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Encyclopedia > Society of Jesus
Seal of the Society of Jesus. The "IHS" trigram comprises the first three Greek letters of "IHΣOYΣ" (Jesus), later interpreted as "Iesus Hominum Salvator", Jesus, Saviour of Mankind, "Iesum Habemus Socium", We have Jesus as Companion or as "Iesu Humilis Societas", Humble Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu, S.J. and S.I. or SJ, SI ) is a Roman Catholic Church religious order whose members are called Jesuits, Soldiers of Christ, and Foot soldiers of the Pope, because the founder, Saint Ignatius of Loyola, was a knight before becoming a priest. Image File history File links Societasiesuseal. ... Image File history File links Societasiesuseal. ... A Christogram is a monogram or combination of letters which forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, and is traditionally used as a Christian symbol. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Saints redirects here. ... Saint Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Ignacio (Íñigo) López de Loyola (December 24, 1491 – July 31, 1556), was the principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope in terms of mission. ... Knights Dueling, by Eugène Delacroix For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Catholic deacon...


Jesuits are the largest male religious order of the Roman Catholic Church with 19,216 members (13,491 priests, 3,049 scholastic students, 1,810 brothers and 866 novices) as of January 2007 (the Franciscan family of first orders OFMs, Capuchins, and Conventuals has some 30,899 members [20,786 priests]). The average age of the Jesuits in 2007 is 57.3 : 63.4 for priests, 29.8 for scholastics and 65.5 for Brothers[1]. The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (OFM Cap) is an order of friars in the Roman Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. ... Conventual Franciscans Headline text The Order of Friars founded by St, Francis of Assisi in 1209 The viability of the Franciscan movement after the founders death depended upon a thorough assessment of the Orders role within the social situation. ...


Jesuit priests and brothers are engaged in ministries in 112 nations on six continents. No work, if it has an evangelical perspective, is closed to them, but they are best known in the fields of education (schools, colleges, universities, seminaries, theological faculties), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. They are also known in missionary work and direct evangelization, social justice and human rights activities, interreligious dialogue, and other 'frontier' ministry. This article is about religious workers. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Literati redirects here. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


The Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and it is led by a Superior General, currently Adolfo Nicolás.[2][3] The headquarters of the Society, called General Curia, is in Rome. The history curia of St Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit Mother Church. To consecrate an inaminate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Madonna Della Strada, patroness of the Society of Jesus and revered by Jesuits throughout the world. ... Our Lady redirects here. ... Saint Ignatius of Loyola served as the first Superior General. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Giacomo della Portas façade of the Church of the Gesù, a precursor of the baroque The Church of the Gesù (in Italian, Chiesa del Sacro Nome di Gesù, or Church of the Holy Name of Jesus) is the mother church of the Society of Jesus, known as the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Society of Jesus

History of the Jesuits
Regimini militantis
Suppresion

Jesuit Hierarchy
Superior General
Adolfo Nicolás

Ignatian Spirituality
Spiritual Exercises
Ad maiorem Dei gloriam
Magis
Discernment

Famous Jesuits
St. Ignatius of Loyola
St. Francis Xavier
Blessed Peter Faber
St. Aloysius Gonzaga
St. Robert Bellarmine
St. Peter Canisius
St. Edmund Campion Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Image File history File links JHS-IHS-Monogram-Name-Jesus. ... Regimini militantis ecclesiae (“On the Supremacy of the Church Militant”) was the papal bull promulagated by Pope Paul III on September 27, 1540, which gave final approval to the formation of the Society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits, but limited the number of its members to sixty, who... The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a result of a series of political moves rather than a theological controversy. ... Saint Ignatius of Loyola served as the first Superior General. ... The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola is a brief set of meditations, prayers and mental exercises, available in various book formats, designed to be carried out over over a period of 28 to 30 days. ... A.M.D.G. engraving in choir loft of St. ... Magis [pronounced mah gís]] is a Jesuit phrase that means the more. It is taken from Ad majorem Dei gloriam, meaning for the greater glory of God. Magis referes to doing more for Christ. ... Discernment is a term used in the Catholic Church, and other Christian traditions to describe the process of ascertaining Gods will for ones life. ... This is an incomplete list of famous members of the Society of Jesus. ... Saint Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Ignacio (Íñigo) López de Loyola (December 24, 1491 – July 31, 1556), was the principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope in terms of mission. ... Saint Francis Xavier (Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: San Francisco Javier; Portuguese: São Francisco Xavier; Chinese: 聖方濟各沙勿略) (7 April 1506 - 2 December 1552) was a Spanish pioneering Roman Catholic Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). ... Peter Faber (French Pierre Lefevre, or Pierre Favre, Latin Petrus Faber) (April 13, 1506 - August 1, 1546) was a French Jesuit theologian and a cofounder of the Society of Jesus. ... Aloysius Gonzaga (9 March 1568–21 June 1591) was the oldest son of the Marquis Ferdinand of Castiglione, a prince of the Holy Roman Empire, and Marta Tana Santena, daughter of a baron from Piemonte, of the Della Rovere family. ... This article is about Robert Bellarmine, the Catholic Saint. ... Petrus Canisius (May 8, 1521 – December 21, 1597) was a Roman Catholic teacher and preacher in Germany, Austria, and Bohemia, fighting against the spread of Protestantism. ... Portrait of Edmund Campion St. ...

Contents

History

Foundation

Ignatius Loyola
Ignatius Loyola
The Chapel of St. Denis, Rue Yvonne le Tac, Paris.
The Chapel of St. Denis, Rue Yvonne le Tac, Paris.

On August 15, 1534, Ignatius of Loyola (born Íñigo López de Loyola), a Spaniard of Basque origin, and six other students at the University of Paris (Francisco Xavier, Alfonso Salmeron, Diego Laínez, and Nicolás Bobadilla all from Spain, Peter Faber from Savoy in France, and Simão Rodrigues from Portugal) met in Montmartre outside Paris, in the crypt of the Chapel of St Denis, Rue Yvonne le Tac. From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... From [1], in the public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... Saint Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Ignacio (Íñigo) López de Loyola (December 24, 1491 – July 31, 1556), was the principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope in terms of mission. ... Language(s) Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religion(s) Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: ) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of north-central Spain and southwestern... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Saint Francis Xavier (Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: San Francisco Javier; Portuguese: São Francisco Xavier; Chinese: 聖方濟各沙勿略) (7 April 1506 - 2 December 1552) was a Spanish pioneering Roman Catholic Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). ... Alfonso Salmeron (September 8, 1515 _ February 13, 1585) was a biblical scholar and one of the first Jesuits. ... Diego Laynez (or Lainez), (1512-1565), the second general of the Society of Jesus, was born in Castile, and after studying at Alcala joined Ignatius of Loyola in Paris, being one of the six who with Loyola in August 1534 took the vow of missionary work in Palestine in the... Nicolas Bobadilla (1511 - 1590) was one of the first Jesuits. ... Peter Faber (French Pierre Lefevre, or Pierre Favre, Latin Petrus Faber) (April 13, 1506 - August 1, 1546) was a French Jesuit theologian and a cofounder of the Society of Jesus. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... Simão Rodrigues de Azevedo (1510-1579), born in Vouzela, Portugal[1], was a Portuguese priest and missionary, one of the founders of the Society of Jesus. ... Montmartre seen from the centre Georges Pompidou (1897), a painting by Camille Pissarro of the boulevard that led to Montmartre as seen from his hotel room. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


This group bound themselves by a vow of poverty and chastity, to "enter upon hospital and missionary work in Jerusalem, or to go without questioning wherever the pope might direct". For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


They called themselves the Company of Jesus, because they felt they were placed together by Christ. The name had echoes of the military (as in an infantry "company"), as well as of discipleship (the "companions" of Jesus). The word "company" comes ultimately from Latin, cum + pane = "bread with," or a group that shares meals. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Standard NATO code for a friendly infantry company. ...


These initial steps led to the founding of what would be called the Society of Jesus later in 1540. The term societas in Latin is derived from socius, a partner or comrade.


Much is sometimes made of Ignatius' military background; in fact nowhere in the Constitutions of the order is the Society of Jesus compared to an army.


In 1537, they travelled to Italy to seek papal approval for their order. Pope Paul III gave them a commendation, and permitted them to be ordained priests. A religious order is an organization of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with religious devotion. ... Pope Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Alessandro Cardinal Farnese (left) and his other grandson (right), Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma Pope Paul III (February 29, 1468 – November 10, 1549), born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death 1549. ... This article is about religious workers. ...


They were ordained at Venice by the bishop of Arbe (June 24). They devoted themselves to preaching and charitable work in Italy, as the renewed Italian War of 1535-1538 between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Venice, the pope and the Ottoman Empire rendered any journey to Jerusalem impossible. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... You might also be looking for the G-protein rab. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Italian War of 1535 between Charles V and Francis I of France began with the death of Francesco Maria Sforza, the duke of Milan. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


They presented the project to the Pope. After months of dispute, a congregation of cardinals reported favorably upon the Constitution presented, and Paul III confirmed the order through the bull Regimini militantis ecclesiae ("To the Government of the Church Militant"), on September 27, 1540, but limited the number of its members to sixty. This is the founding document of the Jesuits as an official Catholic religious order. For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Regimini militantis ecclesiae (“To the Government of the Church Militant”) was the papal bull promulgated by Pope Paul III on September 27, 1540, which gave a first approval to the formation of the Society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits, but limited the number of its members to sixty. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...


This limitation was removed through the bull Injunctum nobis (March 14, 1543). Ignatius was chosen as the first superior-general. He sent his companions as missionaries around Europe to create schools, colleges, and seminaries.[4] is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ...


When developed, Jesuits concentrated on three activities. First, they founded schools throughout Europe. Jesuit teachers were rigorously trained in both classical studies and theology. The Jesuits' second mission was to convert non-Christians to Catholicism, so they developed and sent out missionaries. Their third goal was to stop Protestantism from spreading. The zeal of the Jesuits overcame the drift toward Protestantism in Poland-Lithuania and southern Germany. Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ...


Ignatius wrote the Jesuit Constitutions, adopted in 1554, which created a tightly centralized organization and stressed absolute self-abnegation and obedience to Pope and superiors (perinde ac cadaver, "[well-disciplined] like a corpse" as Ignatius put it).


His main principle became the unofficial Jesuit motto: Ad Maiorem Dei Gloriam ("For the greater glory of God"). This phrase is designed to reflect the idea that any work that is not evil can be meritorious for the spiritual life if it is performed with this intention, even things considered normally indifferent.[4] A.M.D.G. engraving in choir loft of St. ...


The Society of Jesus is classified among institutes as a mendicant order of clerks regular, that is, a body of priests organized for apostolic work, following a religious rule, and relying on alms, or donations, for support. The term mendicant refers to begging or otherwise relying on charitable donations, and is most widely used for religious followers or ascetics who rely exclusively on charity to survive. ... A cleric is a member of the clergy of a religion, especially one that has trained or ordained priests, preachers, or other religious professionals. ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the world. ... A Taoist monk playing an instrument. ... Governance is that separate process or certain part of management or leadership processes that makes decisions that define expectations, grant power, or verify performance. ... Alms Bag taken from some Tapestry in Orleans, Fifteenth Century. ...


The term "Jesuit" (of fifteenth-century origin, meaning one who used too frequently or appropriated the name of Jesus), was first applied to the Society in reproach (1544-52), and was never employed by its founder, though members and friends of the Society in time appropriated the name in its positive meaning. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Early works

The Jesuits were founded just before the Counter-Reformation (or at least before the date those historians with a classical view of the counter reformation hold to be the beginning of the Counter-Reformation), a movement whose purpose was to reform the Catholic Church from within and to counter the Protestant Reformers, whose teachings were spreading throughout Catholic Europe. Image File history File links Ratio Studiorum Societatis Iesu, 1598 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Ratio Studiorum Societatis Iesu, 1598 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Ratio Studiorum, 1598 The Ratio Studiorum (Latin: Plan of Studies) often designates the document that formally established the globally influential system of Jesuit education in 1599. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Reformation redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


As part of their service to the Roman Church, the Jesuits encouraged people to continue their obedience to scripture as interpreted by Catholic doctrine. Ignatius is known to have written: Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

"I will believe that the white that I see is black if the hierarchical Church so defines it."[5]

But his hyperbole relativizes propositional claims defined by the hierarchical Church. For him, the important things in life are not propositional definitions, but the spiritual movements within oneself.


Ignatius and the early Jesuits did recognize, though, that the hierarchical Church was in dire need of reform, and some of their greatest struggles were against corruption, venality, and spiritual lassitude within the Roman Catholic Church. Venality is the quality of being for sale, especially when one should act justly instead. ...


Ignatius's insistence on an extremely high level of academic preparation for ministry, for instance, was a deliberate response to the relatively poor education of much of the clergy of his time, and the Jesuit vow against "ambitioning prelacies" was a deliberate effort to prevent greed for money or power invading Jesuit circles.


As a result, in spite of their loyalty, Ignatius and his successors often tangled with the pope and the Roman Curia. Over the 450 years since its founding, the Society has both been called the papal "elite troops" and been forced into suppression. The Roman Curia — usually called the Vatican — is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a product of a series of political moves rather than a theological controversy. ...


St. Ignatius and the Jesuits who followed him believed that the reform of the Church had to begin with the conversion of an individual’s heart. One of the main tools the Jesuits have used to bring about this conversion has been the Ignatian retreat, called the Spiritual Exercises. The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola is a brief set of meditations, prayers and mental exercises, available in various book formats, designed to be carried out over over a period of 28 to 30 days. ...


During a four-week period of silence, individuals undergo a series of directed meditations on the life of Christ. During this period, they meet regularly with a spiritual director, who helps them understand whatever call or message God has offered in their meditations.


The retreat follows a Purgative-Illuminative-Unitive pattern in the tradition of the mysticism of John Cassian and the Desert Fathers. Ignatius' innovation was to make this style of contemplative mysticism available to all people in active life, and to use it as a means of rebuilding the spiritual life of the Church. The Exercises became both the basis for the training of Jesuits themselves and one of the essential ministries of the order: giving the exercises to others in what became known as retreats. Saint John Cassian (ca. ... The Desert Fathers were Christian Hermits who lived in the Sahara desert of Egypt, beginning in about the third century. ...


The Jesuits’ contributions to the late Renaissance were significant in their roles both as a missionary order and as the first religious order to operate colleges and universities as a principal and distinct ministry. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see College (disambiguation). ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ...


By the time of Ignatius' death in 1556, the Jesuits were already operating a network of 74 colleges on three continents. A precursor to liberal education, the Jesuit plan of studies incorporated the Classical teachings of Renaissance humanism into the Scholastic structure of Catholic thought. In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... Scholastic is the official student publication of the University of Notre Dame. ...


In addition to teaching faith, the Ratio Studiorum emphasized the study of Latin, Greek, classical literature, poetry, and philosophy as well as non-European languages, sciences and the arts. Furthermore, Jesuit schools encouraged the study of vernacular literature and rhetoric, and thereby became important centers for the training of lawyers and public officials. For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... The Ratio Studiorum, 1598 The Ratio Studiorum (Latin: Plan of Studies) often designates the document that formally established the globally influential system of Jesuit education in 1599. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... This article is about the art form. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Vernacular literature is literature written in the vernacular - the speech of the common people. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ...


The Jesuit schools played an important part in winning back to Catholicism a number of European countries which had for a time been predominantly Protestant, notably Poland and Lithuania. Today, Jesuit colleges and universities are located in over one hundred nations around the world.


Under the notion that God can be encountered through created things and especially art, they encouraged the use of ceremony and decoration in Catholic ritual and devotion. Perhaps as a result of this appreciation for art, coupled with their spiritual practice of "finding God in all things", many early Jesuits distinguished themselves in the visual and performing arts as well as in music. This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...


The Jesuits were able to obtain significant influence in the Early Modern Period because Jesuit priests often acted as confessors to the Kings of the time. They were an important force in the Counter-Reformation and in the Catholic missions, in part because their relatively loose structure (without the requirements of living in community, saying the divine office together, etc.) allowed them to be flexible to meet the needs of the people at the time. The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that are the direct antecedents... This article is about the practice of confession in the Modern confessional in the Church of the Holy Name, Dunedin, New Zealand. ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ... The Liturgy of the Hours is usually recited in full in monastic communities. ...


Expansion

Jesuite missionary, painting from 1779.
Jesuite missionary, painting from 1779.

Early missions in Japan resulted in the government granting the Jesuits the feudal fiefdom of Nagasaki in 1580. However, this was removed in 1587 due to fears over their growing influence. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 284 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (400 × 843 pixel, file size: 126 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 284 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (400 × 843 pixel, file size: 126 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki   listen? (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. ...


Francis Xavier arrived in Goa, in Western India, in 1541 to consider evangelical service in the Indies. He died after a decade of evangelism in Southern India. Two Jesuit missionaries, Johann Gruber and Albert D'Orville, reached Lhasa in Tibet in 1661. Saint Francis Xavier (Basque: San Frantzisko Xabierkoa; Spanish: San Francisco Javier; Portuguese: São Francisco Xavier; Chinese: 聖方濟各沙勿略) (7 April 1506 - 2 December 1552) was a Spanish pioneering Roman Catholic Christian missionary and co-founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit Order). ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Johann Grueber (28 October 1623 in Linz - 1665) was a German Jesuit missionary in China, and noted explorer. ... For other uses, see Lhasa (disambiguation). ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...

Ruins of La Santisima Trinidad de Parana in Paraguay, one of the many Jesuit missions established in South America during the 17th and 18th centuries
Ruins of La Santisima Trinidad de Parana in Paraguay, one of the many Jesuit missions established in South America during the 17th and 18th centuries

Jesuit missions in Latin America were very controversial in Europe, especially in Spain and Portugal, where they were seen as interfering with the proper colonial enterprises of the royal governments. The Jesuits were often the only force standing between the Native Americans and slavery. Together throughout South America but especially in present-day Brazil and Paraguay they formed Christian Native American city-states, called "reductions" (Spanish Reducciones, Portuguese Reduções). These were societies set up according to an idealized theocratic model. It is partly because the Jesuits protected the natives whom certain Spanish and Portuguese colonizers wanted to enslave that the Society of Jesus was suppressed. Download high resolution version (877x594, 139 KB)Courtyard of the Jesuit ruins at Trinidad, Paraguay, showing the indian housing units as well as the main church to the left. ... Download high resolution version (877x594, 139 KB)Courtyard of the Jesuit ruins at Trinidad, Paraguay, showing the indian housing units as well as the main church to the left. ... Courtyard of the Trinidad ruins La Santisima Trinidad de Paraná, or the Holy Trinity of Paraná is the name of a former Jesuit mission in Paraguay. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Jesuit Reductions were a particular version of the general Spanish colonial strategy of building reducciones de indios in order to civilise and catechise the native populations of South America. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ...


Jesuit priests such as Manuel da Nóbrega and José de Anchieta founded several towns in Brazil in the 16th century, including São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, and were very influential in the pacification, religious conversion and education of Indian nations It has been suggested that Father Nobrega be merged into this article or section. ... José de Anchieta (1534-1597) was a Spanish Jesuit missionary in Brazil, South America, in the second half of the 16th century. ... This article is about the city. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... The word pacification is most often used as a euphemism for counter-insurgency operations by a dominant military force. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ...


There were several Jesuit missions in China.


Jesuit scholars working in these foreign missions were very important in understanding their unknown languages and strived to produce Latinicized grammars and dictionaries. This was done, for instance, for Japanese (see Nippo jisho also known as Vocabvlario da Lingoa de Iapam, a Japanese-Portuguese dictionary written 1603) and Tupi-Guarani (a language group of South American aborigines). Jean François Pons in the 1740s pioneered the study of Sanskrit in the West. For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... For other uses of dictionary, see dictionary (disambiguation). ... The Nippo Jisho (日葡辞書, literally the “Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary”) or Vocabvlario da Lingoa de Iapam was a Japanese to Portuguese dictionary published in Nagasaki, Japan in 1603. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Jean François Pons (1688-1752) was a French Jesuit who pioneered the study of Sanskrit in the West. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Under Portuguese royal patronage, the order thrived in Goa and until 1759 successfully expanded its activities to education and healthcare. On 17 December 1759, the Marquis of Pombal, Secretary of State in Portugal, expelled the Jesuits from Portugal and Portuguese possessions overseas. December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Marquis of Pombal, or Marquês de Pombal, (13 May 1699 - 15 May 1782) was a Portuguese politician and statesman, prime minister of king Joseph I of Portugal throughout his reign. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ...


Jesuit activity in China

Jesuits in China.
Jesuits in China.

The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution, to China. The Society of Jesus introduced, according to Thomas Woods, "a substantial body of scientific knowledge and a vast array of mental tools for understanding the physical universe, including the Euclidean geometry that made planetary motion comprehensible." [6] Another expert quoted by Woods said the scientific revolution brought by the Jesuits coincided with a time when science was at a very low level in China: Image File history File links Jesuites_en_chine. ... Image File history File links Jesuites_en_chine. ... The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China in the early modern era stands as one of the notable events in the early history of relations between China and the Western world, as well as a prominent example of relations between two cultures and belief systems in the... Thomas Woods Thomas E. Woods, Jr. ...

[The Jesuits] made efforts to translate western mathematical and astronomical works into Chinese and aroused the interest of Chinese scholars in these sciences. They made very extensive astronomical observation and carried out the first modern cartographic work in China. They also learned to appreciate the scientific achievements of this ancient culture and made them known in Europe. Through their correspondence European scientists first learned about the Chinese science and culture.[7]

"Life and works of Confucius, by Prospero Intorcetta, 1687.
"Life and works of Confucius, by Prospero Intorcetta, 1687.

Conversely, the Jesuits were very active in transmitting Chinese knowledge to Europe. Confucius's works were translated into European languages through the agency of Jesuit scholars stationed in China. Matteo Ricci started to report on the thoughts of Confucius, and father Prospero Intorcetta published the life and works of Confucius into Latin in 1687[8]. It is thought that such works had considerable importance on European thinkers of the period, particularly among the Deists and other philosophical groups of the Enlightenment who were interested by the integration of the system of morality of Confucius into Christianity[8][9]. Here are two well-known examples: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 701 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1783 × 1526 pixel, file size: 656 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 701 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1783 × 1526 pixel, file size: 656 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Matteo Ricci. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Deism is belief in a God or first cause based on reason, rather than on faith or revelation, and thus a form of theism in opposition to fideism. ... Look up enlightenment, Enlightenment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...

The Physiocrats were a group of thinkers who believed in an economic theory which considered that the wealth of nations was derived solely from agriculture. ... François Quesnay (June 4, 1694 - December 16, 1774) was a French economist of the Physiocratic school. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Wu wei (trad. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... For other uses, see Weimar (disambiguation). ...

Suppression and restoration

Boston College is the home to the world's largest Jesuit community
Boston College is the home to the world's largest Jesuit community

The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was troubling to the Society's defender, Pope Clement XIII. A decree signed under secular pressure by Pope Clement XIV in July 1773 suppressed the Order. The suppression was carried out in all countries except Prussia and Russia, where Catherine the Great had forbidden the papal decree to be executed. Because millions of Catholics (including many Jesuits) lived in the Polish western provinces of the Russian Empire, the Society was able to maintain its existence and carry on its work all through the period of suppression. Subsequently, Pope Pius VI would grant formal permission for the continuation of the Society in Russia and Poland. Based on that permission, Stanislaus Czerniewicz was elected superior of the Society in 1782. Pius VII during his captivity in France, had resolved to restore the Jesuits universally; and after his return to Rome he did so with little delay: on 7 August 1814, by the bull Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum, he reversed the suppression of the Order and therewith, the then Superior in Russia, Thaddeus Brzozowski, who had been elected in 1805, acquired universal jurisdiction. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1203x816, 1255 KB)Sunset on the Heights - Boston College - Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts Ford Memorial Tower, Burns Library, Bapst Library and Gasson Hall on BCs historic middle campus Photo © 2005 Harvey D. Egan, SJ File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1203x816, 1255 KB)Sunset on the Heights - Boston College - Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts Ford Memorial Tower, Burns Library, Bapst Library and Gasson Hall on BCs historic middle campus Photo © 2005 Harvey D. Egan, SJ File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Education in Boston, MA. Boston College (BC) is a private university located in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, in the New England region of the United States. ... The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a product of a series of political moves rather than a theological controversy. ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: il Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the new name that the Bourbon King Ferdinand IV of Naples bestowed upon his domain (including Southern Italy and the island of Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration... The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul IIIs illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered around the city of Parma. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... Clement XIII, born Carlo della Torre Rezzonico (Venice, March 7, 1693 – Rome, February 2, 1769), was Pope from 1758 to 1769. ... Pope Clement XIV, born Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli (Sant Arcangelo di Romagna, 31 October 1705 – 22 September 1774 in Rome), was Pope from 1769 to 1774. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from June 28, 1762, to her death on November 6, 1796. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Pius VI, born as Giovanni Angelo Braschi, (December 27, 1717 - August 29, 1799), pope from 1775 to 1799, was born at Cesena. ... Stanislaus Czerniewicz, S.J. This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia Categories: | ... Pius VII, né Giorgio Barnaba Luigi Chiaramonti, (August 14, 1740 - August 20, 1823) was Pope from March 14, 1800 to August 20, 1823. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The period following the Restoration of the Jesuits in 1814 was marked by tremendous growth, as evidenced by the large number of Jesuit colleges and universities established in the 19th century. In the United States, 22 of the Society's 28 universities were founded or taken over by the Jesuits during this time. Some claim that the experience of suppression served to heighten orthodoxy among the Jesuits upon restoration. While this claim is debatable, Jesuits were generally supportive of Papal authority within the Church, and some members were associated with the Ultramontanist movement and the declaration of Papal Infallibility in 1870. “Orthodox” redirects here. ... Ultramontanism literally alludes to a policy supporting those dwelling beyond the mountains (ultra montes), that is beyond the Alps - generally referring to the Pope in Rome. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at...


In Switzerland, following the defeat of the Ultramontanist Sonderbund by Calvinist cantons, the constitution was modified and Jesuits were banished in 1848. The ban was lifted on 20 May 1973, when 54.9% of voters accepted a referendum modifying the Constitution.[14] Ultramontanism is a religious philosophy within the Roman Catholic community that places strong emphasis on the prerogatives and powers of the pope. ... The Sonderbund (meaning separate alliance, in German), was a league created in 1845 in Switzerland between seven Catholic and Conservative cantons in order to protect their interests against a centralization of power. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


The 20th century witnessed both aspects of growth and decline. Following a trend within the Catholic priesthood at large, Jesuit numbers peaked in the 1950s and have declined steadily since. Meanwhile the number of Jesuit institutions has grown considerably, due in large part to a late 20th century focus on the establishment of Jesuit secondary schools in inner-city areas and an increase in lay association with the order. Among the notable Jesuits of the 20th century, John Courtney Murray, SJ, was called one of the "architects of the Second Vatican Council" and drafted what eventually became the council's endorsement of religious freedom, Dignitatis Humanae Personae in apparent contradiction of Pope Eugene IV's Domini Cantate. An inner city is the central area of a major city. ... TIME Magazine - Dec. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Jesuits today

Current Jesuit Cardinals Date of Birth
Current Age
Elevated to Cardinal
Jorge Mario Cardinal Bergoglio
Flag of Argentina Archbishop of Buenos Aires
December 17, 1936
71 years, 127 days
February 21, 2001
Pope John Paul II
Julius Riyadi Cardinal Darmaatmadja
Flag of Indonesia Archbishop of Jakarta
December 20, 1934
73 years, 125 days
November 26, 1994
Pope John Paul II
Avery Robert Cardinal Dulles
Flag of the United States priest
August 24, 1918
89 years, 243 days
February 21, 2001
Pope John Paul II
Ján Chryzostom Cardinal Korec
Flag of Slovakia Bishop Emeritus of Nitra
January 22, 1924
84 years, 92 days
June 28, 1991
Pope John Paul II
Carlo Maria Cardinal Martini
Flag of Italy Archbishop Emeritus of Milan
February 15, 1927
81 years, 68 days
February 2, 1983
Pope John Paul II
Urbano Cardinal Navarrete Cortés
Flag of Spain priest
May 25, 1920
87 years, 333 days
November 24, 2007
Pope Benedict XVI
Paul Cardinal Shan Kuo-his
Flag of the Republic of China Bishop Emeritus of Kaohsiung
December 3, 1923
84 years, 142 days
February 21, 1998
Pope John Paul II
Tomáš Cardinal Špidlík
Flag of the Czech Republic priest
December 17, 1919
88 years, 128 days
October 21, 2003
Pope John Paul II
Roberto Cardinal Tucci
Flag of Italy priest
April 19, 1921
87 years, 5 days
February 21, 2001
Pope John Paul II
Albert Cardinal Vanhoye
Flag of France priest
July 23, 1923
84 years, 275 days
March 24, 2006
Pope Benedict XVI

The Jesuits today form the largest religious order of priests in the Catholic Church, with 19,216 serving in 112 nations on six continents, the largest number being in India followed by those in the United States. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is the Spanish Adolfo Nicolás. The Society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in various countries around the world and is particularly active in the Philippines and India. In the United States alone, it maintains over 50 colleges, universities and high schools. A typical conception of the mission of a Jesuit school will often contain such concepts as proposing Christ as the model of human life, the pursuit of excellence in teaching and learning and life-long spiritual and intellectual growth.[15] In Latin America, Liberal Jesuits have had significant influence in the development of liberation theology, a movement which has been highly controversial in the Catholic theological community and condemned by Pope John Paul II on several fundamental aspects. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 654 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1050 × 962 pixel, file size: 271 KB, MIME type: image/png) P. Jaworski ( PioM ),POLAND/PoznaÅ„; 14V2005, under GNU FDL; Drawn in InkScape; Template of cardinals coat of arms. ... Jorge Mario Cardinal Bergoglio is a Jesuit priest and Archbishop of Buenos Aires in Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Metropolitan Cathedral of Buenos Aires. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Julius Darmaatmadja (born December 20, 1934 in Jagang, Muntilan) is a cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church, and is the archbishop of Jakarta and primate of Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Bishops of Jakarta: 1808 - 1817: Jacobus Nelissen 1817 - 1830: Lambertus Prinsen 1831 - 1842: Johannes Scholten 1842 - 1846: Jacobus Grooff 1847 - 1874: Petrus Maria Vrancken 1874 - 1893: A.C Claessens 1893 - 1897: Walterus Staal 1898 - 1923: Edmundus S Luypen 1924 - 1933: Antonius van Velsen 1934 - 1952: Petrus Willekens 1953 - 1961: Adrianus... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Avery Cardinal Dulles, S.J. (born August 24, 1918) is currently the Laurence J. McGinley Professor of Religion and Society at Fordham University, a position he has held since 1988. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Ján Chryzostom Cardinal Korec Ján Chryzostom Cardinal Korec (born January 22, 1924, in BoÅ¡any) is a Slovakian Jesuit and Bishop of Nitra. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Nitra - City Center Nitra (German: ( ); Hungarian: / Nyitria [archaic]) is a city in western Slovakia (and the fourth largest urban settlement in Slovakia) situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in the Nitra River valley. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... His Eminence Carlo Maria Cardinal Martini, S.J. (born 15 February 1927) is an Italian clergyman. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Cathedral of Milan. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Paul Shan Kuo-hsi, S.J. (Chinese language: 單國璽; pinyin: Shàn Guóxǐ) (born December 3, 1923) is a cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church and was the Bishop of Hualien and Kaohsiung. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Region City seat Lingya District (苓雅區) Government  - Mayor Chen Chu (陳菊) Area  - Total 154 km² (59. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... His Eminence Tomáš Cardinal Å pidlík, SJ (born December 17, 1919 in Boskovice - then Czechoslovakia, now Czech Republic) was made a Cardinal by Pope John Paul II in 2003. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... His Eminence Roberto Cardinal Tucci S.J., Ph. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Albert Vanhoye (July 24, 1923) in Hazebrouck Nord, France. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Taoist monk playing an instrument. ... Saint Ignatius of Loyola served as the first Superior General. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... The University of Cambridge is an institute of higher learning. ... Liberation theology is a school of theology within the Catholic Church that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of...


Under Superior General Pedro Arrupe, social justice and the preferential option for the poor emerged as dominant themes of the work of the Jesuits. On November 16, 1989, six Jesuit priests (Ignacio Ellacuria, Segundo Montes, Ignacio Martin-Baro, Joaquin López y López, Juan Ramon Moreno, and Amado López); their housekeeper, Elba Ramos; and her daughter, Celia Marisela Ramos, were murdered by the Salvadoran military on the campus of the University of Central America in San Salvador, El Salvador, because they had been labeled as subversives by the government. The assassinations galvanized the Society's peace and justice movements, including annual protests at the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation at Fort Benning, Georgia, where the assassins were trained under US government sponsorship. Fr. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Ignacio Ellacuria Ignacio Ellacuría (Portugalete, Biscay, Spain, November 9, 1930-November 16, 1989) was a Roman catholic priest, philosopher and theologian who did important work as a teacher and administration worker in the Jesuit university of El Salvador (Universidad Centroamericana Jose Simeon Cañas, UCA, founded in 1965). ... Segundo Montes Segundo Montes, S.J. (Valladolid, Spain, May 15, 1933 - San Salvador, El Salvador, November 16, 1989) was a scholar, philosopher, educator, sociologist and Jesuit priest. ... Ignacio Martín-Baró Ignacio Martín-Baró, S.J. (Valladolid, Castilla y Leon, Spain, November 7, 1942 – San Salvador, El Salvador, November 16, 1989) was a scholar, social psychologist, philosopher and Roman Catholic Jesuit priest. ... This article is about the Salvadoran capital city. ... Official seal of the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation } The Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation (WHISC or WHINSEC), formerly the School of the Americas (SOA; Spanish: Escuela de las Américas), is a United States Department of Defense facility at Fort Benning in Columbus, Georgia. ... Fort Benning is a base facility of the United States military outside Columbus, Georgia. ...


In 2002, Boston College president William P. Leahy, SJ, initiated the Church in the 21st Century program as a means of moving the Church "from crisis to renewal." The initiative has provided the Society with a platform for examining issues brought about by the worldwide Roman Catholic sex abuse cases, including the priesthood, celibacy, sexuality, women's roles, and the role of the laity. For similarly-named academic institutions, see Education in Boston, MA. Boston College (BC) is a private university located in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, in the New England region of the United States. ... William P. Leahy, SJ (born 1948) is the 25th President of Boston College, a post he has held since 1996. ... Initiated by Boston College President William P. Leahy, SJ, and begun in September 2002, The Church in the 21st Century Initiative was originally conceived as a two-year project aimed at examining the controversial issues raised by the sexual abuse scandal in the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Roman Catholic sex abuse cases are a series of accusations of child sexual abuse made against Roman Catholic priests and also concern accusations of related church cover-ups against said abuse. ... A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who are thought to have special religious authority or function. ... Celibacy refers either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ...


On January 6, 2005, Fr. Peter Hans Kolvenbach, on the occasion of the Jubilee Year, wrote that the Jesuits "should truly profit from the jubilee year to examine our way of life and taking the means to live more profoundly the charisms received from our Founders."[16] is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter Hans Kolvenbach, current Superior-General of the Catholic order or the Jesuits, in Goa, India, Nov 9, 2006. ...


In April 2005, Thomas J. Reese, SJ, editor of the American Jesuit weekly magazine America, resigned at the request of the Society. The move was widely published in the media as the result of pressure from the Vatican, following years of criticism by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on articles touching subjects such as HIV/AIDS, religious pluralism, homosexuality and the right of life for the unborn. Reese is currently on a year-long sabbatical at Santa Clara University. Thomas J. Reese, SJ, is a Jesuit author and the former editor in chief of America, a weekly Catholic magazine. ... America is a moderate Catholic weekly published in the United States which contains news and opinion about the Roman Catholic Church and how its positions relate to American politics and cultural life. ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... This article is about religious pluralism. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... The Santa Clara Mission is a notable on-campus landmark. ...

Visit of Benedict XVI to the Pontifical Gregorian University, "one of the greatest services the Society of Jesus carries out for the universal Church."
Visit of Benedict XVI to the Pontifical Gregorian University, "one of the greatest services the Society of Jesus carries out for the universal Church."

On February 2, 2006, Fr. Peter Hans Kolvenbach, informed members of the Society of Jesus, that with the consent of Pope Benedict XVI, he intended to step down as Superior General in 2008, the year he will turn 80. The 35th General Congregation of the Society of Jesus convened on 5 January 2008 and elected Fr. Adolfo Nicolás, a Spanish Jesuit missionary in Japan, as the new Superior General on 19 January 2008. The deliberations of the General Congregation on other important policies for the Jesuit order are expected to continue until March, 2008. While the Jesuit superior general is elected for life, the order's constitutions allow him to step down. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 270 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Esta version de la imagen a sido modificada con Paint Shop X de la que se encuentra en : http://pt. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 270 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Esta version de la imagen a sido modificada con Paint Shop X de la que se encuentra en : http://pt. ... Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: ; born April 16, 1927 as Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany) is the 265th reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City. ... Pontifical Gregorian University (Italian: Pontificia Università Gregoriana) is a pontifical university located in Rome, Italy. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Peter Hans Kolvenbach, current Superior-General of the Catholic order or the Jesuits, in Goa, India, Nov 9, 2006. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


On April 22, 2006, Feast of Our Lady, Mother of the Society of Jesus, Pope Benedict XVI greeted thousands of Jesuits on pilgrimage to Rome, and took the opportunity to thank God "for having granted to your Company the gift of men of extraordinary sanctity and of exceptional apostolic zeal such as St Ignatius of Loyola, St Francis Xavier and Bl Peter Faber." He said "St Ignatius of Loyola was above all a man of God, who gave the first place of his life to God, to his greater glory and his greater service. He was a man of profound prayer, which found its center and its culmination in the daily Eucharistic Celebration." [17] is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In May 2006, Benedict XVI also wrote a letter to Superior General Peter Hans Kolvenbach on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of Pope Pius XII's encyclical Haurietis aquas, on devotion to the Sacred Heart, because the Jesuits have always been "extremely active in the promotion of this essential devotion " [18]. In his November 3, 2006 visit to the Pontifical Gregorian University, Benedict XVI cited the university as "one of the greatest services that the Society of Jesus carries out for the universal Church" [19]. Peter Hans Kolvenbach, current Superior-General of the Catholic order or the Jesuits, in Goa, India, Nov 9, 2006. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pontifical Gregorian University (Italian: Pontificia Università Gregoriana) is a pontifical university located in Rome, Italy. ...


On January 19, 2008, Adolfo Nicolas was elected by General Congregation (GC XXXV) as the Order’s thirtieth Superior General and was promptly confirmed by Benedict XVI. A month after, the Pope received members of the General Congregation and urged them to "to continue on the path of this mission in full fidelity to your original charism" and asked them to reflect so as "to rediscover the fullest meaning of your characteristic 'fourth vow' of obedience to the Successor of Peter." For this, he told them to "adhere totally to the Word of God and to the Magisterium's task of preserving the integral truth and unity of Catholic doctrine." This clear identity, according to the Pope, is important so that "many others may share in your ideals and join you effectively and enthusiastically."[20]. The Congregation responded with a formal declaration titled "With New Fervor and Dynamism, the Society of Jesus Responds to the Call of Benedict XVI," whereby they confirmed the Society's fidelity to the Pope.[21] The highest authority in the Society of Jesus is the General Congregation, an assembly of the Jesuit representatives from all parts of the world. ...

Jesuits in the World (2007)[1]: 91 Provinces and 12 Dependent Regions: 3 in Africa, 4 in the Americas and 5 in Asia-Oceania.
Region Jesuits Percentage
South Asia Assistancy 4,018 20.9%
United States of America 2,952 15.4%
South Europe 2,448 12.7%
West Europe 1,958 10.2%
East Asia-Oceania 1,672 8.7%
South Latin America 1,513 7.9%
Africa 1,430 7.4%
North Latin America 1,374 7.2%
East Europe 1,119 5.8%
Central Europe 732 3.8%

Ignatian spirituality

Sacred Heart of Jesus. According to Benedict XVI, the Jesuits have always been "extremely active in the promotion of this essential devotion."

Like all Catholic spirituality, the spirituality practiced by the Jesuits, called Ignatian spirituality, is based on the Catholic faith and the gospels. Aside from the "Constitutions," "The Letters," and "Autobiography," Ignatian spirituality draws most specially from St. Ignatius' "Spiritual Exercises," whose purpose is "to conquer oneself and to regulate one's life in such a way that no decision is made under the influence of any inordinate attachment." In other words, the Exercises are intended, in Ignatius' view, to give the exercitant (the person undertaking them) a greater degree of freedom from his or her own likes, dislikes, comforts, wants, needs, drives, appetites and passions that they may choose based solely on what they discern God's will is for them. Roman Catholic image of Jesus Christ as the Sacred Heart - no copyright This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Roman Catholic image of Jesus Christ as the Sacred Heart - no copyright This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Jesus Sacred Heart The Sacred Heart is a devotional name used by some Roman Catholics to refer to Jesus. ... The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola is a brief set of meditations, prayers and mental exercises, available in various book formats, designed to be carried out over over a period of 28 to 30 days. ...


In the words of Kolvenbach, the Exercises try to "unite two apparently incompatible realities: exercises and spiritual." It invites to "unlimited generosity" in contemplating God, yet going down to the level of many details.[22]


Ignatian spirituality can be described as an active attentiveness to God joined with a prompt responsiveness to God, who is ever active in people's lives. Though it includes many forms of prayer, discernment, and apostolic service, it is the interior dispositions of attentiveness and responsiveness that are ultimately crucial. The result is that Ignatian spirituality has a remarkable 'nowness,' both in its attentiveness to God and in its desire to respond to what God is asking of the person now.[23]


The Ignatian ideal has the following characteristics:[24]

God's greater glory
St Ignatius of Loyola —"a man who gave the first place of his life to God" says Benedict XVI— stressed that "Man is created to praise, reverence, and serve God Our Lord and by this means to save his soul." This is the "First Principle and Foundation" of the Exercises. Ignatius declares: "The goal of our life is to live with God forever. God who loves us, gave us life. Our own response of love allows God's life to flow into us without limit... Our only desire and our one choice should be this: I want and I choose what better leads to the deepening of God's life in me."
Union with Jesus
Ignatius emphasized an ardent love for the Saviour. In his Exercises, he devoted the last weeks to the contemplation of Jesus: from infancy and public ministry, to his passion and lastly his risen life. The Spiritual Exercises, in 104, sum this up in a prayer: "Lord, grant that I may see thee more clearly, love thee more dearly, follow thee more nearly." There is a great emphasis on the emotions in Ignatius' methods, and a call for the person to be very sensitive to the emotional movements that shape them.
Self-awareness
Ignatius recommends the twice daily examen. This is a guided method of prayerfully reviewing the events of a day to awaken an inner sensitivity to one's own actions, desires, and spiritual state through each moment reviewed. The goals are to see where God is challenging the person to change and growth, where God is calling the person to deeper reflection (this is particularly apt when discerning whether one has a jesuit vocation in life), and where sinful or imperfect attitudes or blind spots are. The general examen, often at the end of the day, is, as the name implies, a general review. The particular examen, often in the middle of the day, focuses on a particular fault identified by the person to be worked on over some days or weeks.
Spiritual direction
Meditation and contemplation, and for instance the aforementioned examen, are best guided, Ignatius says, by an experienced person. Jesuits, and those following Ignatian spirituality, meet with their spiritual director (traditionally a priest, though in recent years many laypersons have undertaken this role) on a regular basis (weekly or monthly) to discuss the fruits of their prayer life and be offered guidance. Ignatius sees the director as someone who can rein in impulsiveness or excesses, goad the complacent, and keep people honest with themselves. If the director is a priest, spiritual direction may or may not be connected with the Sacrament of Penance. Ignatius counseled frequent use of sacrament and while some directors see them as integrally linked, others hold them to be two separate relationships.[citation needed]
Effective love
The founder of the Society of Jesus put effective love (love shown in deeds) above affective love (love based on nice feelings). He usually ended his most important letters with "I implore God to grant us all the grace to know His holy will and to accomplish it perfectly." True and perfect love demands sacrifice, the abandonment of tastes and personal preferences, and the perfect renunciation of self. This can be taken together with the prayer for generosity, which asks for teaching to be generous, to serve God as God deserves without counting any cost or seeking any reward except knowing that one is doing God's will.
Detachment
Where Francis of Assisi's concept of poverty emphasized the spiritual benefits of simplicity and dependency, Ignatius emphasized detachment, or "indifference." For Ignatius, whether one was rich or poor, healthy or sick, in an assignment one enjoyed or one didn't, was comfortable in a culture or not, etc., should be a matter of spiritual indifference—a modern phrasing might put it as serene acceptance. Hence, a Jesuit (or one following Ignatian spirituality), placed in a comfortable, wealthy neighborhood should continue to live the Gospel life without anxiety or possessiveness, and if plucked instantly from that situation to be placed in a poor area and subjected to hardships should simply cheerfully accept that as well, without a sense of loss or being deprived.
Prayers, efforts at self-conquest, and reflection
Ignatius's little book, the Spiritual Exercises is a fruit of months of prayer, and it is through prayer that one gets to understand Ignatian Spirituality. Jesuits stress the need to take time to reflect and to pray because prayer is at the foundation of Jesus's life. Prayer, in Ignatian spirituality, does not dispense from "helping oneself," a phrase frequently used by Ignatius. Thus, he also speaks of mortification and of amendment.
Upon his recovery from battle wounds, St. Ignatius of Loyola hung his military accoutrements before the image of the Virgin of Montserrat. Then he led a period of asceticism to found the Society of Jesus.
Upon his recovery from battle wounds, St. Ignatius of Loyola hung his military accoutrements before the image of the Virgin of Montserrat. Then he led a period of asceticism to found the Society of Jesus.
Devotion to the Sacred Heart, the Eucharist, and our Lady
The Society of Jesus has a relationship with the Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary in a commitment to spread the devotion to the Sacred Heart (though the concept of devotion to Christ's mercy, as symbolized in the image of the Sacred Heart, is more ancient, its modern origins can be traced to St. Marie Alacoque, a Visitation nun, whose spiritual director was St. Claude de la Colombière). The Jesuits particularly promoted this devotion to emphasize the compassion and overwhelming love of Christ for people, and to counteract the rigorism and spiritual pessimism of the Jansenists.
St. Ignatius counseled souls to receive the Eucharist more often, and from the order's earliest days the Jesuits were promoters of "frequent communion". It should be noted that it was the custom for many Catholics before this time to receive communion perhaps once or twice a year, out of what Catholic theologians considered an exaggerated respect for the sacrament; Ignatius and others advocated communion at least monthly, emphasizing communion not as reward but as spiritual food; by the time of Pope St. Pius X, "frequent communion" had come to mean weekly and even daily reception of the Eucharist.
Ignatius made his initial commitment to a new way of life by leaving his soldier's weapons (and symbolically, his old values) on an altar before an image of the Christ child seated on the lap of Our Lady of Montserrat. The Jesuits were long promoters of the Sodality of Our Lady, their primary organization for their students until the 1960s, which they used to encourage frequent attendance at Mass, reception of communion, daily recitation of the Rosary, and attendance at retreats in the Ignatian tradition of the Spiritual Exercises.
Zeal for souls
The purpose of the Order, says the Summary of the Constitutions, is "not only to apply one's self to one's own salvation and to perfection with the help of divine grace but to employ all one's strength, for the salvation and perfection of one's neighbor."
Finding God in All Things
The vision that Ignatius places at the beginning of the Exercises keeps sight of both the Creator and the creature, the One and the other swept along in the same movement of love. In it, God offers himself to humankind in an absolute way through the Son, and humankind responds in an absolute way by a total self-donation. There is no longer sacred or profane, natural or supernatural, mortification or prayer - because it is one and the same Spirit who brings it about that the Christian will "love God in all things - and all things in God." Hence, Jesuits have always been active in the graphic and dramatic arts, literature and the sciences.
Examen of Consciousness
The Examen of Consciousness is a simple prayer directed toward developing a spiritual sensitivity to the special ways God approaches, invites, and calls. Ignatius recommends that the examen be done at least twice, and suggests five points of prayer:
  • Recalling that one is in the holy presence of God
  • Thanking God for all the blessings one has received
  • Examining how one has lived his day
  • Asking God for forgiveness
  • Resolution and offering a prayer of hopeful recommitment
It is important, however, that the person feels free to structure the Examen in a way that is most helpful to him. There is no right way to do it; nor is there a need to go through all of the five points each time. A person might, for instance, find himself spending the entire time on only one or two points. The basic rule is: Go wherever God draws you. And this touches upon an important point: the Examen of Consciousness is primarily a time of prayer; it is a "being with God." It focuses on one's consciousness of God, not necessarily one's conscience regarding sins and mistakes.
Discernment
Discernment is rooted in the understanding that God is ever at work in one's life, "inviting, directing, guiding and drawing" one "into the fullness of life." Its central action is reflection on the ordinary events of one's life. It presupposes an ability to reflect on the ordinary events of one's life, a habit of personal prayer, self-knowledge, knowledge of one's deepest desires and openness to God's direction and guidance. Discernment is a prayerful 'pondering' or 'mulling over' the choices a person wishes to consider. In his discernment, the person's focus should be on a quiet attentiveness to God and sensing rather than thinking. His goal is to understand the choices in his heart: to see them, as it were, as God might see them. In one sense, there is no limit to how long he might wish to continue in this. Discernment is a repetitive process, yet as the person continues, some choices should of their own accord fall by the wayside while others should gain clarity and focus. It is a process that should move inexorably toward a decision.
Service and Humility
Ignatius emphasized the active expression of God's love in life and the need to be self-forgetful in humility. Part of Jesuit formation is the undertaking of service specifically to the poor and sick in the most humble ways: Ignatius wanted Jesuits in training to serve part of their time as novices and in tertianship (see Formation below) as the equivalent of orderlies in hospitals, for instance, emptying bed pans and washing patients, to learn humility and loving service. Jesuit educational institutions often adopt mottoes and mission statements that include the idea of making students "men for others," and the like. Jesuit missions have generally included medical clinics, schools and agricultural development projects as ways to serve the poor or needy while preaching the Gospel.

Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: ; born April 16, 1927 as Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany) is the 265th reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City. ... Saint Francis of Assisi, St. ... The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola is a brief set of meditations, prayers and mental exercises, available in various book formats, designed to be carried out over over a period of 28 to 30 days. ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... Flagellants mortifying the flesh, at the time of the Black Death Mortification of the flesh literally means putting the flesh to death. The term is primarily used in religious contexts, and is practiced in a variety of ways. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (529x1097, 87 KB) The Virgin of Montserrat (La Moreneta). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (529x1097, 87 KB) The Virgin of Montserrat (La Moreneta). ... Saint Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Ignacio (Íñigo) López de Loyola (December 24, 1491 – July 31, 1556), was the principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope in terms of mission. ... The Virgin of Montserrat, or La Moreneta in its setting Detail The Virgin of Montserrat is a statue of Mary, Mother of Jesus venerated at the Montserrat mountain in Catalonia, Spain. ... The Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary or the Visitation Order is a Roman Catholic religious order for women. ... Marie Alacoque (22 July 1647 - 17 October 1690) was a French nun of a mystic tendency, the founder of the devotion of the Sacred Heart. ... Saint Claude de la Colombière (Grenoble, 2 February 1641–Paray-le-Monial, 15 February 1682) was the confessor of saint Margaret-Marie Alacoque. ... Jansenism was a branch of Christian philosophy founded by Cornelius Jansen (1585-1638), a Flemish theologian. ... Pope Pius X (1903-1914), pictured in 1904, wearing the 1834 Triple Tiara of Pope Gregory XVI Saint Pius X, né Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, (2 June 1835 - 20 August 1914) was Pope from 1903 to 1914, succeeding Pope Leo XIII. He was the first pope since the Counter-Reformation Pope...

Jesuit formation

The training of Jesuits seeks to prepare men spiritually, academically and practically for the ministries they will be called to offer the Church and world. St. Ignatius was strongly influenced by the Renaissance and wanted Jesuits to be able to offer whatever ministries were most needed at any given moment, and especially, to be ready to respond to missions (assignments) from the Pope. Formation for Priesthood normally takes up to 14 years, depending on the man's background and previous education, and final vows are taken several years after that, making Jesuit training among the longest of any of the religious orders. Saint Ignatius of Loyola, also known as Ignacio (Íñigo) López de Loyola (December 24, 1491 – July 31, 1556), was the principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope in terms of mission. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who are thought to have special religious authority or function. ...

  • Candidacy is an informal precursor to becoming a Jesuit, wherein a man interested in joining the Jesuits explores his calling with a spiritual director. The candidate attends Jesuit vocation events, including retreats and discussions with other candidates and Jesuits. Candidacy can last any length of time, with the norm being about a year. During this time, the candidate may or may not live in a Jesuit community.
  • Novitiate is the first stage of formation. The Novice begins to live the three vows of poverty, chastity, obedience (though he has not yet vowed himself publicly), completes the Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola, learns about the history and practice of the order and enters into a series of “experiments.” These experiments are usually short ministerial assignments where the novice tests his aptitude for various ministries, such as, teaching, working with the marginalized or giving retreats. The novitiate lasts two years. Jesuit novices place the letters "n. S.J." after their names.

At this point, the novice pronounces his First Vows (perpetual Simple vows of poverty, chastity and obedience and a vow to persevere to final profession and ordination) and becomes either a Scholastic (entering onto the path of priesthood) or a Jesuit brother (technically known as a "temporal coadjutor", but officially styled "brother" today). The scholastics (who are addressed by the title "Mister") and the Brothers (addressed by the title "Brother") of the Society of Jesus have different courses of study, although they often overlap. Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... A novitiate (also called a novice) is a member of a religious order who has not yet taken his/her vows. ... // Main article: Buddhist Novitiate In many Buddhist orders, a man or woman who intends to take ordination must first become a novice, adopting part of the monastic code indicated in the vinaya and studying in preparation for full ordination. ... The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola is a brief set of meditations, prayers and mental exercises, available in various book formats, designed to be carried out over over a period of 28 to 30 days. ... In canon law of the Roman Catholic Church vows are divided into simple vows and solemn vows. ...


For scholastics, the usual course of studies is as follows:

  • First Studies is the period when the scholastic begins his academic training. Depending on his prior education it will last 2–4 years, guaranteeing a grounding in philosophy and the attainment of at least a first university level degree thus, in the United States, a four-year bachelor's degree (unless this has already been earned). It may also introduce the study of theology or some other specialized area.
  • As Jesuits serve on the faculties of high schools and universities, and in a wide variety of other positions, the Jesuit scholastic or Jesuit priest often earns a master or doctoral degree on some area - it may be, for instance, Theology or it may be History, English, Chemistry, Educational Administration, Law or any other subject. Hence, a Jesuit may spend another few years earning a graduate degree beyond the bachelor's.
  • Regency is the next stage, wherein the scholastic lives and works in a typical Jesuit community (as opposed to the “formation communities” he has lived insofar). He is engaged full-time in ministry (an Apostolate), which is traditionally teaching in a secondary school, but it may be any ministry Jesuits are engaged in. Regency lasts for 2–3 years.
  • Theology is the stage immediately preceding ordination. By universal canon law, every candidate for priestly ordination must complete four years of theology studies, though part of this requirement may have been met in first studies. This will include the attainment of a first degree in theology (such as the Bachelor of Sacred Theology), and usually a second (masters level) degree in a specialized area related to theology. (As such, it is not uncommon for a Jesuit to hold a master's level degree in Theology, and, as mentioned above, a second master's or a doctorate in a completely different field.)
  • Ordination follows, and the new priest may receive a ministerial assignment or be sent back for further studies in any academic field.
  • The ordained Jesuit priest will either be chosen for profession as a "spiritual coadjutor", taking the usual perpetual vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, or for profession as a "professed of the four vows."
  • Those who are destined by his superiors for profession for the four vows undertake Tertianship, so named because it is something like a third year of novitiate, which follows within a few years of ordination. After his first fews years of experience of ministry as a priest, the Jesuit completes the final stage of formal formation by revisiting the essentials of Jesuit life which he learned as a novice: once again, he studies the history and Constitutions of the Jesuits, he makes the Spiritual Exercises and participates in experimentism, most often by serving in ministries to the sick, terminally ill or poor.
  • Final Vows for the fully professed follow upon tertianship, wherein the Jesuit pronounces perpetual solemn vows of poverty, chastity, obedience, and the Fourth vow, unique to Jesuits, of special obedience to the pope in matters regarding mission, promising to undertake any mission laid out in the Formula of the Institute the pope may choose.
  • Only the professed of the four vows are eligible for posts like novice master, provincial superior or assistant to the general of the society.
  • The professed of the four vows take, in addition to these solemn perpetual vows five additional simple vows: not to consent to any mitigation of the Society's observance of poverty; not to "ambition" or seek any prelacies (ecclesiastical offices) outside the Society; not to ambition any offices within the Society; a commitment to report any Jesuit who does so ambition; and, if a Jesuit does become a bishop, to permit the general to continue to provide advice to that bishop, though the vow of obedience to Jesuit superiors is not operative over matters the man undertakes as bishop. Under these vows, no Jesuit may "campaign" or even offer his name for appointment or election to any office, and if chosen for one must remind the appointing authority (even the Pope) of these vows — if the Pope commands that the Jesuit accept ordination as a bishop anyway, the Jesuit must keep an open ear to the Jesuit general as an influence.

The formation of Jesuit brothers has a much less structured form. Prior to the Second Vatican Council, Jesuit brothers worked almost exclusively within Jesuit communities as cooks, tailors, farmers, secretaries, accountants, librarians and maintenance support - they were thus technically known as "temporal coadjutors", as they assisted the professed priests by undertaking the more "worldly" jobs, freeing the professed of the four vows and the "spiritual coadjutors" to undertake the sacramental and spiritual missions of the Society. Following the Second Vatican Council, which recognized the mission of all the Christian faithful, not just those who are ordained, to share in the ministries of the Church, Jesuit brothers began to engage in ministries outside of their communities. Today, the formation of a Jesuit brother may take many forms, depending on his aptitude for ministry. He may pursue a highly academic formation which mirrors that of the scholastics (there are, for instance, some Jesuit brothers who serve as university professors), or he may pursue more practical training in areas such as pastoral counseling or spiritual direction (some assist in giving retreats, for instance), or he may continue in the traditional “supporting” roles in which so many Jesuit brothers have attained notable levels of holiness (as administrative aides, for example). Since Vatican II the Society has officially adopted the term "brother," which was always the unofficial form of address for the temporal coadjutors. For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for... Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ... The Fourth Vow is a religious solemn vow unique to the Society of Jesus. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Regardless of the practical details, Jesuit formation is meant to form men who are open and ready to serve whatever is the Church’s current need. Today, all Jesuits are expected to learn English, and those who speak English as a first language are expected to learn Spanish. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Government of the Society

The Society is headed by a Superior General. In the Jesuit Order, the formal title of the Superior General is "Praepositus Generalis," Latin for General President, more commonly called Father General or General, who is elected by the General Congregation for life or until he resigns, is confirmed by the Pope, and has absolute authority in running the Society. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is the Spanish Jesuit, Fr. Adolfo Nicolás Pachón who was elected on January 19, 2008. is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


He is assisted by "assistants," each of whom heads an "assistancy," which is either a geographic area (for instance, the North American Assistancy) or an area of ministry (for instance, higher education). The assistants normally reside with the General Superior in Rome. The assistants, together with a number of other advisors, form an advisory council to the General. A vicar general and secretary of the Society run day-to-day administration. The General is also required to have an "admonitor," a confidential advisor whose specific job is to warn the General honestly and confidentially when he is acting imprudently or is straying toward disobedience to the Pope or heresy. The central staff of the General is known as the Curia.


The order is divided into geographic provinces, each of which is headed by a Provincial Superior, generally called Father Provincial, chosen by the General. He has authority over all Jesuits and ministries in his area, and is assisted by a socius, who acts as a sort of secretary and chief of staff. With the approval of the General, he appoints a novice master and a master of tertians to oversee formation, and rectors of local houses of Jesuits.


Each individual Jesuit community within a province is normally headed by a rector who is assisted by a "minister," from the Latin for "servant," a priest who helps oversee the community's day-to-day needs.


The General Congregation is a meeting of all of the assistants, provincials and additional representatives who are elected by the professed Jesuits of each province. It meets irregularly and rarely, normally to elect a new superior general and/or to take up some major policy issues for the order. The General meets more regularly with smaller councils composed of just the provincials.


Habit and dress

Jesuits do not have an official habit. St. Ignatius's intent was their adoption of diocesan clergy dress in whatever country or region they found themselves. In time, a "Jesuit-style cassock" became standard issue: it wrapped around the body and was tied with a cincture, rather than the customary buttoned front, a tuftless biretta (only diocesan clergy wore tufts), and a simple cape (ferraiuolo) completed the full, formal Jesuit garb, but this too was part of diocesan priestly dress. As such, though their garb appeared distinctive, and became identifiable over time, it was the common priestly dress of Ignatius's day. Missionaries of all religious orders, at their commissioning ceremony, received a large crucifix worn on a cord around the neck that is often tucked, for convenience, to the cassock's cincture: historical depictions of Jesuit saints show the buttonless cassock, cape, biretta, and cervical crucifix.


During the Missionary periods of the Continental Americas, the various Amerindian tribes referred to the Jesuits as the "Blackrobes" because of the black cassocks they wore.


Today, most Jesuits wear the simple Roman collar tab shirts in non-liturgical, ministerial settings. Some, since the 1960s, have opted for secular garb.


Controversies

The Jesuits have frequently been described by their enemies (both Catholic and Protestant) as engaged in various conspiracies. The Monita secreta, published 1614 in Kraków, allegedly written by Claudio Acquaviva, in reality by Jerome Zahorowski, were fabricated to expose such a conspiracy.[citation needed] For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Claudio Acquaviva (September 14, 1543—January 31, 1615) was an Italian churchman, and was the fifth general of the Society of Jesus. ...


Henry Garnet, one of the leading English Jesuits, was hanged for misprision of treason because of his involvement in Gunpowder Plot. The plan had been an attempt to kill King James I of England and VI of Scotland, his family and most of the Protestant aristocracy in a single attack by blowing up the Houses of Parliament in 1605.[citation needed] Another Jesuit, Oswald Tesimond, managed to escape arrest for involvement in the same plot.[citation needed] Henry Garnet or Garnett (1555 - May 3, 1606), English Jesuit, son of Brian Garnett, a schoolmaster at Nottingham, was educated at Winchester and afterwards studied law in London. ... Misprision of treason is an offence found in many common law jurisdictions, committed by someone who knows a treason is being or is about to be committed but does not report it to a proper authority. ... A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... Oswald Tesimond (1563 – 23 August 1636), a Jesuit born in either Northumberland or York[1] who, while not a direct conspirator, had some involvement in the Gunpowder Plot. ...


Robert Southwell, another Jesuit was arrested while visiting the house of Richard Bellamy, who lived near Harrow and was under suspicion on account of his connection with Jerome Bellamy, who had been executed for sharing in Anthony Babington's plot. He was hanged for treason.[citation needed] St Robert Southwell (c. ... , Harrow is the second principal town in the London Borough of Harrow, West London. ...


John Ballard (also Jesuit) was executed for being involved in an attempt to assassinate Queen Elizabeth I of England. Same fate struck Edmund Campion Jesuit priest sentenced to death as a traitor.[citation needed] John Ballard (d. ... assassin, see Assassin (disambiguation) Jack Ruby assassinated Lee Harvey Oswald in a very public manner. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Portrait of Edmund Campion St. ...


They have also been accused of using casuistry to obtain justifications for the unjustifiable.[citation needed] In English, according to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, "Jesuitical" has acquired a secondary meaning of "equivocating". The Jesuits have also been targeted by many anti-Catholics like Jack Chick, Avro Manhattan, and Alberto Rivera (who claimed to be a former Jesuit himself).[citation needed] Casuistry is a broad term that refers to a variety of forms of case-based reasoning. ... Concise Oxford Dictionary (COD) is probably the best-known smaller Oxford dictionaries. ... Anti-Catholicism is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Catholics or the Catholic Church. ... Jimmy Akins rendition of Jack Chick. ... Avro Manhattan (1914-1990) was one of the worlds foremost authorities on Roman Catholicism in politics and was the author of several works relating to the Vaticans role in world politics and world affairs. ... For the Spanish footballer, see Alberto Rivera Pizarro. ...


Within the Catholic Church, some Jesuits are criticized by some parties for allegedly being overly liberal and allegedly deviating substantially from official Church teaching and papal directives, especially on such issues as abortion, priestly celibacy, homosexuality, and liberation theology.[25] John Paul II appointed Jesuit priest Roberto Cardinal Tucci, S.J., to the College of Cardinals after serving for many years as the chief organizer of papal trips and public events. In total, John Paul II and Benedict XVI have appointed 10 Jesuit cardinals. Liberation theology is a school of theology within the Catholic Church that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ...


Jesuits rescue efforts during the Holocaust

Nine Jesuit priests have been formally recognized by Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem, for risking their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust of World War II. Several other Jesuits are known to have rescued or given refuge to Jews during that period. [26] New Yad Vashem museum building designed by Safdie Yad Vashem (Hebrew: ‎; Holocaust Martyrs and Heroes Remembrance Authority) is Israels official memorial to the victims of the Holocaust established in 1953 through the Memorial Law passed by the Knesset, Israels parliament. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


A plaque commemorating the 152 Jesuit priests who gave of their lives during the Holocaust was installed at Rockhurst University, a Jesuit university, in Kansas City, Missouri, United States, in April 2007, the first such plaque in the world. This article is about Rockhurst University. ... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ...


Famous Jesuits

Notable Jesuits include missionaries, educators, scientists, artists and philosophers. Among many distinguished early Jesuits was St. Francis Xavier, a missionary to Asia who converted more people to Catholicism than anyone before. José de Anchieta and Manuel da Nobrega, founders of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were also Jesuit priests. Another famous Jesuit was St. Jean de Brebeuf, a French missionary who was martyred in North America during the 1600s. This is an incomplete list of famous members of the Society of Jesus. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. ... For a List of scientists, see: List of anthropologists List of astronomers List of biologists List of chemists List of computer scientists List of economists List of engineers List of geologists List of inventors List of mathematicians List of meteorologists List of physicists Scientist pairs List of scientist pairs See... An artist is someone who employs creative talent to produce works of art. ... A philosopher is a person devoted to studying and producing results in philosophy. ... This article is about the person. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... José de Anchieta (1534-1597) was a Spanish Jesuit missionary in Brazil, South America, in the second half of the 16th century. ... Manuel da Nóbrega (old spelling Manoel da Nóbrega) was a Portuguese Jesuit priest and first Provincial of the Society of Jesus in colonial Brazil. ... This article is about the city. ...


Jesuit Educational institutions

Though there is almost no occupation in civil life, and no ministry within the Church, which a Jesuit has not held at one time or another, and though the work of the Jesuits today embraces a wide variety of apostolates and ministries, they are probably most well known for their educational work. Jesuits have founded and managed a number of institutions, notably universities, which have produced many well-known alumni. ...


Since the inception of the order, Jesuits have been teachers. Today, there are Jesuit-run universities, colleges, high schools and middle or elementary schools in dozens of countries. Jesuits also serve on the faculties of both Catholic and secular schools as well.


One of the most prominent of these universities is the Gregorian University in Rome, one of the Church's key seats of learning, associated in a consortium with the Pontifical Biblical Institute and Pontifical Oriental Institute. The North American College at the Gregorian The Pontifical Gregorian University is a Roman Catholic theological seminary in Rome. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The Pontifical Oriental Institute is the premier center for the study of Eastern Christianity in Rome, Italy. ...


In the United States, 28 Jesuit schools are organized as the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities, the oldest one being Georgetown University, founded by Bishop John Carroll in 1789, and the largest Fordham University. The 46 Jesuit high schools are organized as the Jesuit Secondary Education Association. The Jesuits have recently opened a number of middle schools in poor neighborhoods in New York, Boston and Chicago. There are also Jesuits serving on the faculties of other Catholic colleges and universities; additionally they serve on many secular faculties, including those of Harvard, Yale and the University of Virginia. The Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities or AJCU is an American voluntary service organization based in Washington, D.C. whose mission is to serve its member institutions, the 28 colleges and universities in the United States administered by the Society of Jesus. ... Georgetown University is a Jesuit private university located in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. Father John Carroll founded the school in 1789, though its roots extend back to 1634. ... John Carroll may be: John Carroll (bishop) (1735-1815), American bishop John Lee Carroll (1830-1911), American politician - Maryland John Carroll (VC) (1891-1971), Australian Victoria Cross recipient Sir John Carroll (astronomer) (1899-1974), British scientist John Carroll (actor) (1906-1979), American actor John A. Carroll (1901-1983), American jurist... Fordham University is a private, coeducational research university[3] in the United States, with three campuses located in and around New York City. ... The Jesuit Secondary Education Association (JSEA) was founded in 1970 to address the unique needs of the Jesuit secondary school apostolate in the United States. ... Middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) covers a period of education that straddles primary/elementary education and secondary education, serving as a bridge between the two. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Yale redirects here. ... The University of Virginia (also called U.Va. ...


In Latin America Jesuit institutions are organized into the Asociación de Universidades Confiadas a la Compañía de Jesús en América Latina (Association of Universities Entrusted to the Jesuits in Latin America). Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Asociación de Universidades Confiadas a la Compañía de Jesús en América Latina is an association of Jesuit universities in Latin America. ...


In the Philippines, the Jesuit universities are all independent, although they maintain institutional ties. The Ateneo de Manila University, Ateneo de Naga University, Xavier University-Ateneo de Cagayan, Ateneo de Zamboanga University,Marian College of Ipil and Ateneo de Davao University are all loosely federated. An affiliated association, Mindanao Consortium of Ateneo Universities, groups all of the Jesuit universities located in Mindanao island with the purpose of promoting Muslim-Christian unity and dialogue as well as to exchange knowledge and expertise in various academic fields. The Ateneo de Manila University (also called Ateneo de Manila or simply the Ateneo) is a private university run by the Society of Jesus in the Philippines. ... The Ateneo de Naga University is a private university run by the Society of Jesus in Naga City in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines. ... Xavier University is a Catholic Christian university run by Jesuit priests in Cagayan de Oro, Philippines. ... The Ateneo de Zamboanga University is a private university in Western Mindanao. ... The Ateneo de Davao University (AdDU) is a private Catholic university founded administered by the by Jesuit priests in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines in 1948 . ... Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. ...


In Australia, the Jesuits run a number of schools including Xavier College, St Ignatius' College, Riverview, Loyola senior high school [Mt Druitt], Saint Ignatius' College, Athelstone and St Aloysius' College. This article is about the school in Melbourne, Australia. ... Saint Ignatius College, Riverview is a Roman Catholic day school and boarding school for boys, aged between 10 - 18 years. ... Saint Ignatius College, Athelstone is the secondary campus of Saint Ignatius College, Adelaide. ... St Aloysius College is a Roman Catholic day school for boys aged 8 - 18 years. ...


In Ireland, the Jesuits run five very successful schools: Belvedere College, Gonzaga College (both in Dublin), Clongowes Wood College in Clane, Co. Kildare, St Ignatius College, in Galway city, and Crescent College, which is in Limerick. Belvedere College SJ is a private secondary school for boys located on Great Denmark Street, Dublin, Ireland. ... Gonzaga College S.J. is a private Catholic boys secondary school in Ranelagh, Dublin, Ireland, under the trusteeship of the Society of Jesus. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... Clongowes Wood College is a private secondary boarding school for boys in County Kildare, Ireland run by the Society of Jesus (The Jesuits) since 1814, making it one of Irelands oldest Catholic schools. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 53. ... Statistics Province: Leinster County Town: Naas Code: KE Area: 1,693 km² Population (2002) 163,944 Website: www. ... The College Badge St Ignatius College is a Catholic secondary school for boys, now located in Enfield, Greater London. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... Crescent College Comprehensive SJ is a secondary school located on a section of 40 acres (162,000 m²) of parkland at Dooradoyle, Limerick, Ireland. ...


In Egypt, the Jesuits run le College de la Sainte Famille, one of the most respected private schools in Cairo for boys. They are also involved in few charity organisations in the South of Egypt.


In Belgium, the Jesuits are running various leading secondary schools (high schools) such as "Sint-Jozefscollege" in Aalst (Dutch-speaking) and "Sint-Jan Berchmans College" in Antwerpen (Dutch-speaking). "Universitair Centrum Sint-Ignatius" in Antwerpen (Dutch-speaking) and the 'Facultés Notre-Dame de la Paix' of Namur (French-speaking) are both Jesuit universities.



In India, the Jesuits run top colleges and schools in the country including Loyola College, Chennai, St. Xavier's College, Mumbai, St. Xavier's College, Calcutta, Xavier Labour Relations Institute, Jamshedpur, Loyola School, Thiruvananthapuram, St Xavier's College, Thiruananthapuram, St Xavier's College, Palayamkottai, Loyola College, Kunkuri, St Xavier's College, Balipara, Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneshwar, St Joseph's College, Tiruchirapalli, St Xavier's College, Goa, Andhra Loyola College, Vijaywada, Loyola Academy, Secunderabad, Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar (XIMB), Xavier Institute of Social Service (XISS) and Xavier Institute of Development and Service (XIDAS), St Vincent's High School, Pune and St Xavier's College, Ranchi, St Xavier's College, Ahmedabad. They also run some of the top theological colleges in India the famous ones being Jnana Deepa Vidyapeeth, Pune (De Nobili College) and Vidyajyoti College of Theology, Delhi. They also run 9 Regional Theology Centers (RTC) for contextual theologies in diverse regions of the country. Their educational institutions also have some of the country's best sportspersons producing centers, prominent among them being St Ignatius High School, Gumla, St Mary's High School, Samtoli, Loyola School Jakhama (Kohima). Some of the top bureaucrats and politicians (including those opposing Christianity) are Jesuit school alumni. Loyola College is a Jesuit college in Chennai, India. ... St. ... For other educational institutions using the name Xavier, see Xavier. ... The Xavier Labour Relations Institute is an Indian business school, located in the steel city of Jamshedpur. ... Founded in 1961, Loyola School, Thiruvananthapuram (LST) is a private Jesuit school for boys. ... Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar (XIM Bhubaneswar, also known as XIMB), is a premier business school in India, located in the eastern state of Orissa. ...


In Hong Kong S.A.R., the Jesuits run two secondary schools including Wah Yan College, Kowloon and Wah Yan College, Hong Kong.


In Japan, the Jesuits founded Sophia University. It is considered to be one of the best private universities in the country, and is one of Tokyo's top ranked private universities. Sophia University ) is a private university, with its main campus located in Yotsuya, an area of Tokyos Chiyoda Ward in Japan. ...


In Korea, the Jesuits are running Sogang University. It is established in February, 1960. It is founded by Art Dethlefs, Basil Price, Jin Song Man(진성만), Theodor Geppert, Ken Killoren and Clancy Herbst. Nowadays Sogang University is considered to be one of the best private universities in Korea. This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Sogang University is one of the major religious universities in South Korea. ...


In Taiwan, Jesuits founded the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Management of the Catholic Fu-Jen University during the 1950s. In 2003 another new Faculty of Social Sciences was derived from the Faculty of Law. Thus until today, the Fu Jen Catholic University is still considered to be one of the best private universities in Taiwan. Fu Jen Catholic University (Traditional Chinese: 輔仁大學; Hanyu Pinyin: Fǔrén Dàxué; Tongyong Pinyin: FǔRén DàSyué; Wade-Giles: Fu3-jen2 Ta4-hsüeh2) is a Catholic University in Sinjhuang, Taipei County, Taiwan, Republic of China. ...


Jesuits also operate retreat houses, for the purpose of offering the Spiritual Exercises (above) and other types of days of prayer or spiritual programs extended over weekends or weeks. The oldest Jesuit retreat house in the United States is Mount Manresa in Staten Island, New York, and today there are 34 retreat houses or spirituality centers run by the order in the U.S. Jesuits also serve on the staffs of other retreat centers.


Jesuits are also known for their involvement in publications. La Civiltà Cattolica, a periodical produced in Rome by the Jesuits, has often been used as a semi-official platform for popes and Vatican officials to float ideas for discussion or hint at future statements or positions. In the United States, America magazine has long had a prominent place in intellectual Catholic circles, and the Jesuits produce Company, a periodical specifically about Jesuit activities. Most Jesuit colleges and universities have their own presses which produce a variety of books, book series, textbooks and academic publications as well. Ignatius Press, staffed by Jesuits, is an independent publisher of Catholic books, most of which are of the popular academic or lay-intellectual variety. Cover of the issue of 5 August 2006. ... America is a moderate Catholic weekly published in the United States which contains news and opinion about the Roman Catholic Church and how its positions relate to American politics and cultural life. ... Ignatius Press was founded in 1978 by Father Joseph Fessio SJ, a Jesuit priest and former pupil of Pope Benedict XVI. Ignatius Press, named for Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuit Order, is a Catholic publishing house headquartered in San Francisco, California. ...


In Australia, the Jesuits run a winery at Sevenhill, the Jesuit Mission Australia, and they produce a number of magazines, including Eureka Street, Madonna, Australian Catholics, and Province Express. Eureka Street is an Australian magazine concerned with Public Affairs, the Arts and Theology started in 1989-1990 by Michael Kelly SJ, Morag Fraser and Adrian Lyons SJ. It was published in paper format for 15 years, and was an opinion-forming magazine for many of those years. ...


Jesuit buildings

Ruins of Saint Paul's Church, Macau, one of many churches built by the Jesuits in Asia during the 16th and 17th centuries
Ruins of Saint Paul's Church, Macau, one of many churches built by the Jesuits in Asia during the 16th and 17th centuries
Church of the Gesu, mother church of the Society of Jesus in Rome
Church of the Gesu, mother church of the Society of Jesus in Rome

Many buildings and ruins give witness to the order's construction activity world-wide. Among these are: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 858 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cathedral of Saint... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 858 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Cathedral of Saint... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (801x1011, 634 KB) Summary Description: Il Gesu, motherchurch of the Society of Jesus, Rome, Source: english Wikipedia ([1]) Original photographer: User:Chirho Version history from the English Wikipedia: (del) (cur) 22:40, 6 July 2005 . ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (801x1011, 634 KB) Summary Description: Il Gesu, motherchurch of the Society of Jesus, Rome, Source: english Wikipedia ([1]) Original photographer: User:Chirho Version history from the English Wikipedia: (del) (cur) 22:40, 6 July 2005 . ... The Church of the Gesù. The Church of the Gesù is home to the famous painting of Madonna Della Strada, venerated by millions of Roman Catholics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...

The Dome of SantIgnazio The church of Sant Ignazio di Loyola a Campo Marzio (Latin ) was built in 1626 and dedicated to Ignatius of Loyola, the founder of the Jesuit order, who had just been canonized. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Ignacio is a spanish name originating from the latin name Ignatius from the word Ignis meaning Fire. A common nickname used to address holders of this name is Nacho, a phonetical variant. ... The Basilica of Bom Jesus. ... For other uses, see Goa (disambiguation). ... Giacomo della Portas façade of the Church of the Gesù, a precursor of the baroque The Church of the Gesù (in Italian, Chiesa del Sacro Nome di Gesù, or Church of the Holy Name of Jesus) is the mother church of the Society of Jesus, known as the... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Toledo (disambiguation). ... The Church of São Roque (Portuguese: Igreja de São Roque) is located in Lisbon and used to be the Jesuit church of the city. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... The Church of the Gesu The Church of the Gesù is a landmark church of the Ateneo de Manila University campus in the Philippines. ... Courtyard of the Trinidad ruins La Santisima Trinidad de Paraná, or the Holy Trinity of Paraná is the name of a former Jesuit mission in Paraguay. ... Belen School nka Instituto Tecnico Militar was designed by the the Cuban architectural firm of Morales & Cia ( Leonardo Morales-Pedroso) in 1925. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... St. ... Xujiahui is an area in the Xuhui District of Shanghai, China and the name of a metro station in this area. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Stonyhurst College is an independent, Roman Catholic school in the Jesuit tradition. ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... St Aloysius College is a Roman Catholic day school for boys aged 8 - 18 years. ... Sydney Opera House and Harbour Bridge located on Port Jackson Port Jackson is the natural harbour of Sydney, Australia, also known as Sydney Harbour and is the largest natural harbour in the world. ... For other uses, see Saint Ignatius College (disambiguation). ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Evening view of Saint Ignatius Church, University of San Francisco. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Façade of the Cathedral of Salvador, former Jesuit church. ... Façade of the New Cathedral of Coimbra. ... St. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ... Cincinnati, Ohio viewed from the SW, across the Ohio River from Kentucky. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... Universidad Católica Andrés Bello (UCAB) is a private university in Venezuela. ... Nickname: La Sultana del Avila (English:The Avilas Sultan) La Sucursal del paraiso Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... Pontificia Universidad Javeriana is a university in Bogotá, Colombia. ... For other uses, see Bogotá (disambiguation). ...

In popular culture

  • The Mission 1986 award winning film in which 18th century Spanish Jesuits try to protect a remote South American Indian tribe in danger of falling under the rule of pro-slavery Portugal.
  • Black Robe a 1991 film about a Jesuit in 17th century Quebec and his struggles with the Algonquin tribe.
  • The Sparrow a 1996 science fiction novel about a Jesuit mission to an alien world.
  • A Case of Conscience a 1958 science fiction novel about a Jesuit mission to an alien world.
  • Father Ted In the episode 'Grant unto Him Eternal Rest' Father Fay is talking to Ted about how father Jack could have become pope and he shakes his fist at the Lord, saying "You bastard!" and then falls to his knees, exclaiming that "the bloody Jesuits have everything sewn up" "Imagine, Ted! A Polish Pope! It should've been Jack!"

The Mission is a 1986 British film about the experiences of a Jesuit missionary in eighteenth century South America. ... Black Robe is a 1991 movie directed by Bruce Beresford. ... This article is about the Native American tribe. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that may be overly long, confusing, or ambiguous. ... A Case of Conscience is a science fiction novel by James Blish, first published in 1958. ... Father Ted was a popular 1990s television situation comedy set around the lives of three priests on the extremely remote (and completely fictional) Craggy Island off the west coast of Ireland. ... Father Jack Hackett, after drinking a mix of Toilet Duck and shoe polish, dies, willing Fathers Ted Crilly and Dougal McGuire a very large sum of money to split between themselves, on the condition that (due to Father Jacks fear of being buried alive) they spend the night of... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ...

See also

Acta Sanctorum (Acts of the Saints) is an encyclopedic text in 68 folio volumes of documents examining the lives of Christian saints, in essence a critical hagiography, which is organised according to each saints feast day. ... The Apostleship of prayer is a pious association otherwise known as a league of prayer in union with the Heart of Jesus. ... The Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities or AJCU is an American voluntary service organization based in Washington, D.C. whose mission is to serve its member institutions, the 28 colleges and universities in the United States administered by the Society of Jesus. ... The Bollandists are an association of Jesuit scholars publishing the Acta Sanctorum (the Lives of the Saints). ... Catholicism in China has a long and complicated history. ... Kirishitan (吉利支丹, 切支丹) meant Christian(s) in Japanese and is today used as a historiographic term for Christians in Japan in the 16th and 17th centuries. ... Boston College The Jesuit Ivy is a nickname given to Boston College in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. ... The first Jesuit attempt to reach China was made in 1552 by Francis Xavier, but he died the same year on the Chinese island of Shangchuan, without having reached the mainland. ... The laying on of hands is a religious practice found throughout the world in varying forms. ... Misiones is one of the 23 provinces of Argentina, located in the northeastern corner of the country in the Mesopotamia region. ... The Ratio Studiorum, 1598 The Ratio Studiorum (Latin: Plan of Studies) often designates the document that formally established the globally influential system of Jesuit education in 1599. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Curia Generalis, Society of Jesus. "News from the Curia (Vol. 11, N. 9)", The Jesuit Portal - Society of Jesus Homepage., 2007-May-07. Retrieved on 2007-10-24. "The annual statistics of the Society for 2006 have been compiled and will be mailed to the Provinces within a few days. As of January 1, 2007 the number of Jesuits in the world was 19,216 (364 fewer than in 2005)..." 
  2. ^ News on the elections of the new Superior General
  3. ^ africa.reuters.com, Spaniard becomes Jesuits' new "black pope"
  4. ^ a b Höpfl, Harro (2004). Jesuit political thought: the Society of Jesus and the state, c. 1540-1630. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 426. ISBN 0521837790. 
  5. ^ Cheyne, Colin (2001). Knowledge, cause, and abstract objects: causal objections to Platonism. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 214. ISBN 1-4020-0051-0. 
  6. ^ Woods, Thomas E.. How The Catholic Church Built Western Civilization. Regnery Publishing, 101. 
  7. ^ Udías, Agustín. Searching the Heavens and the Earth: The History of Jesuit Observatories (Astrophysics and Space Science Library). Berlin: Springer. ISBN 140201189X. 
  8. ^ a b c Parker, John (1978). Windows into China: the Jesuits and their books, : delivered on the occasion of the fifth annual Bromsen Lecture, April 30, 1977. Boston: Trustees of the Public Library of the City of Boston, 25. 
  9. ^ Hobson, John M. (2004). The Eastern origins of Western civilisation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 194-195. 
  10. ^ Miller, Joseph Dana (1917). Single Tax Year Book. New York, USA: Single Tax Review Publishing Company, 318. 
  11. ^ Gerlach,Christian (2005). "Wu-Wei in Europe. A Study of Eurasian Economic Thought" (PDF). Working Paper No 12/05. London School of Economics.
  12. ^ Hobson, John M. (2004). The Eastern origins of Western civilisation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 196. 
  13. ^ Huanyin, Yang (1993), "Confucius (K’ung Tzu) (551-479 BC)", Prospects: the quarterly review of comparative education XXIII (No 1/2): 211-19, <http://www.ibe.unesco.org/publications/ThinkersPdf/confucie.PDF> 
  14. ^ Chancellerie Fédérale Suisse, Votation populaire du 20 mai 1973 (1973-05-20), Arrêté fédéral abrogeant les articles de la constitution fédérale sur les jésuites et les couvents (art. 51 et 52), <http://www.admin.ch/ch/f/pore/va/19730520/det236.html>. Retrieved on 23 October 2007 
  15. ^ St. Aloysius College mission statement.
  16. ^ Letter to major superiors, 6 January 2005.
  17. ^ Benedict XVI (2006-04-22), Address of his Holiness Benedict XVI to the Fathers and Brothers of the Society of Jesus, <http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/speeches/2006/april/documents/hf_ben-xvi_spe_20060422_gesuiti_en.html>. Retrieved on 23 October 2007 
  18. ^ Benedict XVI (2006-05-15), Letter to the Superior General of the Society of Jesus on the 50th anniversary of the Encyclical Haurietis Aquas, <http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/letters/2006/documents/hf_ben-xvi_let_20060515_50-haurietis-aquas_en.html>. Retrieved on 23 October 2007 
  19. ^ Benedict XVI (2006-11-03), Address of his Holiness Benedict XVI - Visit of the Holy Father to the Pontifical Gregorian University, <http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/speeches/2006/november/documents/hf_ben-xvi_spe_20061103_gregoriana_en.html>. Retrieved on 23 October 2007 
  20. ^ Benedict XVI (2008-03-04), Papal Address to Members of Jesuit General Congregation: Rediscover the Fullest Meaning of Your Characteristic '4th Vow' of Obedience, <http://zenit.org/article-21968?l=english>. Retrieved on 8 March 2008 
  21. ^ Jesuits end meeting by approving decrees, confirming fidelity to pope, CNS March 7, 2008
  22. ^ Discourse given to the Rome Consultation, 16 February 2003.
  23. ^ Charles J. Jackson, Ignatian Spirituality.
  24. ^ Pinard De La Boullaye, Ignatian Spirituality.
  25. ^ See:
  26. ^ Hiatt Holocaust Collection

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Society of Jesus

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Catholic Church documents

Jesuit documents

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Jesuit Websites In Various Regions

Africa
Asia-Oceania
Europe
North America
  • Jesuits in Canada
    • Canadian Jesuits International
  • United States Jesuit Conference
    • Jesuit Volunteer Corps
    • Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities
  • Old Catholic (not Roman) Jesuits in the United States
South America
  • Jesuits in Chile

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Media

  • The BBC Radio 4 In Our Time programme on 18 January 2007 was devoted to the early history and educational role of the Jesuits; the programme's website offers a free podcast and 'listen again' service In Our Time website
  • Pray-as-you-go: latest initiative by the British Jesuits, providing daily prayer in MP3 format for use "on the go"
  • Documentary by the Society of Jesus Province of Chicago (Windows Media Player)
  • Contemporary Jesuits speak about their Jesuit vocation, the vows, and the mission of the Society of Jesus (Real Player)
  • Jesuits Saints and Blessed

Seal of the Society of Jesus. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
The Society of Jesus (3549 words)
As the object of the society was the propagation and strengthening of the Catholic faith everywhere, the Jesuits naturally endeavored to counteract the spread of Protestantism.
The text in use in the Society is a Latin version prepared under the direction of the third congregation, and subjected to a minute comparison with the Spanish original preserved in the Society's archives, during the fourth congregation (1581).
Jesu (1644); Nadal, Scholia in constitutiones (1883); Suarez, Tract.
Society of Jesus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5660 words)
The Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and is led by a Superior General, presently Peter Hans Kolvenbach.
The Society of Jesus is classified among institutes as a mendicant order of clerks regular, that is, a body of priests organized for apostolic work, following a religious rule, and relying on alms, or donations, for support.
The Society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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