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Encyclopedia > Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Socijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija (sh)
Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија(mk)
Socialistična Federativna Republika Jugoslavija (sl)
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

 

1943 – 1992
Flag
Flag Coat of arms
Motto
"Brotherhood and Unity"
Anthem
"Hey, Slavs"
Capital Belgrade
Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities.
Government Socialist republic
President
 - 1945 - 1953 Ivan Ribar
 - 1953 - 1980 Josip Broz Tito
 - 1991 Stjepan Mesić (last President)
Prime Minister
 - 1989 - 1991 Ante Marković (last Prime Minister)
Historical era Cold War
 - Proclamation November 29, 1943
 - UN membership October 24, 1945
 - Constitution February 21, 1974
 - Secessions June 25, 1991 - April 27, 1992
Area
 - July 1989 255,804 km² (98,766 sq mi)
Population
 - July 1989 est. 23,724,919 
     Density 92.7 /km²  (240.2 /sq mi)
Currency Yugoslav dinar
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Free Territory of Trieste
Slovenia
Croatia
Republic of Macedonia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian (Cyrillic only): Socijalistička federativna republika Jugoslavija or Социјалистичка федеративна република Југославија; Slovenian: Socialistična federativna republika Jugoslavija) was the Yugoslav state that existed from the end of World War II (1945) until it was formally dissolved in 1992 (de facto dissolved in 1991 with no leaders representing it) amid the Yugoslav wars. It was a communist state that comprised the area of the present-day independent states of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. In 1992, the two remaining states still committed to a union, Serbia and Montenegro, formed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was never recognized as the successor of the SFRY by the international community. Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (sometimes just Croatian or Serbian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language. ... This article is about the Slavic language. ... Slovenian or Slovene (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the family of South Slavic languages. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Zone A and Zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste Capital Trieste Language(s) Italian, Slovenian, Croatian Government Republic Historical era Cold War  - Established September 15, 1947  - Partition October 26, 1954  - Treaty of Osimo October 11, 1977 Area  - 1947 738 km2 285 sq mi Population  - 1947 est. ... Image File history File links Free_Territory_Trieste_Flag. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... This Coat of Arms of the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (i. ... Flag of the SFRY, ratio 1:2 Civil ensign. ... The coat of arms of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia featured six torches surrounded by wheat and burning together in one flame; this represented brotherhood and unity of the six republics forming the ex-Yugoslavia: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... Brotherhood and unity (known locally as Bratstvo i jedinstvo or Bратство и јединство or Bratstvo in enotnost) was the catch phrase for the official policy of inter-ethnic relations in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogising the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognised either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Hey, Slavs is an anthemic song dedicated to Slavic peoples. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Template:Yugoslavia infobox Categories: GFDL images | Yugoslavia maps ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers state) can carry one of several different (but related) meanings: Strictly speaking, any real or hypothetical state organized along the principles of socialism may be called a socialist state. ... Members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia during World War II (from left to right): Dr. Bakarić, Ivan Milutinović, Edvard Kardelj, Josip Broz Tito, Aleksandar-Leka Ranković, Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo and Milovan Đilas. ... Ivan Ribar and Tito during World War II Ivan Ribar (1881-1968), was a Yugoslav politician of Croatian descent. ... Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 [May 25th according to official birth certificate] – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ... Stjepan Stipe Mesić (born December 24, 1934) is a Croatian politician. ... Members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia during World War II (from left to right): Dr. Bakarić, Ivan Milutinović, Edvard Kardelj, Josip Broz Tito, Aleksandar-Leka Ranković, Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo and Milovan Đilas. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... A proclamation (Lat. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A map of UN member states and their dependent territories as recognized by the UN. Regions excluded: Antarctica (regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System), Vatican City (the Holy See is a UN observer), the Palestinian territories (Palestine, represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, is a UN observer), and Western Sahara... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Secession (disambiguation). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Obverse of 10 Yugoslav Dinars issued by the National Bank of Yugoslavia during 1960s Reverse of 10 Yugoslav Dinars issued by the National Bank of Yugoslavia during 1960s Yugoslav dinar was the official valute in former Yugoslavia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Image File history File links Free_Territory_Trieste_Flag. ... Zone A and Zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste Capital Trieste Language(s) Italian, Slovenian, Croatian Government Republic Historical era Cold War  - Established September 15, 1947  - Partition October 26, 1954  - Treaty of Osimo October 11, 1977 Area  - 1947 738 km2 285 sq mi Population  - 1947 est. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina_(1992-1998). ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe...


Formed from the remains of the pre-war Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the country was proclaimed in 1943 and named Democratic Federal Yugoslavia. In 1946, it became the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia[1] and in 1963 the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander...


Under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslavia pursued a policy of neutrality during the Cold War and became one of the founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement. Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 [May 25th according to official birth certificate] – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ...

Contents

Territory

Like the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that preceded it, the SFRY bordered Italy and Austria to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Romania and Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, Albania to the southwest, and the Adriatic Sea to the west. Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ...


The most significant change to the borders of the SFRY occurred in 1954, when the adjacent Free Territory of Trieste was dissolved by the Treaty of Osimo. The Yugoslav Zone B, which covered 515.5 km², became part of the SFRY. Zone B was already occupied by the Yugoslav National Army. Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zone A and Zone B of the Free Territory of Trieste Capital Trieste Language(s) Italian, Slovenian, Croatian Government Republic Historical era Cold War  - Established September 15, 1947  - Partition October 26, 1954  - Treaty of Osimo October 11, 1977 Area  - 1947 738 km2 285 sq mi Population  - 1947 est. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


From 1991 to 1992, the SFRY's territory disintegrated as the independent states of Slovenia, Croatia, Republic of Macedonia and lastly Bosnia and Herzegovina separated from it, leaving it with the republics of Serbia and Montenegro which formed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in 1992. Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe...


History

Democratic Federal Yugoslavia was constituted at the AVNOJ (Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia) conference in Jajce, Bosnia-Herzegovina (November 29 - December 4, 1943) while negotiations with the royal government in exile continued. On November 29, 1945 the Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia was established as a socialist state during the first meeting of democratically established and Communist-led Parliament in Belgrade. On January 31, 1946, the new constitution of FPR Yugoslavia selected the six constituent republics.[1] AVNOJ (Antifašističko V(ij)eće Narodnog Oslobođenja Jugoslavije), standing for Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia, was the political umbrella organization for the peoples liberation committees that was established on November 26, 1942 to administer terrorities under their control. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity {{{entity}}} Land area Population (1991 census) 45,007 Population density Area code +387 30 Mayor Nisvet Hrnjić (SDA) Website http://www. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a countrys legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers state) can carry one of several different (but related) meanings: Strictly speaking, any real or hypothetical state organized along the principles of socialism may be called a socialist state. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) and its predecessor, Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia (FPRY) was developed after the World War II as follows: Constitution of FLRY, adopted on January 31, 1946 Constitutional Law of the FLRY, adopted on January 13, 1953 Constitution of SFRY, adopted...


The first prime minister was Josip Broz Tito and president Ivan Ribar. In 1953, Tito was elected as president and later in 1974 named "President for life." A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 [May 25th according to official birth certificate] – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... Ivan Ribar and Tito during World War II Ivan Ribar (1881-1968), was a Yugoslav politician of Croatian descent. ... Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

At the outset of its creation and the Cold War, Yugoslavia's Communist regime allied with the Soviet Union under Josef Stalin and early on in the Cold War shot down two American airplanes flying over Yugoslav airspace on August 9 and August 19 of 1946, these were the first aerial shootdowns of western aircraft during the Cold War and caused deep distrust of Tito in the United States and even calls for military intervention against Yugoslavia.[2][3] However despite an early alliance of the Yugoslav communists with the Soviet Union, Stalin distrusted Tito and the two leaders did not agree with each others' methods.[4] Yugoslavia, unlike the other communist states had been formed by internal revolution and its people saw Tito as its natural leader and hero which frustrated Stalin who wanted the Soviet Union to completely dominate Eastern Europe.[5] Frustration between Tito and Stalin grew after Tito refused to link Yugoslavia's economy with that Soviet Union and the rest of Eastern Europe. The relations between Tito and Stalin completely came to an end after it was discovered that Soviet propaganda film makers were making a production about the resistance in Yugoslavia, and that the script claimed that Tito had a minimal role in the war.[6] But the situation over the film making was made worse when it was discovered that these film makers were actually Soviet spies, this infuriated Tito. In 1948, a crisis between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union erupted as a final warning was made by Stalin, that demanded that Yugoslavia immediately join a federation with the Soviet satellite state of Bulgaria. Tito refused to abandon his country's independence, and Stalin followed the decision by throwing out Tito and the Yugoslav Communists from the Comintern.[7] This ended all remaining ties between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (629x636, 56 KB)source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (629x636, 56 KB)source: http://www. ... Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 [May 25th according to official birth certificate] – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... (Russian, in full: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин [Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin]; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including...


After the breakway the Soviet sphere, Yugoslavia formed its own form of communism, informally called "Titoism". Under Titoist communism, some degree of free market enterprise was allowed internally in what was called Market Socialism. Also, Yugoslavia refused to take part in the communist Warsaw Pact and instead took a neutral stance in the Cold War and became a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement along with countries like India, Egypt and Indonesia and pursued one of its central-left influences that promoted a non-confrontational policy towards the U.S. Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Market socialism is a term used to define a number of economic system(s) in which the means of production are owned either by the state or by the workers collectively, however unlike traditional socialism there is market that is directed and guided by socialist planners. ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ...

Vehicles of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) during a parade. From its foundation the SFRY's military was composed of the multiple nationalities of Yugoslavia. Many members of the military would often serve outside of their home republic, such as Serbian fleet admirals as Serbia did not have access to the sea. The multinational army would come to an end as Yugoslavia broke apart in the early 1990s.

Under Tito the motto and political concept of "Brotherhood and Unity", which involved eliminated ethnic tensions was a key aspect of the state. The concept of Brotherhood and Unity was that the Yugoslav "South Slav" people were ethnically the same and had only been divided in the past by religious differences imposed by foreign occupiers. The Yugoslav people had been torn apart by the ethnic tensions during the era of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and in World War II. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia had been a Serb hegemonic state with the Serbian monarchy leading it. Croats and Bosniaks felt that the state was trying to assimilate them and opposed the state sometimes violently which resulted in the assassination of Alexander I of Yugoslavia. In World War II, Yugoslavia was destroyed when Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and other Axis powers occupied the country. The Nazis and Italian Fascists endorsed the creation of the Ustashe regime of the Independent State of Croatia which murdered hundreds of thousands of Serbs. Also ethnic Albanian fascist recruits from Kosovo aided Italian forces from Albania (then an Italian protectorate) in taking over the region from Yugoslavia and persecuting Serbs there. In response Serb nationalists wanted revenge on the Croats, Bosniaks and Albanians for the losses suffered by the Serb people during the war. With all these tensions, Tito's plan of Brotherhood and Unity was to ensure that no single ethnic group could ever be in the position to dominate Yugoslavia and that forcing the necessity of cooperation of the different peoples would reduce the ethnic tensions. The other side of "Brotherhood and Unity" was less idealistic, in that the communist regime refused to negotiate or accept the demands of nationalists of any nationality who complained of their peoples' status. The usual response to such demands was arrest or execution. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Brotherhood and unity (known locally as Bratstvo i jedinstvo or Bратство и јединство or Bratstvo in enotnost) was the catch phrase for the official policy of inter-ethnic relations in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Yugoslavs (Bosnian: Jugosloveni; Macedonian, Serbian Cyrillic: Југословени; Latinic: Jugosloveni; Croatian: Jugoslaveni, Slovenian: Jugoslovani) is an ethnic designation used by some people in former Yugoslavia, which continues to be used in some of its successor countries. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... King Alexander I of Yugoslavia also called King Alexander Unificator (Serbian Краљ Александар I Карађорђевић) (Cetinje, Principality of Montenegro, 16 December 1888 – Marseille, France, 9 October 1934) of the Royal House of KaraÄ‘orÄ‘ević was the first king of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929–34) and before that king of the Kingdom... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Italian fascism (in Italian, fascismo) was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian right-wing organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...


In 1971, large numbers of Croatians took part in protests known as the Croatian Spring, against the Yugoslav government in which they condemned what they perceived as Serb hegemony in the SFRY's power structure (with the notable exception of Tito). Tito, whose home constituent republic was Croatia, responded with a dual action approach, Yugoslav authorities arrested large numbers of the Croatian protestors who were accused of evoking ethnic nationalism, while at the same time Tito began an agenda to initiate some of those reforms in order to avert a similar crisis from happening again. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Tito visits U.S. President Jimmy Carter in the White House in 1978. Under Tito, Yugoslavia and the United States retained modest relations despite a shaky start after the 1946 shootdowns of two U.S. airplanes.
Tito visits U.S. President Jimmy Carter in the White House in 1978. Under Tito, Yugoslavia and the United States retained modest relations despite a shaky start after the 1946 shootdowns of two U.S. airplanes.

In 1974, a new federal constitution was ratified that gave more autonomy to the individual republics, thereby basically fulfilling the main goals of the 1971 Croatian Spring movement. One of the provisions of the new constitution was that each republic officially had the option to declare independence from the federation. The other more controversial measure was the internal division of Serbia, by creating two autonomous provinces within it, Kosovo, a largely ethnic Albanian populated region of Serbia, and Vojvodina, a region with large numbers of ethnic minorities behind the majority Serbs, such as Hungarians. These reforms satisfied most of the republics especially Croatia as well as the Albanians of Kosovo and the minorities of Vojvodina. But the 1974 constitution deeply aggravated Serbian communist officials and Serbs themselves who distrusted the motives of the proponents of the reforms. Many Serbs saw the reforms as concessions to Croatian and Albanian nationalists, as no similar autonomous provinces were made to represent the large numbers of Serbs of Croatia or Bosnia and Herzegovina and had also been frustrated over Tito's support of the recognition of Montenegrins as an independent nationality, while Serb nationalists in particular claimed that there was no ethnic or cultural difference between Serbs and Montenegrins that could verify that such a nationality truly existed and noted that in the past, Montenegrins had identified themselves as Serbs. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (2904 × 1961 pixel, file size: 761 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Josip Tito and Jimmy Carter visit in the Oval Office Source: Carter White House Photographs Collection Date: 03/07/1978 Licence: Public Domain File history... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 540 pixelsFull resolution (2904 × 1961 pixel, file size: 761 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Josip Tito and Jimmy Carter visit in the Oval Office Source: Carter White House Photographs Collection Date: 03/07/1978 Licence: Public Domain File history... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ...


Post-Tito Yugoslavia and the Dissolution of the State

The logo of the 1984 Winter Olympics held in Sarajevo.

After Tito's death in 1980, the state managed to hold together immediately after Tito's passing, by adopting a new collective presidency of the communist leadership from each republic. Also Yugoslavia was the host nation of the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, which continued Tito's vision of Brotherhood and unity as the multiple nationalities of Yugoslavia remained united in one team, also Yugoslavia became the second communist state to hold the Olympic Games (The Soviet Union held them in 1980). Image File history File links 1984_wolympics_logo. ... Image File history File links 1984_wolympics_logo. ... The 1984 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1984 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslavia. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... The 1984 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1984 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslavia. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Brotherhood and unity (known locally as Bratstvo i jedinstvo or Bратство и јединство or Bratstvo in enotnost) was the catch phrase for the official policy of inter-ethnic relations in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Badge, released in the USSR The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, were held in Moscow in the Soviet Union. ...


Despite changes in the post-Tito government, Yugoslavia increasingly became entangled in ethnic tensions, especially in Serbia. From 1981 onward, the majority ethnic Albanians of the Serbian autonomous province of Kosovo engaged in demonstrations demanding that Kosovo be granted the status of a constituent republic within Yugoslavia as well as demanding political liberalization in Yugoslavia.[8] As this was deemed a nationalist agenda, the Yugoslav government responded by suppressing the movement through the use of military and police forces while retaining official neutrality on the issue.[9] However the protests made Serbs grow increasingly frustrated, as they saw this as another attempt to territorially diminish Serbian influence in Yugoslavia and suspected that the goal of the Albanians was to separate from Yugoslavia. In 1987, a mob of angry Kosovo Serbs began a protest against the Albanian administration in Kosovo, Serbian Communist representative and future Serbian President Slobodan Milošević was sent to calm the situation but then broke the Communist tradition of neutrality in the ethnically-charged dispute, when he took the side of the Serbs who claimed they were being persecuted by the ethnic Albanian and that some had been beaten by the Albanian police. [10] Milošević's stance was seen by the Communist establishment as a violation of the policy of Brotherhood and Unity, but with no serious effort made to stop Milošević from endorsing the Kosovo Serbs, Milošević went on to garner the support of those communists who opposed the reforms of the 1974 Constitution which internally divided Serbia as well as gaining support of Serbian nationalists, who wanted to revoke Kosovo and Vojvodina's autonomy. With this support base, Milošević and his allies removed the moderate Serbian leader Ivan Stambolic and Milošević took over. Also Milošević and his allies began a series of coups known as the Anti-bureaucratic revolution which removed the more neutral communist leaders in the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina and the Socialist Republic of Montenegro and replaced them with Milošević loyalists. With these territories in his hands, Milošević controlled half of Yugoslavia's internal entities which gave him the power to overrule Slovenia, Croatia, and Macedonia in the political affairs of Yugoslavia. This set off a string of ethnic tensions which resulted in the dissolution of the SFRY with Slovenia and Croatia separating from Yugoslavia in 1991(as allowed by the 1974 federal constitution, with the assent of the other republics), which was the end of the SFRY (as proclaimed by the Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on the former Yugoslavia), which were followed by the republics of Macedonia in September of 1991, and Bosnia and Herzegovina in March of 1992. Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The term Anti-bureaucratic revolution refers to a series of mass protests against governments of Yugoslavian republics and autonomous provinces during 1988 and 1989, which lead to resignation of leaderships of Kosovo, Vojvodina and Montenegro, and capture of power of politicians close to Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević. While its name is... Motto: None Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital Podgorica Largest city Podgorica Official language(s) Serbian of the Ijekavian dialect1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Milo Đukanović Independence Dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   - Referendum May 21, 2006   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognized June 8, 2006  Area    - Total 13... The Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on the Former Yugoslavia (commonly known as Badinter Arbitration Committee) was a commission set up by Council of Ministers of the European Economic Community in 1991 to provide Peace Conference on the Former Yugoslavia with legal advice. ...

With Yugoslavia collapsing, old ethnic hatreds returned. Here a destroyed Croat home is covered with graffiti put on by Serbs.
With Yugoslavia collapsing, old ethnic hatreds returned. Here a destroyed Croat home is covered with graffiti put on by Serbs.

In 1991, Serbia and Montenegro generally did not approve of Croatia leaving. However, when Slovenia left, Serbia and Montenegro did vote in support of that idea and Macedonia left without war. Some of the regions of Croatia (Kordun, Lika, Banija, parts of Dalmatia and Eastern Slavonia) and Bosnia had Serb inhabitants (in varying proportions to the majority) who did not wish to secede from Yugoslavia into the newly independent states, Serbian President Slobodan Milošević claimed that Serbs had the right to self-determination in those territories which they had a majority population and they had the right to remain within Yugoslavia if they so chose. The separating states in turn accused Milošević of attempting to carve out a Greater Serbia rather than defending the SFRY. This led to a conflict of interests. Serbia supported Serb uprising in Serb-populated areas of Croatia against the newly elected nationalist Croatian government of Franjo Tudjman. The Serb-controlled Yugoslav army waged war on Croatia in 1991 which resulted in a number of atrocities by Serb paramilitary forces and the Yugoslav Army, such as the destruction of the Croatian town of Vukovar during the Battle of Vukovar and the murder of Croats there during the Vukovar massacre. In October 1991, Croat forces committed their own atrocity, the Gospić massacre, which occurred in Gospić in western Croatia in which a 50 to 100 Serb civilians were believed to be killed.[2] In the final months of the SFRY's existence, now dominated by Milošević's Serb faction, Yugoslav Army forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina were officially "transferred" into the Bosnian Serb Army which took over the assets of the federal Yugoslav Army in Bosnia, while it was agreed that the Bosnian Serb forces would be financed by Belgrade, as the Bosnian Serb government did not have the resources to sustain itself.[11] This was done out of anticipation of Bosnia's immediate likelihood of independence, in which the SFRY wished to avoid potential sanctions if its own forces appeared as aggressors against Bosnia.[12] (See more in the articles Ten-Day war, Croatian War of Independence and the Bosnian War) Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 255 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Croatian War of Independence Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 255 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Croatian War of Independence Metadata... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Greater Serbia is a name for a Serbian nationalist concept. ... Franjo Tuđman (May 14, 1922 - December 10, 1999) was the first president of Croatia in the 1990s. ... Vukovars main street Vukovar Vukovar is a city and municipality in eastern Croatia, and the biggest river port in Croatia located at the confluence of the Vuka river into the Danube. ... Combatants Yugoslav Peoples Army Serbian paramilitaries Local Serb militias Croatian National Guard Croatian police and militias Croatian Defence Forces (HOS) Commanders Mladen Bratić† Života Panić Blago Zadro† Mile Dedaković Branko Borković Strength Up to 36,000, depending on the phase of the battle Some 2,000 (in Vukovar) Casualties... The Vukovar massacre was a war crime that took place between November 18 and November 21, 1991 near the city of Vukovar, a mixed Croat/Serb community in northeastern Croatia. ... For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Gospić massacre was an incident that took place between 16 October-18 October 1991 in the town of Gospić, a mixed Serb/Croat community in the district of Lika in Croatia. ... Gospić is a town in the mountainous and sparsely populated region of Lika, Croatia. ... Combatants Slovenia Territorial Defence SFR Yugoslavia Yugoslav Peoples Army Commanders Janez JanÅ¡a Veljko Kadijević Strength 16,000 Territorial Defence, 10,000 police 35,200 Yugoslav National Army personnel Casualties 18 killed, 182 wounded (official casualties) 44 killed, 146 wounded 5,000 prisoners (Slovenian Estimates) The Ten-Day War... Combatants Croatian Army Paramilitary organisations Republic of Serb Krajina Army Yugoslav Peoples Army Bosnian Serb Army Republic of Serbia Paramilitary organisations Commanders Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995) Atif... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim...


Serbia and Montenegro formed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992. The FRY was reformed and renamed Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. In June 2006 it was split into the two independent countries when Montenegro seceded after a referendum. Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... This article is about the country in Europe. ... First page of Pobjeda, May 22, 2006. ...


Politics

The defining document of the state was the Constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was amended in 1963 and 1974. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) and its predecessor, Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia (FPRY) was developed after the World War II as follows: Constitution of FLRY, adopted on January 31, 1946 Constitutional Law of the FLRY, adopted on January 13, 1953 Constitution of SFRY, adopted...


The Communist Party of Yugoslavia won the first elections, and remained in power throughout the state's existence. It was also called the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, and it was composed of individual parties from each constituent republic. SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Cyrillic script SKJ flag in Serbo-Croat, with Latin script SKJ flag in Albanian SKJ flag in Hungarian SKJ flag in Italian SKJ flag in Macedonian SKJ flag in Slovenian The Communist Party of Yugoslavia (after 1952 the League of Communists of Yugoslavia) was...


The primary political leader of the state was Josip Broz Tito, but there were several other important politicians, particularly after Tito's death: see the list of leaders of communist Yugoslavia. Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 [May 25th according to official birth certificate] – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ... Members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia during World War II (from left to right): Dr. Bakarić, Ivan Milutinović, Edvard Kardelj, Josip Broz Tito, Aleksandar-Leka Ranković, Svetozar Vukmanović-Tempo and Milovan Đilas. ...


Ethnic nationalism which had deeply divided Yugoslavia as a kingdom, was repressed under Tito. Ethnic nationalism was not tolerated, and outspoken nationalists were either arrested or killed. However, one nationalist uprising, the Croatian Spring, managed to put pressure on the Yugoslav government to change the constitution in 1974. Among the changes were the right of any republic to unilaterally secede from Yugoslavia as well as the controversial internal division of Serbia, which created two autonomous provinces within it, Vojvodina and Kosovo. Each of these autonomous provinces had voting power equal to that of the republics. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...


Dissolution of the SFRY

Serbian President Slobodan Milošević's unequivocal support of Serbs' rights and controversial Serb leaders in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina inflamed ethnic tensions.
Serbian President Slobodan Milošević's unequivocal support of Serbs' rights and controversial Serb leaders in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina inflamed ethnic tensions.
Croatian President Franjo Tuđman refused to negotiate with Croatian Serbs before his country became independent and later expelled most of the Croatian Serbs in 1995.
Croatian President Franjo Tuđman refused to negotiate with Croatian Serbs before his country became independent and later expelled most of the Croatian Serbs in 1995.
Bosnian President Alija Izetbegović's push for independence in opposition to Serbs' desire for their territory to remain in Yugoslavia resulted in the Bosnian War.
Bosnian President Alija Izetbegović's push for independence in opposition to Serbs' desire for their territory to remain in Yugoslavia resulted in the Bosnian War.
Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadžić aggressively pursued an agenda to keep Serb territory from being forced to separate from Yugoslavia. The Bosnian Serb army would commit large numbers of atrocities such as genocide to which Karadžić is accused of sponsoring. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev.
Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadžić aggressively pursued an agenda to keep Serb territory from being forced to separate from Yugoslavia. The Bosnian Serb army would commit large numbers of atrocities such as genocide to which Karadžić is accused of sponsoring. Photo by Mikhail Evstafiev.

After Tito's death, ethnic nationalism began to rise again in Yugoslavia, especially in Kosovo between ethnic Albanians and Serbs. This, coupled with economic problems in Kosovo and Serbia as a whole, led to Serbian resentment of the 1974 constitutional reforms. In 1987, Serbian communist official Slobodan Milošević made a departure from traditional communist neutrality on the issue of Kosovo separatism and autonomy by assuring Serbs that alleged mistreatment by ethnic Albanians would be stopped, and then began a campaign against the communist elite of Serbia and of Yugoslavia. Milošević and his allies took on an aggressive nationalist agenda of reviving Serbia within Yugoslavia, promising reforms and protection of Serbia and all Serbs. In a rally in Belgrade in 1988, Milošević made clear his perceptions of the situation facing Serbia in Yugoslavia, saying: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1118x1471, 234 KB) Cropped from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1118x1471, 234 KB) Cropped from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Alija Izetbegović (August 8, 1925 – October 19, 2003) was a Bosniak activist, lawyer, author, philosopher and politician, who, in 1990, became the first president of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Evstafiev-Radovan_Karadzic_3MAR94. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Evstafiev-Radovan_Karadzic_3MAR94. ... Radovan Karadžić during a visit to Moscow in 1994. ... The sky over the city where we were happy by Mikhail Evstafiev, oil on canvas, 2006 Mikhail Aleksandrovich Evstafiev (Russian: Михаил Александрович Евстафьев; born in 1963), is a Russian artist, photographer, writer. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ...

"At home and abroad, Serbia's enemies are massing against us. We say to them 'We are not afraid'. 'We will not flinch from battle'." Slobodan Milošević, 1988[13]

Through a series of revolts in Serbia and Montenegro, called the "Anti-bureaucratic revolution" Milošević and his political allies in Vojvodina, Kosovo, and the Socialist Republic of Montenegro came to power. Motto: None Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital Podgorica Largest city Podgorica Official language(s) Serbian of the Ijekavian dialect1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Milo Đukanović Independence Dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   - Referendum May 21, 2006   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognized June 8, 2006  Area    - Total 13...


Milošević's hardline stand on the issue of Kosovo separatism was opposed by most of the other republics, especially Slovenia and Croatia. Tensions between the republics and the ethnicities of Yugoslavia grew, leading to heated debate in the 1990 League of Communists congress, which resulted in Slovenia and Croatia abdicating the party. The League of Communists collapsed shortly afterwards, beginning the eventual dissolution of the SFRY.


When the individual republics organized multi-party elections in the early 1990s, the Communist Parties mostly failed to win re-election, and most of the elected governments took on nationalist platforms, promising to protect their people both within and outside of Yugoslavia. In Croatia, controversial nationalist Franjo Tuđman was elected to power, promising to protect Croatia from Milošević. Croatian Serbs did not accept the legitimacy of Tuđman's nationalist government, as they feared that his nationalist administration would bring about the persecution of Serbs, as the last nationalist-led Croatian state, the Independent State of Croatia did during World War II. Croatian Serbs rebelled against the Croatian government in Knin. The Croatian government attempted to stop the rebellion by sending in armed special forces by helicopters to put down the rebellion by force. The pilots claimed they were bringing "equipment" to Knin, but the Yugoslav Air Force intervened and sent fighter jets to intercept them and demanded that the helicopters return to their base or they would be fired upon, in which the Croatian forces obliged and returned to their base in Zagreb.[14] ‹ The template below (Foreignchar) is being considered for deletion. ... The Serbs of Croatia are the largest national minority in that country. ... Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ...


By early 1991, with the crisis in Knin, the discovery of Croatian arms smuggling, and the apparent course towards independence by Croatia, the Yugoslav State Council led by Serbian representative Borisav Jović called an emergency meeting. In the meeting, a vote was taken on a proposal for military action to end the crisis in Croatia by providing protection for the Serbs. The proposal was rejected By one vote, as the Bosnian Serb delegate voted against it, believing that there was still the possibility of diplomacy being able to solve the crisis. The state council was abandoned shortly afterwards. Borisav Jovic (born 1928) was a Serbian communist politician, who served as the Serbian member of the collective presidency of Yugoslavia during the late 1980s and early 1990s. ...


In a December 1990 referendum in Slovenia, a vast majority of residents voted for independence. Both Slovenia and Croatia declared its independence on June 25th 1991. A short period of violence occurred in Slovenia, which ended with Yugoslavia accepting Slovenia's independence. In Croatia, however, its independence was not accepted, as Serbs had boycotted the referendum and wished to stay within Yugoslavia, and war broke out between Croatia and Yugoslavia. Also, negotiations to restore the Yugoslav federation were all but ended during discussions with diplomat Lord Peter Carington and members of the European Community. Carington's plan realized that Yugoslavia was in a state of dissolution and decided that each republic must accept the inevitable independence of the others, along with a promise to Serbian President Milošević that the E.U. would insure that Serbs outside of Serbia would be protected. Milošević refused to agree to the plan, as he claimed that the European Community had no right to dissolve Yugoslavia and that the plan was not in the interests of Serbs as it would divide the Serb people into four republics (Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina, and Croatia).[15] Carington responded by putting the issue to a vote in which all the other republics, including Montenegro under Bulatovic, initially agreed to the plan that would dissolve Yugoslavia.[16] However, after intense pressure from Serbia on Montenegro's President, Montenegro changed its position to oppose the dissolution of Yugoslavia.[17] Lord Carrington wearing his robes as a Knight Companion of the Order of the Garter, in procession to St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle for the annual service of the Order of the Garter. ...


The final blow to the SFRY came in 1992, with the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina unilaterally separated from Yugoslavia after a referendum on independence, again in spite of Serb boycotts of the vote. After the separation of Bosnia & Herzegovina, the SFRY was abolished after Serbia and Montenegro agreed to create a new Yugoslav state, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, consisting of only Serbia and Montenegro, thereby ending the former communist Yugoslav state completely. Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe...


Foreign relations

Under Tito, Yugoslavia adopted a policy of neutrality in the Cold War. It developed close relations with developing countries (see Non-Aligned Movement) as well as maintaining cordial relations with the United States and Western European countries. Stalin considered Tito a traitor and openly offered condemnation towards him. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 [May 25th according to official birth certificate] – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ...


Military

Army

Much like the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that preceded it, the socialist Yugoslavia maintained a strong military force. The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander...


The Yugoslav People's Army or JNA/JLA was the main organization of the military forces. It was composed of the ground army, navy and aviation. Most of its military equipment and pieces were domestically produced. The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


The regular army mostly originated from the Yugoslav Partisans and the People's Liberation Army of the Yugoslav People's Liberation War in the Second World War. Yugoslavia also had a thriving arms industry and sold to such nations as Kuwait, Iraq, and Myanmar, amongst many others. Yugoslavian companies like Zastava Arms produced Soviet-designed weaponry under licence as well as creating weaponry from scratch. SOKO was an example of a successful design by Yugoslavia before the Yugoslav wars. Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Yugoslav Partisans were one of the two main resistance movements engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II, alongside rival Chetniks, the Yugoslav Peoples Liberation War. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Peoples Liberation Army also known as Partisans were the communist resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // The flag of Croato-Serbian friendship, one of the early flags used by Partisans In April 1941, Yugoslavia... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The AK-47 has been produced in greater numbers than any other assault rifle and has been used in conflicts all over the world. ... Zastava Arms is a subsidiary of Zastava, and is the sole producer of military firearms in Serbia. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... For other uses, see Soko (disambiguation). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

Flag of Socialist Republic of Slovenia Coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia Socialist Republic of Slovenia was the official name of Slovenia as a federal unit in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Meeting after the liberation of Zagreb, May 1945. ... Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbo-Croat: Socijalistička Republika Bosna i Hercegovina/Социјалистичка Pепублика Босна и Херцеговина) was a republic in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Motto: None Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital Podgorica Largest city Podgorica Official language(s) Serbian of the Ijekavian dialect1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Milo Đukanović Independence Dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   - Referendum May 21, 2006   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognized June 8, 2006  Area    - Total 13... National motto: None Official languages Macedonian2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Buckovski Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 145th 25,713 km² 1. ... Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica  - President Boris Tadić Establishment    - Formation 814   - First Serbian Uprising 1804   - Internationally recognized July 13, 1878   - Kingdom of SCS created December 1, 1918   - SCG dissolved... Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina within SFRY (number 5b) Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Војводина, Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina), also known shortly as SAP Vojvodina (Cyrillic: САП Војводина), was one of the two socialist autonomous provinces of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and one of the federal units of the... Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo within SFRY (number 5a) Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Косово, Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo, Albanian: Krahina Socialiste Autonome e Kosovës) was one of the two socialist autonomous provinces of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and one of the federal units of the...

Territorial Defense

Main article: Territorial Defense Forces (Yugoslavia)

Beside the federal army, each of the six Republics had their own respective Territorial Defense Forces (Serbo-Croat: Teritorijalna odbrana; Croato-Serbian: Teritorijalna obrana; Slovenian: Teritorialna obramba; Macedonian: Територијална одбрана; abbreviation: TO) a national guard of sorts, which were established in the frame of a new military doctrine called "Total National Defense" (Serbo-Croat: Opštenarodna odbrana; Croato-Serbian: Općenarodna obrana; Slovenian: Splošna ljudska obramba; Macedonian: Општонародна одбрана; abbreviation: latin: ONO, cyrilic: ОНО) as an answer to the brutal end of the Prague Spring by the Warsaw Pact in Czechoslovakia. Logo of the Territorial Defense Forces Territorial Defense Forces (Serbo-Croat: Teritorijalna odbrana, Croato-Serbian: Teritorijalna obrana, Slovenian: Teritorialna obramba, Macedonian: Територијална одбрана, abbreviation: TO) were part of the armed forces of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which roughly corresponded to a military reserve force, an official governmental paramilitary or... Logo of the Territorial Defense Forces Territorial Defense Forces (Serbo-Croat: Teritorijalna odbrana, Croato-Serbian: Teritorijalna obrana, Slovenian: Teritorialna obramba, Macedonian: Територијална одбрана, abbreviation: TO) were part of the armed forces of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which roughly corresponded to a military reserve force, an official governmental paramilitary or... Serbo-Croatian (srpskohrvatski or hrvatskosrpski) is a name for a language of the Western group of the South Slavic languages. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (also Croatian or Serbian, Serbian or Croatian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), is a South Slavic diasystem. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Military doctrine is a level of military planning between national strategy and unit-level tactics, techniques, and procedures. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...


Administrative divisions

Internally, the state was divided into six Socialist Republics, and two Socialist Autonomous Provinces that were part of SR Serbia. The federal capital was Belgrade. Republics and provinces were (in alphabetical order): For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ...

  1. Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with capital in Sarajevo;
  2. Socialist Republic of Croatia, with capital in Zagreb;
  3. Socialist Republic of Macedonia, with capital in Skopje;
  4. Socialist Republic of Montenegro, with capital in Titograd (now Podgorica);
  5. Socialist Republic of Serbia, with capital in Belgrade, which also contained:
    5a. Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo, with capital in Priština;
    5b. Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, with capital in Novi Sad;
  6. Socialist Republic of Slovenia, with capital in Ljubljana.

Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Serbo-Croat: Socijalistička Republika Bosna i Hercegovina/Социјалистичка Pепублика Босна и Херцеговина) was a republic in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Meeting after the liberation of Zagreb, May 1945. ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... National motto: None Official languages Macedonian2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Buckovski Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 145th 25,713 km² 1. ... Location of the city of Skopje (green) in the Republic of Macedonia Government  - Mayor Trifun Kostovski Area  - City 701. ... Motto: None Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital Podgorica Largest city Podgorica Official language(s) Serbian of the Ijekavian dialect1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Milo Đukanović Independence Dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   - Referendum May 21, 2006   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognized June 8, 2006  Area    - Total 13... Coordinates Mayor Dr. Miomir MugoÅ¡a (DPS - SDP) Municipality area 1,441 km² Population (2003 census)  - city  - municipality  - density 136,473 169,132 117,4 pop per km² Time zone  - Standard  - Summer (DST) CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) Founded Before 12th Century as Birziminium Area code +382 81 Car... Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica  - President Boris Tadić Establishment    - Formation 814   - First Serbian Uprising 1804   - Internationally recognized July 13, 1878   - Kingdom of SCS created December 1, 1918   - SCG dissolved... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo within SFRY (number 5a) Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Косово, Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo, Albanian: Krahina Socialiste Autonome e Kosovës) was one of the two socialist autonomous provinces of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and one of the federal units of the... Prishtinë/Prishtina (Albanian indefinite/definite form) or Priština (Приштина) (Serbian) is the capital city of Kosovo, a landlocked province of Serbia located at 42°65′ N 21°17′ E. It is estimated that the current population of Prishtina is... Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina within SFRY (number 5b) Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Војводина, Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina), also known shortly as SAP Vojvodina (Cyrillic: САП Војводина), was one of the two socialist autonomous provinces of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and one of the federal units of the... For other uses, see Novi Sad (disambiguation). ... Flag of Socialist Republic of Slovenia Coat of arms of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia Socialist Republic of Slovenia was the official name of Slovenia as a federal unit in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...   (IPA: ) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia. ...

Demographics

SFRY recognised "nations" (narodi) and "nationalities" (narodnosti) separately; the former including the constituent Slavic peoples, and the latter other Slavic and non-Slavic ethnic groups, including the Hungarians and Albanians. // Demographics This is data from two Yugoslav censa (1971 and 1981). ...


The country consisted of six republics, with their appropriate constitutional nations:

There was also a Yugoslav ethnic designation, for the people who wanted to identify with the entire country, including people who were born to parents in mixed marriages. Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Serbo-Croat(Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian) Macedonian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups South Slavs Muslims by nationality (Muslimani, Муслимани) was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to describe mainly native Slavic Muslims. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Languages Serbo-Croat(Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian) Macedonian Religions Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups South Slavs Muslims by nationality (Muslimani, Муслимани) was a term used in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to describe mainly native Slavic Muslims. ... Yugoslavs (Bosnian: Jugosloveni; Macedonian, Serbian Cyrillic: Југословени; Latinic: Jugosloveni; Croatian: Jugoslaveni, Slovenian: Jugoslovani) is an ethnic designation used by some people in former Yugoslavia, which continues to be used in some of its successor countries. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rusyn is an East Slavic language (along with Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian to which it shares a common linguistic ancestry) that is spoken by the Rusyns. ... Kosovo (known in Albanian as Kosova, in Serbian as Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija, and in English simply as Kosovo) is a province in southern Serbia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ... Yugoslavs (Bosnian: Jugosloveni; Macedonian, Serbian Cyrillic: Југословени; Latinic: Jugosloveni; Croatian: Jugoslaveni, Slovenian: Jugoslovani) is an ethnic designation used by some people in former Yugoslavia, which continues to be used in some of its successor countries. ...


Cultural diversity was a major factor in the dissolution of the federation. Nationalism during Tito's rule was suppressed wherever it sprang up (e.g. the "Croatian Spring" of the mid 1970s, or the Memorandum of Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts in mid 1980s). Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


Tito's successors chose a different approach to the nationalists, promoting their ideas and taking their side on some issues, claiming they would defend them and fight, even war, for their cause. Nationalists from other ethnic groups responded with arguments such as, "During your Tito's rule, our culture was cracked down upon, our people oppressed ... but now you won't anymore" and so forth, initiating hatred towards the different nationalities. Josip Broz Tito (May 7, 1892 - May 4, 1980) was the ruler of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ...


Economy

1978 issue of a 1000 dinar note.

Despite their common origins, the economy of socialist Yugoslavia was much different from the economies of the Soviet Union and other Eastern European socialist countries, especially after the Yugoslav-Soviet break-up of 1948. Rather than being owned by the state, Yugoslav companies were socially owned and managed with workers' self-management. The occupation and liberation struggle in World War II left Yugoslavia's infrastructure devastated. Even the most developed parts of the country were largely rural, and the little industry the country had was largely damaged or destroyed. Despite common origins, the economy of socialist Yugoslavia was much different from economies of the Soviet Union and other Eastern European socialist countries, especially after the Yugoslav-Soviet break-up of 1948. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 619 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1302 × 1261 pixel, file size: 564 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A 1000 Yugoslavian dinar note issued in 1978. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 619 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1302 × 1261 pixel, file size: 564 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A 1000 Yugoslavian dinar note issued in 1978. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... It has been suggested that Tito-Stalin Split be merged into this article or section. ...


With the exception of a recession in the mid-1960s, the country's economy prospered formidably. Unemployment was low and the education level of the work force steadily increased. Due to Yugoslavia's neutrality and its leading role in the Non-aligned Movement, Yugoslav companies exported to both Western and Eastern markets. Yugoslav companies carried out construction of numerous major infrastructural and industrial projects in Africa, Europe and Asia. Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ...


The fact that Yugoslavs were allowed to emigrate freely from the 1960s on prompted many to find work in Western Europe, notably Germany. This contributed to keeping unemployment in check, and also acted as a source of capital and foreign currency.


In the 1970s, the economy was reorganized according to Edvard Kardelj's theory of associated labour, in which the right to decision-making and a share in profits of socially owned companies is based on the investment of labour. All companies were transformed into organizations of associated labour. The smallest, basic organizations of associated labour, roughly corresponded to a small company or a department in a large company. These were organized into enterprises which in turn associated into composite organizations of associated labour, which could be large companies or even whole industry branches in a certain area. Most executive decision-making was based in enterprises, so that these continued to compete to an extent, even when they were part of a same composite organization. In practice, the appointment of managers and the strategic policies of composite organizations were, depending on their size and importance, often subject to political and personal influence-peddling. Edvard Kardelj - Sperans (January 27, 1910 - February 10, 1979) was a Slovene prewar communist, politician, statesman and publicist. ... An organisation (or organization — see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, which controls its own performance, and which has a boundary separating it from its environment. ...


In order to give all employees the same access to decision-making, the basic organisations of associated labour were also applied to public services, including health and education. The basic organizations were usually made up of no more than a few dozen people and had their own workers' councils, whose assent was needed for strategic decisions and appointment of managers in enterprises or public institutions.


The Yugoslav wars and consequent loss of market, as well as mismanagement and/or non-transparent privatization, brought further economic trouble for all the former republics of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. Only Slovenia's economy grew steadily after the initial shock and slump. Croatia reached its 1990 GDP in 2003, a feat yet to be accomplished by other former Yugoslav republics. This does not cite any references or sources. ...


The currency of the SFRY was the Yugoslav dinar. Obverse of 10 Yugoslav Dinars issued by the National Bank of Yugoslavia during 1960s Reverse of 10 Yugoslav Dinars issued by the National Bank of Yugoslavia during 1960s Yugoslav dinar was the official valute in former Yugoslavia. ...


Miscellaneous

  • Yugoslavia used to be described as a small country with big problems: seven neighbouring countries, six republics, five nationalities, four languages, three religions, two alphabets and one political party.[3]
  • Yugoslavia was also said to be surrounded with "worries" ("brigama" in Serbo-Croatian). That word could be constructed using the first letters of the names of the surrounding countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Italy, Greece, Albania, Hungary (Mađarska in Serbo-Croatian) and Austria).
  • Yugoslavia shared the melody of its national anthem with Poland. Its first lyrics were written in 1834 under the title Hey, Slovaks (Hej, Slováci) and it has since served as the anthem of the Pan-Slavic movement, the anthem of the Sokol physical education and political movement, and the anthem of the WWII Slovak Republic, Yugoslavia and Serbia and Montenegro. The song is also considered to be the second, unofficial anthem of the Slovaks. Its melody is based on Mazurek Dąbrowskiego, which has been also the anthem of Poland since 1926, but it is much slower and more accentuated. http://www.marxists.org/subject/yugoslavia/music/servie-serbian.mp3

Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... ABCs redirects here, for the Alien Big Cats, see British big cats. ... Political Parties redirects here. ... Hey, Slavs is an anthemic song dedicated to Slavic peoples. ... Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic people. ... For other uses, see Sokol (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ a b [1] Proclamation of Constitution of the Feredative People’s Republic of Yugoslavia, 31. 1. 1946.
  2. ^ CE Review article on Norac trial
  3. ^ Borrell, John. "Yugoslavia The Old Demons Arise", TIME Magazine, 1990-08-06. Retrieved on 2007-01-07. 

Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Current political map of the Balkans. ... Music of Yugoslavia can mean: Music of Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929-1941). ... SFR Yugoslav Pop and Rock scene is an umbrella term for the popular music of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, including pop and rock music and all their genres and subgenres. ... Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) was a communist country that existed in the second half of the 20th century. ... Constitution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) and its predecessor, Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia (FPRY) was developed after the World War II as follows: Constitution of FLRY, adopted on January 31, 1946 Constitutional Law of the FLRY, adopted on January 13, 1953 Constitution of SFRY, adopted... Unique Master Citizen Number (Serbo-Croatian: Jedinstveni Matični Broj Građana / Јединствени Матични Број Грађана, acronym JMBG / ЈМБГ, Macedonian: Единствен матичен број на граѓанинот, acronym ЕМБГ, Slovene: Enotna matična številka občana, acronym EMŠO) was a unique identification number that was assigned at birth to every citizen of former Yugoslavia. ...

External links

  • Orders and Decorations of the SFRY
  • List of leaders of SFRY
  • "Yugoslavia: the outworn structure" (CIA) Report from November 1970

Yugoslavia (1929 - 1941; 1945 - 2003) Motto: None Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital Podgorica Largest city Podgorica Official language(s) Serbian of the Ijekavian dialect1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Milo Đukanović Independence Dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   - Referendum May 21, 2006   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognized June 8, 2006  Area    - Total 13... Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica  - President Boris Tadić Establishment    - Formation 814   - First Serbian Uprising 1804   - Internationally recognized July 13, 1878   - Kingdom of SCS created December 1, 1918   - SCG dissolved... Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo within SFRY (number 5a) Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Косово, Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo, Albanian: Krahina Socialiste Autonome e Kosovës) was one of the two socialist autonomous provinces of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and one of the federal units of the... Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina within SFRY (number 5b) Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Војводина, Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina), also known shortly as SAP Vojvodina (Cyrillic: САП Војводина), was one of the two socialist autonomous provinces of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and one of the federal units of the... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...

Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Vojvodina, and Boka Kotorska were part of Austria-Hungary
(until 1918)
See State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and Banat, Bačka and Baranja




Free State of Fiume
(Rijeka)
(1920-1924)
Annexed by Italy in 1924, became part of Yugoslavia in 1947
Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Historic mpap of the Bay, 16th century Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor, Bocche di Cattaro) in western Montenegro is a winding bay on the Adriatic sea. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Flag Capital Zagreb Language(s) Slovenian and Serbo-Croatian Government Republic President¹ Anton KoroÅ¡ec Vice presidents¹ Ante Pavelić Svetozar Pribićević Historical era World War I  - Independence 29 October, 1918  - Joined Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 1 December, 1918 ¹ President and vice presidents of the National Council. ... Banat, Bačka and Baranja map The Banat, Bačka and Baranja was a de facto existing province of the Kingdom of Serbia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes between October 1918 and March 1919. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Free state of rijeka. ... Rijeka (in local Croatian dialects Rika and Reka; Fiume in Italian and Hungarian. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
(1918-1929) Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Kingdom of Yugoslavia
(1929-1941)


Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...

Nazi Germany annexed parts of Slovenia
(1941-1945)
Fascist Italy annexed parts of Slovenia, Croatia and Montenegro
(1941-1943) Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Democratic Federal Yugoslavia
(1943-1946) Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
(1946-1963) Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(1963-1992) Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...

Slovenia
(since 1991) Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...

Independent State of Croatia
(1941-1945) Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Puppet-state King  - 1941-1943 Tomislav II Poglavnik  - 1941-1945 Ante Pavelić Legislature None Historical era World War II  - Established April 10, 1941  - Disestablished May 8, 1945 Population  - 1941 est. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Croatia
(since 1991)
Also, Republic of Serbian Krajina (1991-1995) Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
(since 1992)
Composed of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska since 1995, and of the Brčko District since 2000 Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The location of the FBiH entity as part of the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Europe. ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Official language Serbian, Bosnian (Serbo-Croation) and Croatian Official script Cyrillic alphabet, Latin alphabet Capital Brčko Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  208 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total  â€“ Density  80,000  ? Ethnic groups (current est. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...

Hungary annexed Bačka, Baranja, Međimurje, and Prekmurje
(1941-1944/1945) Bačka (Serbian: Бачка or Bačka, Hungarian: Bácska, Croatian: Bačka, Slovak: Báčka, German: Batschka) is an area of the Pannonian plain lying between the rivers Danube and Tisa. ... Baranya (Hungarian, in Croatian and Serbian: Baranja) is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in present Hungary, and also in the former Kingdom of Hungary. ... Međimurje (Međimurska županija, Muraköz in Hungarian) is a triangle-shaped county in the northernmost part of Croatia. ... The municipalities of Slovenia in Prekmurje Prekmurje is the easternmost region of Slovenia. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(1992-2003)
Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Serbia and Montenegro
(2003-2006) Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Serbia
(since 2006) Kosovo under UN administration since 1999 Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Nations. ... This article is about the year. ...

Autonomous Banat
(1941-1944) Banat region, 1941-1944 The Banat was an autonomous region within German-occupied Serbia between 1941 and 1944. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Kingdom of Serbia
(until 1918) Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Nedić's Serbia
(1941-1944)

Republic of Užice
(1941) This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of Užice (Serbo-Croatian: Užička Republika) was a short-lived military mini-state that existed in Autumn 1941 in the western part of Nazi-occupied Serbia. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...

Albania annexed most of Kosovo, western Macedonia and south-eastern parts of Montenegro
(1941-1944) For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Kingdom of Montenegro
(until 1918) Flag Anthem: Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori, Onamo, namo! The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1913 Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Religion Eastern Orthodox Government Monarchy King Nicholas I Historical era World War I  - Established 28 August, 1910  - Disestablished 26 November, 1918 Currency Montenegrin perper The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнe Горe... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Montenegro (occupied by Italy)
(1941-1945) This article is about the country in Europe. ... Flag Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Political structure Client state High Commissioner  - 1941 Serafino Mazzolini  - 1941 - 1943 Alessandro Pirzio Biroli  - 1943 Curio Barbasetti di Prun  - 1943 - 1944 Theodor Geib  - 1944 Wilhelm Keiper Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia 1941  - Disestablished 1944 Currency Italian lira Montenegro existed as the... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Montenegro
(since 2006) This article is about the country in Europe. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Modern Republic of Macedonia was part of Kingdom of Serbia
(until 1918) Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

Bulgaria annexed most of modern Republic of Macedonia and south-eastern parts of Serbia
(1941-1944) For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Republic of Macedonia
(since 1991)
International: The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
(since 1993) For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Official languages Macedonian2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Buckovski Area  – Total  – % water Ranked 145th  25,713 km²  1. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Coordinates: 42°47′N, 19°28′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1631 words)
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the Yugoslav state that existed from the end of World War II (1945) until it disintegrated in the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s.
Democratic Federative Yugoslavia was constituted at the AVNOJ or the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia conference in Jajce (November 29 - December 4, 1943) while negotiations with the royal government in exile continued.
Socialist republic of Slovenia, with capital in Ljubljana.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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