are made between groups. Randomization allows the researcher to be sure that the treatment is having the effect on group differences and not some other extraneous factor.
  • Survey Research - The researcher obtains data from interviews, questionnaires, or similar feedback from a set of persons chosen (including random selection) to represent a particular population of interest. Survey items may be open-ended or closed-ended.
  • Life History - This is the study of the personal life trajectories. Through a series of interviews, the researcher can probe into the decisive moments in their life or the various influences on their life.
  • Longitudinal study - This is an extensive examination of a specific group over a long period of time.
  • Observation - Using data from the senses, one records information about social phenomenon or behavior. Qualitative research relies heavily on observation, although it is in a highly disciplined form.
  • Participant Observation - As the name implies, the researcher goes to the field (usually a community), lives with the people for some time, and participates in their activities in order to know and feel their culture.

The choice of a method in part often depends on the researcher's epistemological approach to research. For example, those researchers who are concerned with statistical generalizability to a population will most likely administer structured interviews with a survey questionnaire to a carefully selected probability sample. By contrast, those sociologists, especially ethnographers, who are more interested in having a full contextual understanding of group members lives will choose participant observation, observation, and open-ended interviews. Many studies combine several of these methodologies. An archive refers to a collection of records, and also refers to the location in which these records are kept. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... Personal life (or everyday life or human existence) is an individual humans personal, private career (including, but not the same as, their employment career), and is a common notion in modern existence -- although more so in more prosperous parts of the world, such as Western Europe and North America... Participant observation is a major research strategy which aims to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or deviant group) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment. ...


The relative merits of these research methodologies is a topic of much professional debate among practicing sociologists.


Combining research methods

In practice, some sociologists combine different research methods and approaches, since different methods produce different types of findings that correspond to different aspects of societies. For example, the quantitative methods may help describe social patterns, while qualitative approaches could help to understand how individuals understand those patterns. A pattern is a form, template, or model (or, more abstractly, a set of rules) which can be used to make or to generate things or parts of a thing, especially if the things that are generated have enough in common for the underlying pattern to be inferred or discerned...


An example of using multiple types of research methods is in the study of the Internet. The Internet is of interest for sociologists in various ways: as a tool for research, for example, in using online questionnaires instead of paper ones, as a discussion platform, and as a research topic. Sociology of the Internet in the last sense includes analysis of online communities (e.g. as found in newsgroups), virtual communities and virtual worlds, organizational change catalyzed through new media like the Internet, and social change at-large in the transformation from industrial to informational society (or to information society). Online communities can be studied statistically through network analysis and at the same time interpreted qualitatively, such as though virtual ethnography. Social change can be studied through statistical demographics or through the interpretation of changing messages and symbols in online media studies. Social research refers to research conducted by social scientists (primarily within sociology and social psychology), but also within other disciplines such as social policy, human geography, political science, social anthropology and education. ... Online means being connected to the Internet or another similar electronic network, like a bulletin board system. ... A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. ... A virtual community is a group whose members are connected by means of information technologies, typically the Internet. ... A newsgroup is a repository, usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from many users at different locations. ... A virtual community is a group whose members are connected by means of information technologies, typically the Internet. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New Media is the marriage of mediated communications technologies with digital computers. ... Bloc voting (or block voting) refers to a class of voting systems which can be used to elect several representatives from a single multimember constituency. ... In sociology, informational society refers to a post-modern type of society. ... For other uses, see Information society (disambiguation). ... Network analysis is the analysis of networks through network theory (or more generally graph theory). ... Virtual ethnography is a new development in the field of Ethnography. ... Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ... Media Studies is the study of the constitution and effects of media. ...


Sociology and other social sciences

Sociology shares deep ties with a wide array of other disciplines that also deal with the study of society. The fields of economics, psychology, and anthropology have influenced and have been influenced by sociology and these fields share a great amount of history and common research interests. Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... This article is about the social science. ...


Today sociology and the other sciences are better contrasted according to methodology rather than objects of study. Additionally, unlike sociology, psychology and anthropology have forensic components within these disciplines that deal with anatomy and other types of laboratory research. Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ...


Sociobiology is the study of how social behavior and organization has been influenced by evolution and other biological processes. The field blends sociology with a number other sciences, such as anthropology, biology, zoology, and others. Although the field once rapidly gained acceptance, it has remained highly controversial within the sociological academy. Sociologists often criticize the study for depending too greatly on the effects of genes in defining behavior. Sociobiologists often respond by citing a complex relationship between nature and nurture. This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... A biological process is a process of a living organism. ... This article is about the social science. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: Βιολογία - βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... The nature versus nurture debates concern the relative importance of an individuals innate qualities (nature) versus personal experiences (nurture) in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits. ...


Sociology is also widely used in management science, especially in the field of organizational behavior. Management science, or MS, is the discipline of using mathematics, and other analytical methods, to help make better business decisions. ... Organizational Studies (also known as Industrial Organizations, Organizational Behavior and I/O) is a distinct field of academic study which takes as its subject organizations, examining them using the methods of economics, sociology, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ...



Related theories, methods and fields of inquiry include:

This article is about the social science. ... Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... Negotiated Order is an approach in sociology that is interested how meaning is created and maintained in organizations. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... The scope of social psychological research. ... The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... Socioeconomics is the study of the social and economic impacts of any product or service offering, market intervention or other activity on an economy as a whole and on the companies, organization and individuals who are its main economic actors. ... Sociological imagination is a sociological term coined by American sociologist C. Wright Mills in 1959 describing the ability to connect seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces to the incidents of an individual’s life. ... Sociophysiology is the “interplay between society and physical functioning” (Freund 1988: 856) involving “collaboration of two neighboring sciences: physiology and sociology” (Mauss 1936: 373). ... Statistical surveys are used to collect quantitative information about items in a population. ...

Lists

Main lists: List of basic sociology topics and List of sociology topics

Sociology is the study of society and human social interaction. ... This is a list of topics covered in sociology. ... Sociology has many subfields. ... This is a timeline of sociology. ... This article provides a list of noted sociologists and major contributors to sociology (even if they did not primarily work as sociologists): Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X... This list presents representative scientific journals in sociology and its various subfields. ... This is a list of important publications in sociology, organized by field. ...

See also

Sociology is the study of society and human social interaction. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sociological perspective. ... Social philosophy is the philosophical study of interesting questions about social behavior (typically, of humans). ... Social simulation is the modelling, or simulation, normally performed using a computer, of social phenomena (e. ... Social theory refers to the use of abstract and often complex theoretical frameworks to explain and analyze social patterns and large-scale social structures. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary [1]
  2. ^ Dictionary of the Social Sciences, Article: Sociology
  3. ^ The Ethiops say that their gods are flat-nosed and black,
    While the Thracians say that theirs have blue eyes and red hair.
    Yet if cattle or horses or lions had hands and could draw,
    And could sculpture like men, then the horses would draw their gods
    Like horses, and cattle like cattle; and each they would shape
    Bodies of gods in the likeness, each kind, of their own.

    (Hermann Diels and W. Kranz (eds.), Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, 6th edn. Zurich)
  4. ^ cf. Cyropaedia
  5. ^ cf. The Histories
  6. ^ in his Muqaddimah from the 14th century, later translated as Prolegomena in Latin), the introduction to a seven volume analysis of universal history, in which he advanced theories of social cohesion and social conflict
  7. ^ H. Mowlana (2001). "Information in the Arab World", Cooperation South Journal 1.
  8. ^ Dr. S. W. Akhtar (1997). "The Islamic Concept of Knowledge", Al-Tawhid: A Quarterly Journal of Islamic Thought & Culture 12 (3).
  9. ^ Des Manuscrits de Sieyès. 1773-1799, Volumes I and II, published by Christine Fauré, Jacques Guilhaumou, Jacques Vallier et Françoise Weil, Paris, Champion, 1999 and 2007 See also Christine Fauré and Jacques Guilhaumou, Sieyès et le non-dit de la sociologie : du mot à la chose, in Revue d’histoire des sciences humaines, Numéro 15, novembre 2006: Naissances de la science sociale; see also the article 'sociologie' in the French-language Wikipedia.
  10. ^ A Dictionary of Sociology, Article: Comte, Auguste
  11. ^ a b Dictionary of the Social Sciences, Article: Comte, Auguste
  12. ^ http://www.ku.edu/%7Esocdept/about/ University of Kansas Sociology Department Webpage
  13. ^ http://www.news.ku.edu/2005/June/June15/sociology.shtml University of Kansas News Story
  14. ^ http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJS/home.html American Journal of Sociology Website
  15. ^ http://www.lse.ac.uk/serials/Bjs/ British Journal of Sociology Website
  16. ^ http://www.isa-sociology.org/ International Sociological Association Website
  17. ^ *Marc Abélès, How the Anthropology of France Has Changed Anthropology in France: Assessing New Directions in the Field Cultural Anthropology 1999 p. 407

This article is about the African country. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Cyropaedia (lit. ... The Muqaddimah, or the Muqaddimah of Ibn Khaldun (Arabic: مقدّمة ابن خلدون), records an early Muslim view of universal history. Many modern thinkers view it as one of the first works of sociology. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Universal history is basic to the Western tradition of historiography, especially the Judeo-Christian wellspring of that tradition. ... Structural cohesion is the sociological and graph theory conception [1][2] and measurement of cohesion for maximal social group or graphical boundaries where related elements cannot be disconnected except by removal of a certain minimal number of other nodes. ... Social conflict is a conflict or confrontation of social powers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Bibliography

  • Aby, Stephen H. Sociology: A Guide to Reference and Information Sources, 3rd edn. Littleton, CO, Libraries Unlimited Inc., 2005, ISBN 1-56308-947-5
  • Calhoun, Craig (ed) Dictionary of the Social Sciences, Oxford University Press, 2002, ISBN-10: 0195123719, ISBN-13: 978-0195123715
  • Macionis, John J. 2004. Sociology (10th Edition). Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-184918-2
  • Nash, Kate. 2000. Contemporary Political Sociology: Globalization, Politics, and Power. Blackwell Publishers.
  • Scott, John & Marshall, Gordon (eds) A Dictionary of Sociology (3rd Ed). Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN-10: 0198609868, ISBN-13: 978-0198609865

Pearson can mean Pearson PLC the media conglomerate. ...

Further reading

Earl Robert Babbie (January 8, 1938 - present) is a professor of sociology and behavioral sciences at Chapman University, United States. ... Thomson Learning based in Connecticut is one of the four operating divisions of The Thomson Corporation(TSX:TOC; NYSE:TOC). ... Randall Collins, Ph. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens (born January 18, 1938) is a British sociologist who is renowned for his theory of structuration and his holistic view of modern societies. ... This article is about the sociologist. ... Robert Alexander Nisbet (September 30, 1913. ... George Ritzer (born 1940) is Distinguished University Professor at the University of Maryland, College Park. ... The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ... Harrison C. White is Professor of sociology at Columbia University. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Nickname: Location of New Brunswick in Middlesex County Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Established December 30, 1730 Incorporated September 1, 1784 Government  - Type Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)  - Mayor James Cahill Area  - City  5. ... Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in Piscataway, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University. ...

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Professional associations

Other resources

  • Electronic Journal of Sociology
  • International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences IJHSS covers all areas of social sciences and humanities research, publishing refereed research articles, survey articles, and technical notes. Indexing or Abstracting is permitted with credit to the source.
  • International Journal of Social Sciences IJSS covers all areas of social sciences and humanities research, publishing refereed research articles, survey articles, and technical notes. Indexing or Abstracting is permitted with credit to the source.
  • SocioLog, a directory of sociology resources
  • SocioSite, a directory of sociology resources
  • Sociology Today, an e-forum on professionals and students of Sociology

The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... This article is about the social science. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Population density by country, 2007 Human geography, is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with the environment, with particular reference to the causes and consequences of the spatial distribution of human activity on the Earths surface. ... Not to be confused with informatics or information theory. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... For other uses, see Management (disambiguation). ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Psychological science redirects here. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Sociology : University of Vermont (524 words)
Samuel Franklin Emerson, appointed Professor of History and Sociology at UVM in 1889, was arguably the first person in the U.S. to hold a formal position as a sociologist.
UVM's sociology program is designed to equip students with the tools to understand the world in a way that goes well beyond common sense notions of everyday life.
Sociology majors are trained in both qualitative and quantitative methods.
Sociology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2778 words)
Sociology emerged as a scientific discipline in the early 19th century as an academic response to the challenge of modernity: as the world was becoming smaller and more integrated, people's experience of the world was increasingly atomized and dispersed.
In 1919 a sociology department was established in Germany at the Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich by Max Weber and in 1920 in Poland by Florian Znaniecki.
Early theorists' approach to sociology, led by Comte, was to treat it in the same manner as natural science, applying the same methods and methodology used in the natural sciences to study social phenomena.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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