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Encyclopedia > Socialist

Part of the series on
Socialism


Currents

Democratic socialism
Christian socialism
Communism
Libertarian socialism
Social democracy
Image File history File links Red_flag_waving_transparent. ... Democratic socialism is a broad political movement propagating the ideals of socialism within the context of a democratic system. ... Christian socialism generally refers to those on the Christian left whose politics are both Christian and socialist and who see these two things as being interconnected, perhaps because one derives from the other. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Libertarian socialism is any one of a group of political philosophies dedicated to opposing coercive forms of authority and social hierarchy, in particular the institutions of capitalism and the State. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...

Influences

Marxism
Anarchism
Trade unionism
Internationalism
Utilitarianism
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The neutrality of this introduction is disputed. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Ideas

Egalitarianism
Democracy
Equality of outcome
Class struggle
Proletarian revolution
Egalitarianism is any moral or political theory that emphasizes the supposed equality of morally-significant beings. ... Equality of outcome is a basic form of egalitarianism which seeks to reduce or eliminate differences between individuals or households in a society. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... A proletarian revolution is a social and/or political revolution in which the working class overthrows (or attempts to overthrow) capitalism. ...

Key issues

History of socialism
Socialist economics
Socialist states
Criticisms of socialism
// Early socialists Further information: History of socialism in Great Britain The word socialism came into English from French in the 1820s, but the idea that goods should be held in common and that all men should be equal is much older. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Socialist state is the term used in official documents of some countries to describe their political system. ... Opposition and criticisms of socialism, and arguments for and against A number of thinkers, economists and historians have raised some issues with socialist theory. ...

People and organizations

List of socialists
Social democratic parties
Socialist International
The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... This is a list of parties in the world that are social democratic. ... The official symbol of Socialist International The Socialist International (SI) is an international organisation for social democratic and democratic socialist parties. ...

Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. This control may be either direct, exercised through popular collectives such as workers' councils, or it may be indirect, exercised through a State. A primary concern of socialism (and, according to some, its defining feature) is social equality and an equitable distribution of wealth that would serve the interests of society as a whole.[1][2] Social structure (also referred to as a social system) is a system in which people forming the society are organized by a patterns of prelationships. ... An economic system is a mechanism which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... Political philosophy is the study of the fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, property, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should... The means of production are physical, non-human, inputs used in production. ... A workers council is a council, or deliberative body, composed of working class or proletarian members. ... A state is an organized political community, occupying a territory, and possessing internal and external sovereignty, which successfully claims the monopoly on the use of force. ... Social equality is a social state of affairs in which certain different people have the same status in a certain respect, minimally at least in voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, and property rights. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Human relationships within an ethnically diverse society For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ...


Historically, the ideology of socialism grew up hand in hand with the rise of organized labor, and the socialist political movement has found most of its support among the urban working class and, to a lesser extent, the peasantry. This has led to socialism being strongly associated with the working class and often identifying itself with the interests of workers and the "common people". In many parts of the world, the two are still strongly associated with one another; in other parts, they have become two distinct movements. A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: the 16th century was a good time for European peasants A peasant, from 15th...


Socialists hold that capitalism is an illegitimate economic system that serves the interests of the wealthy and exploits the majority of the population. As such, they wish to replace it completely or at least make substantial modifications to it, in order to create a more just society that would reward hard work, guarantee a certain basic standard of living, and extend economic and cultural opportunities to all.[3] Capitalism is commonly understood to mean an economic or socioeconomic system in which the means of production are predominantly privately owned and operated for profit, often through the employment of labour. ... The term exploitation may carry two distinct meanings: The act of utilizing something for any purpose. ...


Socialist theory is diverse, and there is no single body of thought that is universally shared by all socialists. Rather, different socialist ideologies have arrived at similar conclusions by different paths. There are some common themes, however. One such theme is the idea that humans are inherently social beings that require social interaction and the companionship of others in order to survive and develop both physically and mentally[4]. Individuals cannot maintain their humanity if they are separated from the rest of society for too long. Thus, socialists believe that the individual and society are inseparable, and they reject individualistic schools of thought which assert that society is the voluntary creation of individuals who chose to interact with each other.[5] This article is about modern humans. ... A social animal is a loosely defined term for an organism that is highly interactive with other members of its species to the point of having a recognizable and distinct society. ... Individualism is a moral, political, and social philosophy, which emphasizes individual liberty, the primary importance of the individual, and the virtues of self-reliance and personal independence. It assumes that a person can be socially and culturally free of upbringing: deep-structure language(s), family(s) of origin, and both...


Marxism is an ideology which has had a powerful influence on socialist thought. For almost a hundred years, from the mid-19th century to the 1940s or 50s, the majority of socialists were Marxists of one kind or another. This has no longer been the case for several decades, but Marxist ideas - particularly notions of class struggle - are common themes across a broad range of modern socialist groups. Marxism itself continues to be a strong current in the broader socialist movement. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events and trends World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... // Events and trends This map shows two essential global spheres during the Cold War in 1959. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ...


Many Marxists, past and present, use the term socialism to refer to the form of society that is supposed to replace capitalism and later develop into communism. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Within the socialist movement, there are several different ideas on how to create a socialist society and economic system, and what form this society would take. As a result, the movement has split into several different and sometimes opposing branches, which are discussed further below.

Contents


Etymology

The word "socialism" dates back to the early nineteenth century. It was first used, self-referentially, in the English language in 1827 to refer to followers of Robert Owen. In France, again self-referentially, it was used in 1832 to refer to followers of the doctrines of Saint-Simon and thereafter by Pierre Leroux and J. Regnaud in l'Encyclopédie nouvelle[6]. Use of the word spread widely and has been used differently in different times and places, both by various individuals and groups that consider themselves socialist and by their opponents. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Owen Robert Owen continues to be looked up to in this Manchester statue Robert Owen (May 14, 1771 – November 17, 1858) was a Welsh socialist and social reformer. ... Henri de Saint-Simon Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (October 17, 1760 – May 19, 1825), the founder of French socialism, was born in Paris. ... Pierre Leroux (April 7, 1798 - April, 1871), French philosopher and political economist, was born at Bercy near Paris, the son of an artisan. ... The Encyclopédie nouvelle: Dictionnaire philosophique, scientifique, littéraire et industriel, offrant le tableau des connaissances humaines au XIXe siècle was a French encyclopedia in three volumes founded by Pierre Leroux and Jean Reynaud and published in 1839-1840. ...


While there is wide variation between socialist groups, nearly all would agree that they are bound together by a common history rooted originally in nineteenth and twentieth-century struggles by industrial and agricultural workers, operating according to principles of solidarity and advocating an egalitarian society, with an economics that would, in their view, serve the broad populace rather than a favored few. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... Egalitarianism is the moral doctrine that equality ought to prevail among some group along some dimension. ... Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala. ...


According to Élie Halévy, the term "socialism" was coined independently by two groups advocating different ways of organizing society and economics: the Saint-Simonians, and most likely Pierre Leroux, in the years 1831-33, and the followers of Robert Owen, around 1835.[7] The French philosopher and historian Élie Halévy (September 6, 1870 - August 21, 1937) wrote studies of the British utilitarians and a history of 19th-century England. ... Henri de Saint-Simon Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (October 17, 1760 – May 19, 1825), the founder of French socialism, was born in Paris. ... Pierre Leroux (April 7, 1798 - April, 1871), French philosopher and political economist, was born at Bercy near Paris, the son of an artisan. ... 1831 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Robert Owen Robert Owen continues to be looked up to in this Manchester statue Robert Owen (May 14, 1771 – November 17, 1858) was a Welsh socialist and social reformer. ...


A note on usage

Some groups (see Ideologies not universally agreed upon as "socialist") have called themselves socialist while holding views that some consider antithetical to socialism. The term has also been used by some politicians on the political right as an epithet for certain individuals who do not consider themselves to be socialists and policies that are not considered socialist by their proponents (e.g. referring to all publicly funded medicine as "socialized medicine" or to the United States Democratic Party as "socialist"). This article touches briefly on those peripheral issues. In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply The Right, are terms that refer to the segment of the political spectrum often associated with any of several strains of conservatism, the religious right, and areas of classical liberalism, or simply the opposite of left-wing politics. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Health care system. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ...


History of socialism

The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism, in honour of the blood spilt in the "struggle for freedom".
The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism, in honour of the blood spilt in the "struggle for freedom".
Main article: History of socialism

According to Marxists (notably Friedrich Engels), socialist models and ideas are said to be traceable to the dawn of human social history, being an inherent feature of human nature and early human social models. The Primitive Church is described in the Acts of the Apostles as having everything in common, and this was copied by a number of religious groups down the modern times[citation needed]. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Red is any of a number of similar colors at the lowest frequencies of light discernible by the human eye. ... Historically, and most generally, the red flag is an international symbol for the blood of angry workers. ... // Early socialists Further information: History of socialism in Great Britain The word socialism came into English from French in the 1820s, but the idea that goods should be held in common and that all men should be equal is much older. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820–August 5, 1895) was a 19th-century German political philosopher. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ...


Some socialist thinkers, such as William Morris, have identified John Ball, one of the leaders of the Peasants' Revolt in England in 1381, as the first socialist. Historians have rediscovered the writings of Gerrard Winstanley in the period of the English Civil War, and the commune set up by the Diggers, as they were called. This page is about William Morris, the writer, designer and socialist. ... John Ball (d. ... The end of the revolt: Wat Tyler killed by Walworth while Richard II watches, and a second image of Richard addressing the crowd The Peasants Revolt, Tyler’s Rebellion or Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe and is a major... Gerrard Winstanley (1609 - September 10, 1676) was an English Protestant religious reformer and political activist during the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell. ... The term English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between English Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ... A commune or comune is a system of social and economic organization which involves the common ownership of resources and/or shared obligations. ... For other meanings see Diggers (disambiguation) and Levellers (disambiguation) The Diggers were a group begun by Gerrard Winstanley in 1649 which called for a total destruction of the existing social order and replacement with a communistic and agrarian lifestyle based around the precepts of Christian Nationalism, wishing to rid England...


During the Enlightenment in the 18th century, revolutionary thinkers and writers such as the Marquis de Condorcet, Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, Abbé de Mably, and Morelly provided the intellectual and ideological expression of the discontented social layers in French society. This included not only the bourgeoisie, at that time kept out of political power by the ancien régime, but also the "popular" classes among whom socialism would later take root. The idea of abolition of private property became popular in the early 19th century, and was influenced by new discoveries and the idea of the "noble savage", popularised by Jean-Jacques Rousseau.[2] Enlightenment may refer to: Enlightenment (concept), a concept in mysticism, philosophy and psychology For the Hindu religious concept of enlightenment, see moksha For the Buddhist religious concept, see Bodhi, Satori, Nirvana, Great Perfection For the Yoga concept of enlightenment, see Yogic Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment, a period in European... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The last of Voltaires statues by Jean-Antoine Houdon (1781). ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Franco-Swiss philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ... Denis Diderot Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 - July 31, 1784) was a French writer and philosopher. ... Gabriel Bonnet de Mably (born 14 March 1709, Grenoble - died 2 April 1785, Paris), sometimes known as Abbé de Mably, was a French philosopher and politician. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bourgeoisie (RP [], GA []) in modern use refers to the wealthy or propertied social class in a capitalist society. ... Ancien Régime means Old Rule or Old Order in French; in English, the term refers primarily to the social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 – July 2, 1778) was a Franco-Swiss philosopher of the Enlightenment whose political ideas influenced the French Revolution, the development of socialist theory, and the growth of nationalism. ...


The earliest modern socialist groups shared characteristics such as focusing on general welfare rather than individualism, on co-operation rather than competition, and on laborers rather than on industrial or political leaders and structures[8]. They did not generally think in terms of class struggle, but argued that the wealthy should join with the poor in building a new society. Class struggle, the challenge to private property and the accompanying notions of the special role of the proletariat in the revolution find their earliest origins in the Conspiracy of Equals of Babeuf, an unsuccessful actor in the French Revolution[9]. Later, they were greatly developed by the Marxist branch of socialism. Individualism is a moral, political, and social philosophy, which emphasizes individual liberty, the primary importance of the individual, and the virtues of self-reliance and personal independence. It assumes that a person can be socially and culturally free of upbringing: deep-structure language(s), family(s) of origin, and both... Co-operation refers to the practice of people or greater entities working in common with commonly agreed-upon goals and possibly methods, instead of working separately in competition. ... Competition is the act of striving against another force for the purpose of achieving dominance or attaining a reward or goal, or out of a biological imperative such as survival. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... It has been suggested that Revolutionary be merged into this article or section. ... François-Noël Babeuf (November 23, 1760 - May 27, 1797), known as Gracchus Babeuf, was a French political agitator and journalist of the revolutionary period. ... François-Noël Babeuf François-Noël Babeuf (November 23, 1760 - May 27, 1797), known as Gracchus Babeuf, was a French political agitator and journalist of the revolutionary period. ... The French Revolution (1789-1799) was a period in the history of France. ...

Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, one of the first utopian socialists.
Enlarge
Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, one of the first utopian socialists.

By the time of the Revolution of 1848 there were a variety of competing "socialisms", the most influential being those founded by Saint-Simon, Robert Owen and Charles Fourier. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels by this time were referring to themselves as "communists", in large part to distinguish themselves from the above ideologies, which they described as "utopian socialism". (Engels later used the term "scientific socialism" to describe Marxism.[10]) Image File history File links Henri_de_Saint-simon_portrait. ... Image File history File links Henri_de_Saint-simon_portrait. ... Henri de Saint-Simon Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (October 17, 1760 – May 19, 1825), the founder of French socialism, was born in Paris. ... Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern Socialist thought. ... —Alexis de Tocqueville, Recollections The European Revolutions of 1848, in some countries known as the Spring of Nations, were the bloody consequences of a variety of changes that had been taking place in Europe in the first half of the 19th century. ... Henri de Saint-Simon Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (October 17, 1760 – May 19, 1825), the founder of French socialism, was born in Paris. ... Robert Owen Robert Owen continues to be looked up to in this Manchester statue Robert Owen (May 14, 1771 – November 17, 1858) was a Welsh socialist and social reformer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883 London) was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmens Association. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820–August 5, 1895) was a 19th-century German political philosopher. ... Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern Socialist thought. ... Scientific Socialism is a socio-political-economic theory pioneered by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...


Depending on the context, the term socialism may refer either to these ideologies or any of their many lineal descendants.


Socialist theory

Socialist ideologies tend to emphasize economic cooperation over economic competition; virtually all envision some sort of economic planning (many, but by no means all, favor central planning). All advocate placing at least some of the means of production -- and at least some of the distribution of goods and services -- into collective or cooperative ownership. A planned economy is an economic system in which decisions about the production, allocation and consumption of goods and services is planned ahead of time, in either a centralized or decentralized fashion. ...


An economic system

Main article: Socialist economics

As in the realm of ideology, there is no single consensus on what it means for a particular economic system to be "socialist". However, all socialists agree that a socialist economy must be run for the benefit of the vast majority of the people rather than for a small aristocratic, plutocratic, or capitalist class. In the mid-nineteenth century, when socialism first arose, many political ideologies of the day were frank in supporting the interests of elite classes. Today, in a world where many countries offer a broader electoral franchise, such open support for the wealthy would be the equivalent of political suicide. Therefore, most ideologies claim to support the greatest good for the greatest number, something that was once advocated only by socialists. Still, even today, socialism stands out by being particularly forthright in advocating what it considers to be direct pursuit of working class interests, even at the expense of what other ideologies consider the legitimate property rights of the wealthy classes. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An economic system is a mechanism which deals with the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a particular society. ... -1... A plutocracy is a form of government where all the states decisions are centralized in an affluent wealthy class of citizenry, and the degree of economic inequality is high while the level of social mobility is low. ... Capitalism is commonly understood to mean an economic or socioeconomic system in which the means of production are predominantly privately owned and operated for profit, often through the employment of labour. ... Suffrage is the civil right to vote, or the exercise of that right. ...


Some socialists argue that socialism also entails democratic control of the economy, although they differ vastly over the appropriate institutions of that democracy and over whether control should be centralized or highly dispersed. Similarly, they differ over the extent to which a socialist economy could involve markets, and among those who believe that it could, there is a further dividing line on whether markets should apply only to consumer goods or, in some cases, to the means of production themselves (factory and farm equipment, for example). For the means of production, this is a question of ownership of the economy, and therefore of control over it. A physical marketplace in Portugal enables buyers and sellers of produce to do business with each other. ... The means of production are physical, non-human, inputs used in production. ...


Many non-socialists use the expression "socialist economy" (or "socialization" of a sector of the economy) almost exclusively to refer to centralized control under government aegis.


There is general agreement among socialists and non-socialists that a socialist economy would not include private or estate ownership of large enterprises; there is less agreement on whether any such enterprises would be owned by society at large or (at least in some cases) owned cooperatively by their own workers. Among the few self-described socialists who dispute these principles is the leadership of the Communist Party of China, who claim to remain socialist, even while the continuing Chinese economic reform explicitly includes the concept of privately-owned large enterprises competing on an equal basis with publicly-owned ones. The adoption by China of this essential characteristic of capitalism is a principal reason why, outside and inside of China, few people (socialists or otherwise) consider present-day mainland China and its ruling party to be, in any meaningful sense, socialist. Economic reforms have triggered internal migrations within China. ...


It has been claimed, both by socialists and non-socialists, that the former Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc had socialist economies, as the means of production were owned almost entirely by the state and the bulk of the economy was centrally controlled by the Communist Party acting through the state. However, many other socialists object to that label, because the people in those countries had little or no control over the government, and therefore they had little or no control over the economy. The aforementioned socialists argue that these societies were essentially oligarchies; some would call them state-capitalist, Stalinist, or as some Trotskyists would say, "degenerated workers states". Trotskyists contend that Stalinist economies fulfilled one criterion of a socialist economy, in that the economy was controlled by the state, but not the other criterion, that the state must be in turn democratically controlled by the workers. Many non-Marxist socialists would agree with the general outline of this argument, while perhaps dissenting from the statement that state control of the economy is one of the criteria of socialism. Further, many socialists would argue that the Soviet Union and its satellite states merely replaced a capitalist ruling class with a new ruling class, the coordinator class or nomenklatura, who played an extremely analogous role to the former capitalists, by managing the economy for their own benefit, or at least attempting to do so. A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... Oligarchy is a political regime where most or all political power effectively rests with a small segment of society (typically the most powerful, whether by wealth, family, military strength, ruthlessness, or political influence). ... There are multiple definitions of the term state capitalism. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... In Trotskyist political theory, degenerated workers states are states where capitalism has been overthrown through social revolution and the property forms have changed into a collectivized planned economy, but where the working class has lost its political power and socialist democracy has been replaced by a form of dictatorship. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


During the Cold War, a common term used by the Soviet Union and its allies to refer to their own economies was "actually existing socialism" (presumably as against any number of theoretically possible socialisms, but carrying an implicit statement that their economy was, in fact, socialist). Another similarly used term was (and is) "real socialist." Typically, when these terms were or are used by anyone outside of the particular parties that ruled these countries (or the parties who supported them in other countries), they are placed in scare quotes and are used with at least mild irony. In journalism, scare quotes are quotation marks used in a context other than to identify a direct quotation. ...


Mixed economy

As remarked above, some self-described socialists, especially those who identify as social democrats, but also including (for example) the reform-oriented "Euro-communists", advocate capitalism rather than a complete re-working of existing capitalist economies along socialist lines. These views also extend to many who would not describe themselves as "socialists." Eurocommunism was an attempt in the 1970s by various European communist parties to widen their appeal by embracing middle-class themes, rejecting unquestioning support of the Soviet Union and express more clearly their fidelity to the democratic institutions. ...


In the most moderate formulation of such a mixed economy, collective ownership is typically limited to control of natural resources and public utilities. The rationale for prioritizing these is that natural resources are a common patrimony and that (all or some) public utilities are natural monopolies. A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ... In economics, a natural monopoly is a persistent situation where a single company is the only supplier of a particular kind of product or service due to the fundamental cost structure of the industry. ...


Others would extend a socialist approach within a mixed economy to what they deem to be essential industries to prevent certain capitalists from having a stranglehold on society, or to prevent massive concentrations of wealth which result in a power imbalance (including disproportionate bargaining leverage). There is also often a rationale of national defense or national sovereignty. Thus, many otherwise capitalist countries have, at least at times, nationalized such industries as steel, automobiles, or airplanes. In the U.S., for example, President Harry S. Truman nationalized the steel mills during the Korean War. They soon returned to private ownership by order of the U.S. Supreme Court, however. The old steel cable of a colliery winding tower Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. ... An automobile is a wheeled vehicle that carries its own motor. ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-fourth Vice President (1945) and the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953), succeeding to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Overview map of the Korean War The Korean War from June 25, 1950 to cease-fire on July 27, 1953 (the war has not ended officially), was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States...


All socialist thinkers argue that unrestrained free market economics would generally result in profits for a few at the expense of the many. Communists, in particular, are adamantly opposed to any compromise with capitalism, claiming that any economic system that permits the private accumulation of wealth is inherently unjust and allows capitalists (those who own and control capital) to compel behavior out of individuals due to their own necessity to survive. (see: labor theory of value). As noted several times above, this is disputed by the contemporary Communist Party of China, making China (if it is regarded as socialist or communist) an inevitable exception to much of what follows here. A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory in classical economics concerning the value of an exchangeable good or service. ...


While few self-described communists support any scheme upholding private ownership of the means of production (except, perhaps, as a temporary disposition on the way to something purer, and again noting the contemporary Chinese exception), other socialists are split over this, arguing over whether to only moderate the workings of market capitalism to produce a more equitable distribution of wealth, or whether to expropriate the entire owning class to guarantee this distribution. Many socialists acknowledge the extreme complexity of designing other appropriate non-market mechanisms to identify demand, especially for non-essential goods. Some have put forward models of moderate market socialism where markets exist, but an owning class does not. Market socialism is an economic system in which the means of production are owned by the workers in each company (meaning in general that profits in each company are distributed between them: profit sharing) and the production is not centrally planned but mediated through the market. ...


In practice, many aspects of the socialist worldview and socialist policy have been integrated with capitalism in many European countries and in other parts of the world (especially in the industrialized "first world"). Social democracy typically involves state ownership of some corporations (considered strategically important to the people) and some participation in ownership of the means of production by workers. This can include profit sharing and worker representation on decision-making boards of corporations (a measure in vigour in Germany, for instance). Some inherently capitalist measures, such as stock ownership for workers or stock options would, however, also fit the description. Social services are important in social democracies. Such services include social welfare for the disadvantaged and unemployment insurance. Profit sharing, when used as a special term, refers to various incentive plans introduced by businesses that provide direct or indirect payments to employees that depend on companys profitability in addition to employees regular salary and bonuses. ... Main article: Option A stock option is a specific type of option with a stock as the underlying (the instrument that determines the pay-off of the option, and therefore its value). ... ... Unemployment benefits are sums of money given to the unemployed by the government or a compulsory para-governmental insurance system. ...


Likewise, market economies in the United States and other capitalist countries have integrated some aspects of socialist economic planning. Democratic countries typically place legal limits on the centralization of capital through anti-trust laws and limits on monopolies, though the extent to which these laws are actually enforced has to do with the balance of power between the actually existing or emerging monopoly firms, as well as political ties between government and some corporations (crony capitalism). Ownership of stock has become common for middle class workers, both in companies they work for and in other companies (see mutual fund). Labor market pressures (see labor economics) and regulations have encouraged profit sharing. Social welfare and unemployment insurance are mandated by law in the U.S., UK, Canada and other market economies. There is a lively debate today whether the world is moving closer to or further away from "socialism", as defined by different people. Another component of this debate is whether or not these developments are to be encouraged. Media:Example. ... Crony capitalism or crapitalism is a pejorative term describing a capitalist economy in which success in business depends on an extremely close relationship between the businessman and the state institutions of politics and government, rather than by the espoused equitable concepts of the free market, open competition, and economic liberalism. ... A mutual fund is a form of collective investment that pools money from many investors and invests the money in stocks, bonds, short-term money-market instruments, and/or other securities. ... Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning of the market for labour. ... Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning of the market for labour. ... Motto: E pluribus unum (1789 to present) (Latin: Out of Many, One) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government • President • Vice President Federal republic George W...


Transition from capitalism

Although Marxists and other socialists generally use the word "socialism" in the senses described above, there is also another specifically Marxist use of the term. Karl Marx, in his exposition of historical materialism (his Hegelian model of history) saw socialism as a phase of human society that would follow capitalism and precede communism. Marx is by no means clear about the expected characteristics of such a society, but he is consistent in his belief in the eventual triumph of revolutionary-socialism over capitalism, and then, its eventual transformation into communism. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883 London) was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmens Association. ... Historical materialism (or what Marx himself called the materialist conception of history - materialistische Geschichtsauffassung) is a social theory and an approach to the study of history and sociology, normally considered the intellectual basis of Marxism. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ...


According to Marx, the socialist society will be controlled by the working class (the proletariat), whose familiarity with large, collective undertakings will be reflected in the character of this society. It will be a "dictatorship of the proletariat", in the sense that it is contrasted with the existing dictatorship of the bourgeoisie (i.e. capitalism). In this context, Marx was not necessarily advocating or predicting "dictatorship" in the sense that word is commonly used today; he was referring only to governance in which class would be dominant - in other words, it is the proletariat who become the ruling class, not a "dictator". While a Leninist dictatorship is arguably consistent with this vision, so is a workers' democracy, analogous to bourgeois democracy. In addition, most Marxist models of socialism involve the abolition of the so-called "exploitation of man by man" which is presumed to exist in capitalist society. This would mean abolishing class distinctions, therefore making "the proletariat" a universal term synonymous with "the people". The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... Bourgeoisie (RP [], GA []) in modern use refers to the wealthy or propertied social class in a capitalist society. ...


Marx saw socialism (that is, the "dictatorship of proletariat") as a transitional phase, ultimately to be replaced by a classless communist society in which the existing forms of government would no longer be needed. According to Engels, the state was destined to eventually "wither away", as the representative democracy of socialism slowly turned into the direct democracy of communism, and economic life would be re-organised on a basis of freedom and equality. In holding this classless non-state as the ultimate goal, Marx expressed a long-term ideal not far from that of anarchism. However, whereas the anarchists wanted to abolish the state overnight, the communists wanted to utilize the state to transform society, expecting it to "wither away" to the extent that the nature of man evolved to the "new socialist man." In other words, while anarchists try to abolish the state more directly through an anti-statist, anti-capitalist revolution directly against both capitalism and the state at the same time, Marxists believe that a new state can be un-capitalist and that its destruction of the bourgeoisie will also destroy the self same state. It has been suggested that Dictator be merged into this article or section. ... Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representants. ... Direct democracy comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty was lodged in the assembly of all citizens. ... Anti-statism refers to all philosophies that in some degree reject or oppose the establishment of a territorial national government. ...


This definition of socialism is particularly important in understanding the official ideology of the People's Republic of China. The Communist Party of China states that class struggle has already pushed China into the socialist phase of social development. Because of this and Deng Xiaoping's theory of seeking truth from facts, any economic policy which "works" is automatically classified as a socialist policy, and hence there are no constraints on what "socialism with Chinese characteristics" can look like. Seek truth from facts (Chinese: 实事求是, pinyin: shí shì qiú shì) is a slogan in the Peoples Republic of China referring to pragmatism. ...


A state?

See also: Communist state

Most past and present states led by parties of Communist orientation called (or call) themselves "socialist." However, they were usually referred to as "Communist states" by anti-communists in the western world. Once again, whether these states were socialist or not is disputed, with many socialists contending that they were not, for reasons analogous to those discussed in the section above regarding the socialist economy. A Communist state is a state governed by a single political party which declares its allegiance to the principles of Marxism-Leninism. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ...


A libertarian socialist society known as "The Republic" emerged in 1930s Spain during the civil war. See Anarchism in Spain. Anarchism (the political philosophy advocating a libertarian society without hierarchy, based on mutual aid and voluntary cooperation) historically gained the most support and influence in Spain, especially in the seventy or so years before Francisco Francos victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. ...


There are also some who dispute whether it is appropriate to refer to any state, past, present, future, or hypothetical as "socialist," preferring to reserve that word for an economy or even a society, but not a state. Socialist leaders have been elected in South America, in recent years, but there has not been a large shift away from capitalism, at this point.


Types of socialism

Socialism can be divided into the libertarian schools, generally called libertarian socialist or anarchist, and the more authoritarian schools that support some degree of state coercion. Since the 19th century, socialist ideas have developed and separated into many different streams. Notable ideologies that have been referred to using the label "socialism" are: Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

A few of the lesser-known schools are: This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Democratic socialism is a broad political movement propagating the ideals of socialism within the context of a democratic system. ... (Adapted from the TranSocialist Alliance definition) Transhumanist socialism is a particular type of socialism which holds that future transhumanist technologies such as nanotechnology will make it much more feasible to bring about a truly socialist world. ... Libertarian socialism is any one of a group of political philosophies dedicated to opposing coercive forms of authority and social hierarchy, in particular the institutions of capitalism and the State. ... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labor movement, Syndicalisme is a French word meaning trade unionism hence the syndicalism qualification. ... Anarchist communism, also known as Communist anarchism, Anarcho-communism, or Libertarian communism, is a political ideology related to Libertarian socialism. ... Syndicalism refers to a set of ideas, movements and tendencies which share the avowed aim of transforming capitalist society through action by the working class on the industrial front. ...

The socio-political or intellectual movements basing themselves in the Marxist-Socialist tradition can generally be further divided into: African socialism is the belief in the doctrine of sharing economic resources in a traditional African way, as compared to classical socialism. ... Arab Socialism (ar. ... Guild socialism was a British political movement in the 1890s-1920s that wanted to give each local workplace sovereignity. ... International Socialism is a quarterly journal of socialist theory published by the Socialist Workers Party (UK) and currently edited by Chris Harman. ... Popular Socialism (Danish: Folkesocialisme) is a distinct Scandinavian socialist current. ... Religious socialism describes socialism that is inspired by religious values, such as Christian socialism or Islamic socialism. ... Christian socialism generally refers to those on the Christian left whose politics are both Christian and socialist and who see these two things as being interconnected, perhaps because one derives from the other. ... Islamic socialism is a term coined by various muslim leaders to counter the demand at home for a more spiritual form of socialism. ... Socialist feminism is a branch of feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a womans life and argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of womens oppression. ... Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern Socialist thought. ...

Several forms of "socialism" are considered by those further to the left to be reformist or revisionist. These include: Autonomism, or Autonomist Marxism is a left wing political movement and theory. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... One of the leading figures of the Cuban Revolution was Ernesto Guevara. ... The Juche Idea (pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the basic governing idea of North Korea, and colloquially the political system based on that principle. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is therefore a branch of Marxism. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893–1976). ... The term Marxist humanism has as its foundation Marxs conception of the alienation of the labourer as he advances it in his Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844--an alienation that is born of a capitalist system in which the worker no longer functions as (what Marx terms) a... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... The Situationist International (SI), an international political and artistic movement, originated in the Italian village of Cosio dArroscia on 28 July 1957 with the fusion of several extremely small artistic tendencies: the Lettrist International, the International movement for an imaginist Bauhaus, and the London Psychogeographical Association. ... Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ... Revisionism is a word which has several meanings. ...

Austromarxism was the left socialist ideology pursued by the Social Democratic Workers Party of Austria during the late decades of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the Austrian First Republic (1918-1934). ... Eduard Bernstein Eduard Bernstein (January 6, 1850 - December 18, 1932) was a German social democratic theoretician and politician, member of the SPD; and founder of evolutionary socialism or reformism. ... Evolutionary socialism is a form of socialist theory which was originally developed by Eduard Bernstein. ... The Fabian Society is a British socialist intellectual movement best known for its initial ground-breaking work beginning in the late 19th century and then up to World War I. Similar societies exist in Australia and New Zealand. ... Labor Zionism (or Labour Zionism) is the traditional left-wing of the Zionist ideology. ... Karl Kautsky (October 18, 1854 - October 17, 1938) was a leading theoretician of social democracy. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Popular Socialism (Danish: Folkesocialisme) is a distinct Scandinavian socialist current. ... Yellow socialism was the name applied to a form of revisionist socialism which became prominent in the early twentieth century prior to World War I, as an alternative to Marxism (sometimes called red socialism). Yellow socialists rejected class struggle, the general strike and revolutionary socialism in general. ... Socialism with Chinese characteristics (Chinese: 具有中国特色的社会主义 pinyin: Jùyǒu Zhōngguó tèsè de shèhuìzhǔyì) is an official term for the mixed economy of the Peoples Republic of China as it transitions from an economy based on public ownership of means of production to an economy... Market socialism is an economic system in which the means of production are owned by the workers in each company (meaning in general that profits in each company are distributed between them: profit sharing) and the production is not centrally planned but mediated through the market. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ...

Communism

Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Main article: Communism

Communism refers to a conjectured future classless, stateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production, and can be classified as a multivariant branch of the broader socialist movement. Communism also refers to a variety of political movements which claim the establishment of such a social organization as their ultimate goal. Early forms of human social organization have been described as primitive communism. However, communism as a political goal generally is a conjectured form of future social organization which has never been implemented. Karl Marx This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Karl Marx This image is in the public domain in the United States and possibly other jurisdictions. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883 London) was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmens Association. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Common ownership is a principle according to which the assets of an enterprise or other organisation are held indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members. ... The means of production are physical, non-human, inputs used in production. ... Primitive communism, according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is the original society of humanity. ...


There is a considerable variety of views among self-identified communists. However, Marxism and Leninism, schools of communism associated with Karl Marx and of Vladimir Lenin respectively, have the distinction of having been a major force in world politics since the early 20th century. Class struggle plays a central role in the theory of Marxism. The establishment of communism is in this theory viewed as the culmination of the class struggle between the capitalist class, the owners of most of the capital, and the working class. Marx held that society could not be transformed from the capitalist mode of production to the communist mode of production all at once, but required a state transitional period which Marx described as the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The communist society Marx envisioned emerging from capitalism has never been implemented, and it remains theoretical. However, the term "Communism", especially when the word is capitalized, is often used to refer to the political and economic nations under communist parties which claimed to be the dictatorship of the proletariat. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is therefore a branch of Marxism. ... In most educational systems, a School is a semi-automonous unit in a university which study a particular discipline, such the School of Journalism which studies journalism. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883 London) was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmens Association. ... (help· info) (Владимир Ильич Ленин) IPA: born Ulyanov (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Communist revolutionary of Russia, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the main theorist of Leninism, which he described as an adaptation of Marxism to the... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... For any word written in a language with whose alphabet or alphabet equivalent has two cases, such as those using the Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, or Armenian alphabet, capitalization (or capitalisation) is the writing of that word with its first letter in majuscules (uppercase) and the remaining letters in minuscules (lowercase). ... In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical philosophy based on Marxism. ...


After the success of the Red October Revolution in Russia, many socialist parties in other countries became communist parties, owing allegiance of varying degrees to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (see Communist International). After World War II, regimes calling themselves communist took power in Eastern Europe. In 1949, the Communists in China, led by Mao Zedong, came to power and established the People's Republic of China. Among the other countries in the Third World that adopted a Communist form of government at some point were Cuba, North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Angola, and Mozambique. By the early 1980s, almost one-third of the world's population lived under Communist states. The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the All... The first edition of Communist International, journal of the Comintern published in Moscow and Petrograd (now Saint Petersburg) in May 1919. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead:17 million Civilian dead:33 million Total dead:50 million Military dead:8 million Civilian dead:4 million Total dead:12 million World War II... 1949 (MCMXLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Mao. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... A Communist state is a state governed by a single political party which declares its allegiance to the principles of Marxism-Leninism. ...


Communism carries a strong social stigma in the United States, due to a history of anti-communism in America. Since the early 1970s, the term "Eurocommunism" was used to refer to the policies of communist parties in western Europe, which sought to break with the tradition of uncritical and unconditional support of the Soviet Union. Such parties were politically active and electorally significant in France and Italy. With the collapse of the Communist governments in eastern Europe from the late 1980s and the breakup of the Soviet Union on December 8, 1991, Communism's influence has decreased dramatically in Europe, but around a quarter of the world's population still lives under Communist states. A social stigma is a stigma in the form of a distinctive characteristic in a person which can cause or be the result of marginalisation when used as an insult by individuals or groups. ... Anti-communism is the opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either an ideological or pragmatic basis. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Eurocommunism was an attempt in the 1970s by various European communist parties to widen their appeal by embracing public sector middle-class workers, new social movements such as feminism and gay liberation, rejecting support of the Soviet Union, and expressing more clearly their fidelity to democratic institutions. ... Current division of Europe into five (or more) regions: one definition of Eastern Europe is marked in orange Eastern Europe as a region has several alternative definitions, whereby it can denote: the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Central Europe and Russia. ... // The rise of Gorbachev Although reform in the Soviet Union stalled between 1969–1982, a generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Marxism-Leninism

Main article: Marxism-Leninism

Lenin himself never used the term "Leninism," nor did he refer to his views as "Marxism-Leninism." However, his ideas diverged from classical Marxist theory on several important points (see the articles on Marxism and Leninism for more information). Bolshevik communists saw these differences as advancements of Marxism made by Lenin. After Lenin's death, his ideology and contributions to Marxist theory were termed "Marxism-Leninism," or sometimes only "Leninism." Marxism-Leninism soon became the official name for the ideology of the Comintern and of communist parties around the world. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is therefore a branch of Marxism. ... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... The Comintern (from Russian Коммунистический Интернационал (Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional) – Communist International), also known as the Third International, was an independent international Communist organization founded in March 1919 by Vladmir Lenin, Leon Trotsky and the Russian Communist Party (bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of... In modern usage, a communist party is a political party which promotes communism, the sociopolitical philosophy based on Marxism. ...


Stalin, in contrast to many contemporary revolutionaries, did not write a significant body of theoretical work. "Stalinism," strictly speaking, refers to a style of government or political structure, rather than an ideology per se; during the period of Stalin's rule in the Soviet Union, Marxism-Leninism was proclaimed the official ideology of the state. Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ...


Whether Stalin's practices actually followed the principles of Marx and Lenin is still a subject of debate amongst historians and political scientists. Trotskyists in particular believe that Stalinism contradicted authentic Marxism and Leninism, and they intitially used the term "Bolshevik-Leninism" to describe their own ideology of anti-Stalinist and anti-Maoist communism. Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ...


Further, it is an unwritten rule that the use of the therm "Marxist-Leninist" or "ML" in a party name almost always refers to parties or organisations in the Maoist tradition.


Stalinism
Main article: Stalinism

The term "Stalinism" is sometimes used to denote the brand of communist theory that dominated the Soviet Union and the countries within the Soviet sphere of influence during and after the leadership of Joseph Stalin. The term used in the Soviet Union and by most who uphold its legacy, however, is "Marxism-Leninism", reflecting that Stalin himself was not a theoretician, but a communicator who wrote several books in language easily understood, and, in contrast to Marx and Lenin, made few new theoretical contributions. However, many people professing Marxism or Leninism view Stalinism as a perversion of their ideas; Trotskyists, in particular, are virulently anti-Stalinist, considering Stalinism a counter-revolutionary policy using Marxism to achieve power. Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883 London) was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary organizer of the International Workingmens Association. ... (help· info) (Владимир Ильич Ленин) IPA: born Ulyanov (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Communist revolutionary of Russia, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the main theorist of Leninism, which he described as an adaptation of Marxism to the... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ...


Rather, Stalinism is more in the order of an interpretation of their ideas, and a certain political system claiming to apply those ideas in ways fitting the changing needs of society, as with the transition from "socialism at a snail's pace" in the mid-twenties to the forced industrialization of the Five-Year Plans. Five-Year Plans for the National Economy of the USSR or Piatiletkas (пятилетка) were a series of nation-wide centralized exercises in rapid economic development in the Soviet Union. ...


The main contributions of Stalin to communist theory were Socialism in One Country and the theory of Aggravation of class struggle under socialism, a theoretical base supporting the repression of political opponents as necessary. With the prospect of world revolution so close at hand in the early part of the 20th Century, communists, socialists and workers movements in general were dominated by a feeling of overwhelming optimism, which in the end proved to be quite premature. ... The theory of aggravation of the class struggle along with the development of socialism was one of cornerstones of Stalinism in the internal politics of the Soviet Union. ...


Stalinism has been described as being synonymous with totalitarianism, or a tyrannical regime. The term has been used to describe regimes that fight political dissent through violence, imprisonment, and killings. Totalitarianism is a typology employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... A tyrant (from Greek τυραννος) is a usurper of rightful power, possessing absolute power and ruling by tyranny. ...


Maoism
Cover of Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung with Chinese words "Supreme Directives"
Cover of Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung with Chinese words "Supreme Directives"
Main article: Maoism

A key concept that distinguishes Maoism from other left-wing ideologies is the belief that the class struggle continues throughout the entire socialist period, as a result of the fundamental antagonistic contradiction between capitalism and communism. Even when the proletariat has seized state power through a socialist revolution, the potential remains for a bourgeoisie to restore capitalism. Indeed, Mao famously stated that "the bourgeoisie [in a socialist country] is right inside the Communist Party itself", implying that corrupt Party officials would subvert socialism if not prevented. Image File history File links Little_red_book. ... Image File history File links Little_red_book. ... Cover of Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung with Chinese words Supreme Directives Quotations From Chairman Mao Tse-Tung (毛主席语录 Pinyin: Máo Zhǔxí Yǔlù), better known in the West as The Little Red Book, has been published by the Government of the Peoples Republic of China since... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893–1976). ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893–1976). ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... Antagonistic contradiction is the impossibility of compromise between different social classes. ... Capitalism is commonly understood to mean an economic or socioeconomic system in which the means of production are predominantly privately owned and operated for profit, often through the employment of labour. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... It has been suggested that Revolutionary be merged into this article or section. ... Bourgeoisie (RP [], GA []) in modern use refers to the wealthy or propertied social class in a capitalist society. ...


Unlike the earlier forms of Marxism-Leninism in which the urban proletariat was seen as the main source of revolution, and the countryside was largely ignored, Mao focused on the peasantry as a revolutionary force which, he said, could be mobilized by a Communist Party with their knowledge and leadership. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ...


Unlike most other political ideologies, including other socialist and Marxist ones, Maoism contains an integral military doctrine and explicitly connects its political ideology with military strategy. In Maoist thought, "political power comes from the barrel of the gun" (one of Mao's quotes), and the peasantry can be mobilized to undertake a "people's war" of armed struggle involving guerrilla warfare. The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... Military strategem in the Battle of Waterloo. ... Categories: 1911 Britannica | Historical stubs | Feudalism ... Peoples war (also called protracted peoples war) is a military strategy invented by Mao Zedong. ... Guerrilla War redirects here. ...


Since the death of Mao and the reforms of Deng, most of the parties explicitly defining themselves as "Maoist" have disappeared, but various communist groups around the world, particularly armed ones like the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) and the New People's Army of the Philippines, continue to advance Maoist ideas and get press attention for them. These groups generally have the idea that Mao's ideas were betrayed before they could be fully or properly implemented. The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) or CPN(M) is a Maoist political party and military organization founded in 1994 and led by Pushpa Kamal Dahal (referred to as Chairman Prachanda). It was formed following a split in the Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre) and it used the name... The New Peoples Army, or NPA, is a communist-based revolutionary group in the Philippines, formed in March 29, 1969. ...


Other types of communism

Religious communism
Religious communism is a form of communism centered on religious principles. The term usually refers to a number of utopian religious societies practicing the voluntary dissolution of private property, so that society's benefits are distributed according to a person's needs, and every person performs labor according to their abilities. "Religious communism" has also been used to describe the ideas of religious individuals and groups who advocate the application of communist policies on a wider scale, often joining secular communists in their struggle to abolish capitalism.
Because of the secular nature of Marxism, many religious people on the political right oppose the use of the term communism to refer to religious communal societies, preferring names such as communalism instead. The term religious communism has been ascribed to the social arrangement practiced by many orders of monks and nuns of such religions as Christianity, Taoism, Jainism, Hinduism and Buddhism. As recorded in the Bible, the first Christians lived in communities organized according to communist-like principles.
"all who owned property or houses sold them and lay them at the feet of the apostles to be distributed to everyone according to his need." (Acts 4:32-35; see also 2:42-47)
The Diggers movement in England in the year 1649 may also be described as an example of religious communism. The Diggers were particularly concerned with the communal ownership of land. From the early 20th century to the present day, the most prominent form of religious communism has been the one practiced in the kibbutzim (collective communities) of Israel.
Trotskyism
Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. Trotsky considered himself a Bolshevik-Leninist, arguing for the establishment of a vanguard party. He considered himself an advocate of orthodox Marxism. His politics differed greatly from those of Stalin or Mao, most importantly in declaring the need for an international "permanent revolution". Numerous groups around the world continue to describe themselves as Trotskyist and see themselves as standing in this tradition, although they have diverse interpretations of the conclusions to be drawn from this.
In theory, Trotskyism is also a form of Marxism-Leninism. But Trotsky and the Trotskyist movement did not want to be brought into connection with the therm, for it was to much affiliated with Stalinism and Maoism.
Shachtmanism
Shachtmanism is a critical term applied to the form of Marxism associated with Max Shachtman. It has two major components: a bureaucratic collectivist analysis of the Soviet Union and a third camp approach to world politics. Shachtmanites believe that the Stalinist rulers of Communist countries are a new (ruling) class, distinct from the workers and rejects Trotsky's description of Stalinist Russia as being a "degenerated workers' state". Max Shachtman described the USSR as a "bureaucratic collectivist" society. Although Shachtmanism is usually described as a form of Trotskyism, both Trotsky and Shachtman were careful to not describe Shachtman's view as Trotskyist.

Religious communism is a term used by some Communists that claim that before communism became associated with atheism, the word communism was mainly used by religious groups. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Fishers of Men, oil on panel by Adriaen van de Venne (1614) Various religious symbols Religion is commonly defined as a group of beliefs concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the moral codes, practices, values, institutions and rituals associated with such belief. ... It has been suggested that utopianism be merged into this article or section. ... Capitalism is commonly understood to mean an economic or socioeconomic system in which the means of production are predominantly privately owned and operated for profit, often through the employment of labour. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply The Right, are terms that refer to the segment of the political spectrum often associated with any of several strains of conservatism, the religious right, and areas of classical liberalism, or simply the opposite of left-wing politics. ... Communalism is a modern term that describes a broad range of social movements and social theories which are in some way centered upon the community. ... A Roman Catholic monk A monk is a person who practices monasticism, adopting a strict religious and ascetic lifestyle, usually in community with others following the same path. ... Nun in cloister, 1930; photograph by Doris Ulmann In general, a nun is a female ascetic who chooses to voluntarily leave mainstream society and live her life in prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus Christ. ... Taoism (sometimes written as Daoism) is the English name for: (a) a philosophical school based on the texts the Dao De Jing (ascribed to Laozi) and the Zhuangzi. ... Pre-Kushana Ayagapatta from Mathura Jainism (pronounced in English as //), traditionally known as Jain Dharma (जैन धर्म), is a religion and philosophy originating in the prehistory of South Asia. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit/Hindi —, also known as , and ) is a religion originating in the Indian subcontinent, based on the Vedas, and among the oldest religious traditions still practised today. ... Buddhism (Pāli Buddhadhamma or Sanskrit Buddhadharma) is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, who lived in the 5th century BCE. Buddhism spread throughout the ancient Indian sub-continent in the five centuries following his death, and propagated into Central, Southeast, and... Jesus was actually a Sears employee before he got fired and was hired at Wang computers where he was assistant manager for saling Wangs and Wang accesories now but his most famous work is for probly writing the bible and starting up his own company that we now know as... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... Woodcut from a Diggers document by William Everard The Diggers were a group, begun by Gerrard Winstanley as True Levellers in 1649, who became known as Diggers due to their activities. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my [birth]right) Englands location (dark green) within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Kibbutz Dan, near Qiryat Shemona, in the Upper Galilee, 1990s A kibbutz (Hebrew: קיבוץ; plural: kibbutzim: קיבוצים, gathering or together) is an Israeli collective community. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... (help· info) (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is therefore a branch of Marxism. ... A vanguard party is a political party at the forefront, or that wants to be at the forefront, of a mass action or movement. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛泽东思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng SÄ«xiÇŽng), is a variant of Marxism-Leninism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893–1976). ... Permanent Revolution, (permanent in the sense that it must be continuous until final victory) is the theory that the bourgeois democratic tasks in countries with delayed bourgeois democratic development cannot be accomplished except through the establishment of a workers state, and further, that the creation of a workers state would... Shachtmanism is a critical term applied to the form of Trotskyism associated with Max Shachtman. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Max Shachtman (September 10, 1904 - November 4, 1972) was an American Marxist theorist. ... Bureaucratic collectivism is a theory of class society. ... The third camp, also known as third camp socialism or third camp Trotskyism, is a branch of Trotskyism which aims to oppose both capitalism and Stalinism by supporting the organised working class as a third camp. This approach was developed by Max Shachtman and is one of the major components... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system implemented by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist intellectual. ... In Trotskyist political theory the term degenerated workers state has been used since the 1930s to describe the state of the Soviet Union after Stalins consolidation of power in or about 1924. ... Bureaucratic collectivism is a theory of class society. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ...

Libertarian socialism and anarchism

Peter Kropotkin, one of the major thinkers of Anarchist communism
Peter Kropotkin, one of the major thinkers of Anarchist communism
Main articles: Libertarian socialism and Anarchism

Libertarian socialism is any one of a group of political philosophies dedicated to opposing coercive forms of authority and social hierarchy, in particular the institutions of capitalism and the State. Some of the best known libertarian socialist ideologies are anarchism - particularly anarchist communism and anarcho-syndicalism - as well as mutualism, council communism, autonomist Marxism, and social ecology. However, the terms anarcho-communism and libertarian communism should not be considered synonyms for libertarian socialism - anarcho-communism is a particular branch of libertarian socialism. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Peter Kropotkin Prince Peter Alexeevich Kropotkin (In Russian Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин) (December 9, 1842 - February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates of what he called anarchist communism: the model of society he advocated for most of his life was that of a communalist society... Anarchist communism, also known as Communist anarchism, Anarcho-communism, or Libertarian communism, is a political ideology related to Libertarian socialism. ... Libertarian socialism is any one of a group of political philosophies dedicated to opposing coercive forms of authority and social hierarchy, in particular the institutions of capitalism and the State. ... The neutrality of this introduction is disputed. ... Libertarian socialism is any one of a group of political philosophies dedicated to opposing coercive forms of authority and social hierarchy, in particular the institutions of capitalism and the State. ... Politics, sometimes defined as the art and science of government. ... The Philosopher (detail), by Rembrandt Philosophy is a study that includes diverse subfields such as aesthetics, epistemology, ethics, logic, and metaphysics. ... In politics, authority (Latin auctoritas, used in Roman law as opposed to potestas and imperium) is often used interchangeably with the term power. However, their meanings differ. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Capitalism is commonly understood to mean an economic or socioeconomic system in which the means of production are predominantly privately owned and operated for profit, often through the employment of labour. ... A state is an organized political community, occupying a territory, and possessing internal and external sovereignty, which successfully claims the monopoly on the use of force. ... An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... The neutrality of this introduction is disputed. ... Anarchist communism, also known as Communist anarchism, Anarcho-communism, or Libertarian communism, is a political ideology related to Libertarian socialism. ... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labor movement, Syndicalisme is a French word meaning trade unionism hence the syndicalism qualification. ... This article is about the economic theory. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Autonomism, or Autonomist Marxism is a left wing political movement and theory. ... Social ecology is, in the words of its leading exponents, a coherent radical critique of current social, political, and anti-ecological trends as well as a reconstructive, ecological, communitarian, and ethical approach to society. Social Ecology is a radical view of ecology and of social/political systems. ...


Libertarian socialists believe in the abolition of the State and of private control over the means of production, considering both to be unnecessary and harmful institutions. Most libertarian socialists support personal property or use rights over certain goods destined for individual use, but some, such as anarcho-communists, favoured collective ownership in the products of labor as well, with a distribution system which allocates based on one's needs. A state is an organized political community, occupying a territory, and possessing internal and external sovereignty, which successfully claims the monopoly on the use of force. ... // Use of the term The concept of property or ownership has no single or universally accepted definition. ... The means of production are physical, non-human, inputs used in production. ...


Some individualist anarchists also referred to their philosophy as libertarian socialism, although some supported private property (as long as it was not exploitative) and a market economy. In politics, individualist anarchism is a variety of anarchism that emphasises the importance of the individual. ...


Democratic socialism and social democracy

Main articles: Democratic socialism and social democracy

Modern democratic socialism is a broad political movement that seeks to propagate the ideals of socialism within the context of a democratic system. Many democratic socialists support social democracy as a road to reform of the current system, in effect, it is a means to an end. Other groups within democratic socialism support more revolutionary change in society to establish socialist goals. Conversely, Modern social democracy emphasises a program of gradual legislative reform of the capitalist system in order to make it more equitable and humane, while the theoretical end goal of building a socialist society is either completely forgotten or redefined in a pro-capitalist way. The two movements are widely similar both in terminology and in ideology, though there are a few key differences. Democratic socialism is a broad political movement propagating the ideals of socialism within the context of a democratic system. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Democratic socialism is a broad political movement propagating the ideals of socialism within the context of a democratic system. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ...


Many who describe themselves as "socialists" disagree with the terminology of "democratic socialism" because they believe that socialism necessarily implies democracy. For many years, though, the terms "democratic socialism" and "social democracy" were used interchangeably to describe the same overall political movement, but in modern times, social democracy is considered to be more centrist and broadly supportive of current capitalist systems and the welfare state, while many democratic socialists support a more fully socialist system, either through evolutionary or revolutionary means. It has been suggested that Welfare capitalism be merged into this article or section. ... Evolutionary socialism is a form of socialist theory which was originally developed by Eduard Bernstein. ...


The term social democracy can refer to the particular kind of society that social democrats advocate. The Socialist International (SI) - the worldwide organisation of social democratic and democratic socialist parties - defines social democracy as an ideal form of representative democracy, that may solve the problems found in a liberal democracy. The SI emphasizes the following principles[3]: Firstly, freedom - not only individual liberties, but also freedom from discrimination and freedom from dependence on either the owners of the means of production or the holders of abusive political power. Secondly, equality and social justice - not only before the law but also economic and socio-cultural equality as well, and equal opportunities for all including those with physical, mental, or social disabilities. Finally, solidarity - unity and a sense of compassion for the victims of injustice and inequality. The official symbol of Socialist International The Socialist International (SI) is an international organisation for social democratic and democratic socialist parties. ... Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representants. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Democratic socialists and social democrats both advocate the concept of the welfare state, but whereas most social democrats view the welfare state as the end itself, many democratic socialists view it as a means to an end. Democratic socialists are also committed to the ideas of the redistribution of wealth and power, as well as social ownership of major industries, concepts widely abandoned by social democrats. As of current, there are no countries in the world that could qualify as a "democratic socialist" state, though many European nations are considered to be socially democratic or nearly so. Redistribution is a term often applied to finite commodities within a society. ...


The prime example of social democracy is Sweden, which prospered considerably in the 1990s and 2000s, against the predictions of those who suggested Sweden's 57% top tax bracket would slow its economy. Instead, Sweden has produced a robust economy from sole proprietorships up through to multinationals, while maintaining one of the highest life expectancies in the world, low unemployment, inflation, all while registering sizable economic growth. Many see this as validation of the superiority of social democracy. On the other hand, Sweden experiences welfare dependency of around 20% of the working age population according to the Swedish Trade Union Confederation. Likewise, crime has been steadily rising since the 1960s, and during the past decade has grown ever more violent. A progressive tax, or graduated tax, is a tax that is larger as a percentage of income for those with larger incomes. ... A Sole proprietorship is a business which legally has no separate existence from its owner. ... A multinational corporation (MNC) or multinational enterprise (MNE) or transnational corporation (TNC) is a corporation/enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... World map showing Life expectancy Life expectancy is the average number of years remaining for a living being (or the average for a class of living beings) of a given age to live. ... In economics, a person who is able and willing to work at prevailing wage rate yet is unable to find a paying job is considered unemployed. ... Accumulated GDP growth for various countries. ... LO logo The Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen i Sverige or LO) is an umbrella organisation for sixteen Swedish trade unions that organise blue collar workers. ...


Religious socialism

Christian socialism

Main article: Christian socialism

Various Catholic clerical parties have at times referred to themselves as "Christian Socialists." Two examples are the Christian Social Party of Karl Lueger in Austria before and after World War I, and the contemporary Christian Social Union in Bavaria. There are other individuals and groups, past and present, that are clearly both Christian and Socialist, such as Frederick Denison Maurice, author of The Kingdom of Christ (1838), or the contemporary Christian Socialist Movement (UK) (CSM), [4] affiliated with the British Labour Party. Christian socialism generally refers to those on the Christian left whose politics are both Christian and socialist and who see these two things as being interconnected, perhaps because one derives from the other. ... The Christian Social Party (CS) was an Austrian political party from 1893 to 1933 and a predecessor of the contemporary Austrian Peoples Party. ... Karl Lueger (IPA ) (October 24, 1844-March 10, 1910) was an Austrian politician and mayor of Vienna, known for his anti-semitism and racist policies. ... Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead:5 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:8 million Military dead:4 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:7 million World War I... The Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU – ) is a conservative political party in Germany. ... John Frederick Denison Maurice (August 29, 1805 - April 1, 1872) was an English theologian. ... The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ...


Distributism, is a third-way economic philosophy formulated by such Catholic thinkers as G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc to apply the principles of social justice articulated by the Roman Catholic Church, especially in Pope Leo XIII's encyclical Rerum Novarum. Distributism, also known as distributionism and distributivism, is an anti-capitalist economic philosophy formulated by such Catholic thinkers as G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc to apply the principles of social justice theoretically articulated by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Third way can refer to: The Third Way, an economic and political idea that positions itself between democratic socialism and laissez-faire capitalism, combining the ordoliberal social market with neo-liberalism. ... G.K. Chesterton Gilbert Keith Chesterton (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936) was a prolific English writer of the early 20th century. ... Photograph of Belloc Joseph Hilaire Pierre René Belloc (July 27, 1870 - July 16, 1953) was one of the most prolific writers in England during the early twentieth century. ... Social Justice is a philosophical definition of the justice found operating in any given societys systems of social control. ... Pope Leo XIII Supreme Pontiff (1878-1903) Leo XIII, né Gioacchino Pecci (March 2, 1810 - July 20, 1903) was Pope from 1878 to 1903. ... Rerum Novarum is an encyclical issued by Roman Catholic Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ...

Further information: Christian left and social gospel

The Christian Left encompasses those who hold a strong Christian belief and share left-wing or socialist ideals. ... The Social Gospel movement is a Protestant movement that was most prominent in the late 19th and early to mid-20th century. ...

Islamic Socialism

Cover of English language edition of The Green Book.
Cover of English language edition of The Green Book.

Islamic socialism is the political ideology of Libya's Muammar al-Qaddafi, Former Iraqi president Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, and of the Pakistani leader of Pakistan People's Party, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Image File history File links TheGreenBook. ... Image File history File links TheGreenBook. ... Cover of English language edition published by the Libyan government There are multiple Green Books. ... Islamic socialism is a term coined by various muslim leaders to counter the demand at home for a more spiritual form of socialism. ... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 — pronounced Gaddafi — (Arabic: معمر القذافي ) (born circa 1942 near Sirte, Libya), has been the leader of Libya since 1969. ... Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (Arabic أحمد حسن البكر) (July 1, 1914 - October 4, 1982) was President of Iraq from 1968 to 1979. ... The Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) is a mainstream political party in Pakistan. ... Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (Urdu: ذوالفقار علی بھٹو) (January 5, 1928 – April 4, 1979) was a Pakistani politician, active in the early years of the Pakistani Government. ...


The Green Book (written by Muammar al-Qaddafi) consists of three parts - "The Solution of the Problem of Democracy: 'The Authority of the People'", "The Solution of the Economic Problem: 'Socialism'", and "The Social Basis of the Third Universal Theory". The book is controversial because it completely rejects modern conceptions of liberal democracy and encourages the institution of a form of direct democracy based on popular committees. Cover of English language edition published by the Libyan government There are multiple Green Books. ... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 — pronounced Gaddafi — (Arabic: معمر القذافي ) (born circa 1942 near Sirte, Libya), has been the leader of Libya since 1969. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Direct democracy comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty was lodged in the assembly of all citizens. ...


Scholars have highlighted the similarities between the Islamic economic system and socialist theory. For example, both are against unearned income. Islam does allow private ownership of natural resources and large industries, which are owned collectively, or at least encouraged to be so. Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God) is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Differences between various schools

Although they share a common root (as elaborated upon in the above sections), schools of socialism are divided on many issues, and sometimes there is a split within a school. The following is a brief overview of the major issues which have generated or are generating significant controversy amongst socialists in general.


Theory

Some branches of socialism arose largely as a philosophical construct (e.g. libertarian socialism); others in the heat of a revolution (e.g. early Marxism, Leninism). A few arose merely as the product of a ruling party (e.g. Stalinism), or a party or other group contending for political power in a democratic society (e.g. social democracy).


Some are in favour of a socialist revolution (e.g. Leninism, Trotskyism, Maoism, revolutionary Marxism), whilst others tend to support reform instead (e.g. Fabianism, reformist Marxism). Others believe both are possible (e.g. Syndicalism, various Marxisms). The first utopian socialists even failed to address the question of how a socialist society would be achieved. It has been suggested that Revolutionary be merged into this article or section. ... Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ... Syndicalism refers to a set of ideas, movements and tendencies which share the avowed aim of transforming capitalist society through action by the working class on the industrial front. ...


Socialists are also divided on which rights and liberties are desirable, such as the "bourgeois liberties" (such as those guaranteed by the U.S. First Amendment or the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union). Some hold that they are to be preserved (or even enhanced) in a socialist society (e.g. social democracy), whilst others believe them to be undesirable (e.g. Maoism). Marx and Engels even held different opinions at different times, and some schools are divided on this issue (e.g. different strains of Trotskyism). Bourgeoisie (RP [], GA []) in modern use refers to the wealthy or propertied social class in a capitalist society. ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission in December 2000. ...


All socialists criticize the current system in some way. Some criticisms center on the ownership of the means of production (e.g. Marxism), whereas others tend to focus on the nature of mass and equitable distribution (e.g. most forms of utopian socialism). A few are opposed to industrialism as well as capitalism (common where socialism intersects green politics)? Utopian Socialists, like Robert Owen and Saint-Simon argued, though not from exactly the same perspective, that the injustice and widespread poverty of the societies they lived in were a problem of distribution of the goods created. Marxian Socialists, on the other hand, determined that the root of the injustice is based not in the function of distribution of goods already created, but rather in the fact that the ownership of the means of production is in the hands of the upper class. Also, Marxian Socialists maintain, in contrast to the Utopian Socialists, that the root of injustice is not in how goods (commodities) are distributed, but for whose economic benefit are they produced and sold. Green politics is a body of political ideas informed by environmentalism aimed at developing a sustainable society. ... Robert Owen Robert Owen continues to be looked up to in this Manchester statue Robert Owen (May 14, 1771 – November 17, 1858) was a Welsh socialist and social reformer. ... Henri de Saint-Simon Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (October 17, 1760 – May 19, 1825), the founder of French socialism, was born in Paris. ... The word commodity is a term with distinct meanings in business and in Marxian political economy. ...


Implementation

Most forms and derivatives of Marxism, as well as variations of syndicalism, advocated total or near-total socialization of the economy. Less radical schools (e.g. Bernsteinism, reformism, reformist Marxism) proposed a mixed market economy instead. Mixed economies, in turn, can range anywhere from those developed by the social democratic governments that have periodically governed Northern and Western European countries, to the inclusion of small cooperatives in the planned economy of Yugoslavia under Josip Broz Tito. A related issue is whether it is better to reform capitalism to create a fairer society (e.g. most social democrats) or to totally overthrow the capitalist system (most Marxists). A mixed economy is an economy that combines capitalism and socialism [1]. Some sources prefer the use of command economy over socialism in defining a mixed economy (see external links below). ... A cooperative (also co-operative or co-op) is an association of persons who join together to carry on an economic activity of mutual benefit. ... Official language Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovenian Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Area (1991)  - Total  - % water Ranked xxst 255,804 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Ranked xxth 20,522,972 80/km² Currency Yugoslav dinar Time zone  - in summer CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) National anthem Hej, Sloveni/Slaveni... Marshal Josip Broz Tito Josip Broz Tito (Јосип Броз Тито) (help· info) (May 7, (originally May 25th on the official birth certificate) 1892 – May 4, 1980) was the dictator of Yugoslavia between the end of World War II and his death in 1980. ...


Some schools advocate centralized state control of the socialized sectors of the economy (e.g. Leninism), whilst others argue for control of those sectors by workers' councils (e.g. syndicalism, Left and Council communism, Marxism, Anarcho-communism). This question is usually referred to by socialists in terms of "ownership of the means of production." None of the social democratic parties of Europe advocate total state ownership of the means of production in their contemporary demands and popular press. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is therefore a branch of Marxism. ... A workers council is a council, or deliberative body, composed of working class or proletarian members. ... Syndicalism refers to a set of ideas, movements and tendencies which share the avowed aim of transforming capitalist society through action by the working class on the industrial front. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Anarcho-Communism, or Libertarian Communism, is a political ideology related to Libertarian socialism. ... The means of production are physical, non-human, inputs used in production. ...


Another issue socialists are divided on is what legal and political apparatus the workers would maintain and further develop the socialization of the means of production. Some advocate that the power of the workers' councils should itself constitute the basis of a socialist state (coupled with direct democracy and the widespread use of referendums), but others hold that socialism entails the existence of a legislative body administered by people who would be elected in a representative democracy. Direct democracy comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty was lodged in the assembly of all citizens. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representants. ...


Different ideologies support different governments. For example, in the era of the Soviet Union, western socialists were bitterly divided as to whether the Soviet Union was basically socialist, moving toward socialism, or inherently un-socialist and, in fact, inimical to true socialism. Similarly, today the government of the People's Republic of China claims to be socialist and refers to its own approach as "Socialism with Chinese characteristics," but many other socialists consider China to be essentially capitalist. The Chinese leadership concurs with most of the usual critiques against a command economy, and many of their actions to manage what they call a socialist economy have been determined by this opinion. Socialism with Chinese characteristics (Chinese: 具有中国特色的社会主义 pinyin: Jùyǒu Zhōngguó tèsè de shèhuìzhǔyì) is an official term for the mixed economy of the Peoples Republic of China as it transitions from an economy based on public ownership of means of production to an economy...


Controversial classifications

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Please see discussion on the talk page.

Like other political terms, such as liberal, conservative and democratic (see, for example, the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, which is, according to critics, neither liberal nor democratic), the words socialism or socialist have sometimes been used in a controversial manner. Image File history File links Stop_hand. ... This article discusses liberalism as a major political ideology as it developed and stands currently. ... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... Democracy (from Greek δημοκρατία (demokratia), δημος (demos) the common people + κρατειν (kratein) to rule + the suffix ία (ia), literally the common people rule) is a form of government where the population of a society controls the government. ... The Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (Либерально-Демократическая Партия России, Liberalno-Demokratičeskaja Partija Rossii) is a political party in Russia. ...


There is a great deal of crossover from the far-left to the far-right of socialism, with historical examples such as Benito Mussolini, and contemporary examples such as Bill White (neo-nazi), though naturally their positions are heavily disputed. The term far left refers to the relative position a group or person occupies within the political spectrum. ... Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, radical right, or hard right are terms used to discuss the relative position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) led Italy from 1922 to 1943. ... Bill White Billy or Bill White (formally William A. White) (born 1977) is the administrator of the far-right, anti-Semitic website , described by the Southern Poverty Law Center, which monitors extremist groups, as the second most popular racist site on the Internet. ...


For a discussion of the controversial views of one philosopher of history who sees a close, though antagonistic, relationship between the left and the right descendants of Hegelianism, see Eric Voegelin. The philosophy of history asks at least these questions: what is the proper unit for the study of the human past? the individual, the city or sovereign territory, the civilization, or nothing less than the whole of the species?; what broad patterns can we discern through the study of the... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Eric Voegelin Eric Voegelin (January 3, 1901 – January 19, 1985) was a political philosopher. ...


Baathism

The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party rules Syria, and also ruled Iraq under Saddam Hussein, based on a tradition of secular, non-Marxist socialism. Ba'thist beliefs combine Arab Socialism, nationalism, and Pan-Arabism. The mostly secular ideology often contrasts with that of other Arab governments in the Middle East, which sometimes tend to have leanings towards Islamism and theocracy. Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti, (Arabic ), born April 28, 1937 , was the President of Iraq from 1979 until he lost power over Iraq when American troops arrived in Baghdad on April 9, 2003. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Arab Socialism (ar. ... // Nationalism is an ideology that holds that (ethnically or culturally defined) nations are the fundamental units for human social life, and makes certain cultural and political claims based upon that belief; in particular, the claim that the nation is the only legitimate basis for the state, and that each nation... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The term theocracy is commonly used to describe a form of government in which a religion or faith plays the dominant role. ...


Once into power, the Ba'athist regimes of Syria and Iraq were fiercely opposed, and any notion of an international Ba'ath Party was lost, although the ruling parties in both countries retained the Ba'ath name. The Ba'athists also persecuted the socialists in their own countries. In Iraq, the CIA assisted Saddam Hussein with death squads, effectively wiping out the Iraqi communists. Socialist Lynn Walsh argues that the Iraqi Ba'athists in fact promoted capitalists from within the Party and outside the country.[11] The CIAs seal features an eagle atop a sixteen-point compass. ... A death squad is an extra-judicial group whose members execute or assassinate persons they believe to be politically unreliable or undesirable. ...


Fascism

Fascism developed as a fascio, a form of radical socialism. While opposing communism and social democracy, fascism was rooted in part in radical leftist philosophy, including the theories of those such as Gabriele D'Annunzio (a former anarchist), Alceste de Ambris (influenced by anarcho-syndicalism) or former socialist Benito Mussolini. Fascio (plural: fasci) is an Italian word which in the 1890s came to refer to radical political groups. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... dAnnunzio. ... Alceste de Ambris (1874-1934) was an Italian anarcho_syndicalist. ... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labor movement, Syndicalisme is a French word meaning trade unionism hence the syndicalism qualification. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) led Italy from 1922 to 1943. ...


Fascism rejects Marxism and the concept of class struggle in favor of corporatism. It holds the state to be an end in and of itself (see also statism). Also, contrary to the practice of socialist states, fascist Italy did not nationalize any industries or capitalist entities. Rather, it established a corporatist structure influenced by the model for class relations put forward by the Catholic Church. (For more on the influence of Catholicism on fascism see Roman Catholicism's links with democracy and dictatorships#Fascism.) To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian corporativismo) is a political system in which legislative power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, and professional groups. ... Statism is a term that is used in a variety of disciplines (economics, sociology, education policy etc) to describe a system that involves a significant interventionist role for the state in economic or social affairs. ... Nationalization or Nationalisation is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... Historically, corporatism or corporativism (Italian corporativismo) is a political system in which legislative power is given to civic assemblies that represent economic, industrial, agrarian, and professional groups. ... For other uses of the term, see Catholic Church (disambiguation). ... As with any officially established religion, the Roman Catholic Church has had constantly evolving relationships with various forms of government, some of them controversial in retrospect. ...


Friedrich Hayek claimed that fascism and totalitarian forms of socialism (for example Stalinism) stemmed from a common origin.[12] On the other hand, Hannah Arendt argues that "totalitarian movements use socialism and racism by emptying them of their utilitarian content, the interests of a class or nation." [13] Fascists rejected categorization as left or right-wing, claiming to be a "third force" (see international third position and political spectrum for more information). Friedrich Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian economist and political philosopher, noted for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ... Stalinism is a brand of political theory, and the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German political theorist. ... Northern Ireland politician Ian Paisleys paramilitary force established to oppose the 1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement. ... International Third Position (ITP) was a group formed by Nick Griffin and Derek Holland and as a continuation of the Political Soldier movement that originated in the right-wing British National Front in the early 1980s. ... A political spectrum is a way of comparing or visualizing different political positions, by placing them upon one or more geometric axes. ...


Nazism

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Naziism is derived from the term National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus, often abbreviated NS). This term comes from the German Workers' Party which was renamed to "National Socialist German Workers Party". Their ideology included a few of the more anti-capitalist ideas of socialism, as declared in the 25 points manifesto, as part of the propaganda attempt[14] to create a Volksgemeinschaft of an Aryan race. Image File history File links Diamond-caution. ... The term National Socialism has been used in self-description by a number of different political groups and ideologies, some of which have no connection with the Nazis; see National socialism (disambiguation). ... The German Workers Party (German: Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, short DAP) was a briefly existing progenitor of the NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers Party). ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: (help· info)), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... The National Socialist Program, also referred to as the 25-point program, was developed to formulate the party policies of, first, the Austrian German Workers Party (or DAP) and was copied later by Adolf Hitlers Nazi party. ... Volksgemeinschaft was an attempt by the German Nazi Party to establish a national community of unified mind, will and spirit. ... Aryan is an English word derived from the Indian Vedic Sanskrit and Iranian Avestan terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Sanskrit and Old Persian languages both pronounced the word as arya-. Beyond its use as the ethnic self-designation of the Proto-Indo-Iranians...


The Nazis also had a hostile purge within their own party, the Night of the Long Knives, which has often been viewed as a victory of the right-wing of the Nazi party and the SS over the more socialist Strasserists and Röhm's SA. The Night of the Long Knives (June 30 and Sunday July 1, 1934) (German, Nacht der langen Messer), also known as Reichsmordwoche or the Blood Purge, was a lethal purge of Adolf Hitlers potential political rivals in the Sturmabteilung (SA; also known as storm troopers or brownshirts). ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Otto Strasser Gregor Strasser The Strasser Brothers were Gregor (1892-1934) and Otto Strasser (1897-1974). ... Ernst Röhm Ernst Julius Röhm (often written as Roehm in English) (November 28, 1887, Munich; July 1, 1934, Munich-Stadelheim prison, murdered) was a German military officer and commander and co-founder of the Nazi Sturmabteilung or storm troopers (the SA). ... The seal of SA The â–¶ (help· info) (SA, German for Storm Division and is usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers) functioned as a paramilitary organisation of the NSDAP – the German Nazi party. ...


Socialism rejects the racist theories and totalitarianism of the Nazis, while Nazism rejected the policies of internationalism, egalitarianism, class struggle, and common ownership of the means of production pursued by many socialists.[15] 1. ... Totalitarianism is a typology employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... Egalitarianism is any moral or political theory that emphasizes the supposed equality of morally-significant beings. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... The means of production are physical, non-human, inputs used in production. ...


Anti-socialists argue that the Nazis' large public works projects and state interventions are indicative of socialism[16] Efforts were made to coordinate business' actions with the needs of the state, particularly with regard to rearmament, and the Nazis established some state-owned concerns such as Volkswagen. However, independent trade unions were outlawed, as were strikes. The Nazis did demand some nationalization of big industries and land reform before their rise to power, though when they did eventually seize power, they did not act on most of these policies. The notion of internal improvements or public works is a concept in economics and politics. ... Volkswagen (pronounced folksvagen; meaning: peoples car; also known as VW or V-Dub) is an automobile manufacturer based in Wolfsburg, Germany in the State of Lower Saxony. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... The National Socialist Program, also referred to as the 25-point program, was developed to formulate the party policies of, first, the Austrian German Workers Party (or DAP) and was copied later by Adolf Hitlers Nazi party. ...


Opponents of socialism also argue that the absoluteness of what the leader of the Nazi Party, Adolf Hitler, decreed is similar to the cult of personality in the totalitarian regimes of Communist states such as those of Stalin or Mao Zedong. (help· info) (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945) was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 and Führer (Leader) of Germany from 1934 until his death. ... Mao Zedong dominates a poster during the Cultural Revolution. ... A Communist state is a state governed by a single political party which declares its allegiance to the principles of Marxism-Leninism. ... (help· info) (Russian, in full: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин [Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin], né: Иосиф Виссарионович Джугашвили [Joseph Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili]; Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი [Ioseb Jughashvili]; (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the... This is a Chinese name; the family name is Mao. ...

There are numerous debates concerning fascism and ideology and where fascism fits on the political spectrum. ...

Socialism and other ideologies

While many would say that socialism is defined by state ownership and state planning of the means of production and economic life, a certain degree of such state ownership and planning is common in economies that would almost universally be considered capitalist. In Canada, Crown Corporations are responsible for various sectors of the economy deemed to be of strategic importance to the people (for example power generation). In the U.S., a semi-private central bank with close ties to the federal government, the Federal Reserve, regulates lending rates, serving as a "bank of banks." Also, governments in capitalist nations typically run the post office, libraries, national parks, highways, and space agencies. Interestingly, though, the U.S. government's monopoly on space travel from U.S. take-off sites is itself a thing of the past -- as of 2004 (see Ansari X Prize) private capital is entering even that field. The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... The X prize logo shows a stylised letter X representing a spacecraft trajectory and containing a starfield. ...


State, provincial, and local governments within a capitalist system can operate and own power companies and other utilities, parks, mass transit including rail and airports, hospitals and other medical facilities, and public schools (often including a number of universities). Capitalist governments also frequently subsidize or otherwise influence (though do not own) various sectors of the economy, such as automotive, weapons, oil (petrol), aerospace, and agriculture.


In the post-World War II political lexicon, this sort of (limited) economic state planning became integral to stabilization of the global economy, and has come to be known as Keynesian economics, after John Maynard Keynes. A lexicon is usually a list of words together with additional word-specific information, i. ... Keynesian economics, or Keynesianism, is an economic theory based on the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, as put forward in his book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, published in 1936 in response to the Great Depression of the 1930s. ... John Maynard Keynes (right) and Harry Dexter White at the Bretton Woods Conference John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, CB (pronounced kānz / kAnze) (June 5, 1883 – April 21, 1946) was a British economist whose ideas had a major impact on modern economic and political theory as well as on...


Conversely, Chinese economic reform under Deng Xiaoping has been characterized by decreasing state ownership of the economy, the replacement of central planning mechanisms with market-based ones that are also used in Western capitalist nations, and even going as far as removing governmental social welfare services that are commonly found in capitalist nations. However, because the legitimacy of the Communist Party of China is based on the premise that China has already made a transition to socialism, the government insists that it is a socialist government. Very few inside and outside China would support this claim. Economic reforms have triggered internal migrations within China. ... Deng Xiaoping Deng Xiaoping (help· info) (Simplified Chinese: 邓小平; Traditional Chinese: 鄧小平; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CPC). ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) or Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Criticisms of socialism

Main article: Criticisms of socialism

Some of socialisms critics can be described as advocates of "pure" or laissez-faire capitalism. They include liberals, conservatives and libertarians such as Milton Friedman, Ayn Rand, Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich Hayek. Opposition and criticisms of socialism, and arguments for and against A number of thinkers, economists and historians have raised some issues with socialist theory. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... This article discusses liberalism as a major political ideology as it developed and stands currently. ... Conservatism [derivative of conserve; from Latin conservare, to keep, guard, observe] is a philosophy defined by Edmund Burke as a disposition to preserve, and an ability to improve. Classical conservatism does not readily avail itself to the ideology of objectives. ... This article is about the classical liberal individualist philosophy that strongly emphasizes private property rights conjoined with civil liberties. ... Milton Friedman Milton Friedman (born July 31, 1912) is a U.S. economist, known for his work on macroeconomics, microeconomics, economic history, statistics, and for his advocacy of laissez-faire capitalism. ... Ayn Rand (IPA: , February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982), born Alissa Zinovievna Rosenbaum, was best known for developing the philosophy of Objectivism and for writing the novels We the Living, Anthem, The Fountainhead, and Atlas Shrugged. ... Ludwig Heinrich Edler von Mises (September 29, 1881 - October 10, 1973), was a notable economist and social philosopher. ... Friedrich Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian economist and political philosopher, noted for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ...


Many other critics come within socialism itself, as evidenced by the many variants and extreme differences of doctrine to be found within socialism.


Notes

  1. Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, 4 Apr. 2000 [1]
  2. MSN Encarta - Socialism Accessed March 2006
  3. Saint-Simon, Henri de. Letters from an Inhabitant of Geneva to His Contemporaries, 1803
  4. Spirkin, Alexander. Chapter 5 section 2: The Human as the Biosocial from Dialectical Materialism, Progress Publishers, 1983.
  5. Einstein, Albert. Why Socialism? May 1949.
  6. A History of Socialist Thought, Volume 1 (1965) pp1-2
  7. Halévy, Élie. Histoire du Socialisme Europeen. Paris, Gallimard, 1948, pp. 17-18
  8. A History of Socialist Thought, Volume 1 (1965) p3
  9. A History of Socialist Thought, Volume 1 (1965) pp12-22
  10. Engels, Friedrich. Chapter 1 - The Development of Utopian Socialism from Socialism: Utopian and Scientific
  11. Walsh, Lynn. Imperialism and the gulf war, Chapter 5, 1990-91
  12. Friedrich Hayek - Libertarian from self-gov.org
  13. Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism, p348.
  14. Simkin, John. Nazi Party - NSDAP from the Spartacus Educational website
  15. Trotsky, Leon. What is National Socialism? June 10 1933
  16. Reisman, George. Why Nazism Was Socialism and Why Socialism Is Totalitarian

Cover of the Pocket version of the Oxford English Dictionary The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP). ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Henri de Saint-Simon Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (October 17, 1760 – May 19, 1825), the founder of French socialism, was born in Paris. ... Albert Einstein, photographed by Oren J. Turner in 1947. ... The French philosopher and historian Élie Halévy (September 6, 1870 - August 21, 1937) wrote studies of the British utilitarians and a history of 19th-century England. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820–August 5, 1895) was a 19th-century German political philosopher. ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German political theorist. ... John Simkin is a history teacher and the webmaster of Spartacus Education and one of the most knowlegable experts on the John F. Kennedy assassination. ... (help· info) (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... George Reisman is Professor of Economics at Pepperdine University, and author of the massive 1,050-page volume Capitalism: A Treatise on Economics (ISBN 0915463733). ...

References and further reading

  • G.D.H. Cole, History of Socialist Thought, in 7 volumes, Macmillan and St. Martin's Press (1965), Palgrave Macmillan (2003 reprint); 7 volumes, hardcover, 3160 pages, ISBN 140390264X
  • Friedrich Engels, The Origin Of The Family, Private Property And The State, Zurich, 1884
  • Albert Fried, Ronald Sanders, eds., Socialist Thought: A Documentary History, Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor, 1964.
  • Phil Gasper, The Communist Manifesto: A Road Map to History's Most Important Political Document, Haymarket Books, ISBN 1-931859-25-6 paperback, 224 pages, 2005.
  • Élie Halévy, Histoire du Socialisme Européen. Paris, Gallimard, 1948
  • Michael Harrington, Socialism, New York: Bantam, 1972
  • Makoto Itoh, Political Economy of Socialism. London: Macmillan, 1995.
  • Michael Newman, "Socialism - a Very Short Introduction", Oxford University Press (2005) ISBN 0-19-280431-6
  • Bertell Ollman, Market Socialism: the debate among socialists, ed. (1998) ISBN 0415919673
  • Leo Panitch, Renewing Socialism: Democracy, Strategy, and Imagination, ISBN 0813398215
  • Selbourne, David, Against Socialist Illusion, London, 1985, ISBN 0-333-37095-3
  • James Weinstein, Long Detour: The History and Future of the American Left, Westview Press, 2003, hardcover, 272 pages, ISBN 0813341043
  • Edmund Wilson, To the Finland Station: A Study in the Writing and Acting of History, Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1940.

Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820–August 5, 1895) was a 19th-century German political philosopher. ... The French philosopher and historian Élie Halévy (September 6, 1870 - August 21, 1937) wrote studies of the British utilitarians and a history of 19th-century England. ... Edward Michael Harrington (February 24, 1928 – July 31, 1989) was an American democratic socialist. ... Bertell Ollman Bertell Ollman (b. ... Leo Panitch is professor of political science at York University, Toronto. ... James Weinstein, (July 17, 1926 – June 16, 2005) was an American journalist best known as the founder and publisher of In These Times. ... Edmund Wilson Edmund Beecher Wilson (1856 - 1939) was an American geneticist. ...

See also

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Anarchism
Christian Democracy
Communism
Communitarianism
Conservatism
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Libertarianism
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See also
Political internationals

An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... The neutrality of this introduction is disputed. ... Christian Democracy is a political ideology, born at the end of the 19th century, largely as a result of the papal encyclical Rerum Novarum of Pope Leo XIII, in which the Vatican recognized workers misery and agreed that something should be done about it, in reaction to the rise of... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Communitarianism as a group of related but distinct philosophies began in the late 20th century, opposing aspects of liberalism and capitalism while advocating phenomena such as civil society. ... Conservatism [derivative of conserve; from Latin conservare, to keep, guard, observe] is a philosophy defined by Edmund Burke as a disposition to preserve, and an ability to improve. Classical conservatism does not readily avail itself to the ideology of objectives. ... Dominionism is a term used to describe a trend in Protestant Christian evangelicalism and fundamentalism, primarily though not exclusively in the United States, that seeks to establish specific political policies based on religious beliefs. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Green politics is a body of political ideas informed by environmentalism aimed at developing a sustainable society. ... This article discusses liberalism as a major political ideology as it developed and stands currently. ... This article is about the classical liberal individualist philosophy that strongly emphasizes private property rights conjoined with civil liberties. ... The neutrality of this introduction is disputed. ... Capitalism is commonly understood to mean an economic or socioeconomic system in which the means of production are predominantly privately owned and operated for profit, often through the employment of labour. ... Laissez-faire capitalism is, roughly stated, the doctrine that the free market functions to the greatest good when left unfettered and unregulated by government. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... A poster during the Cultural Revolution. ... The Fabian Society is a British socialist intellectual movement, whose purpose is to advance the socialist cause by reformist, rather than revolutionary, means. ... // Early socialists Further information: History of socialism in Great Britain The word socialism came into English from French in the 1820s, but the idea that goods should be held in common and that all men should be equal is much older. ... // What is Inclusive Democracy? Inclusive democracy is a new conception of democracy, which, using as a starting point the classical definition of it, expresses democracy in terms of direct political democracy, economic democracy (beyond the confines of the market economy and state planning), as well as democracy in the social... Infosocialism is a fictional philosophy originally created by David Pulver, Jon F. Zeigler and Sean Punch for the Transhuman Space role-playing game. ... Libertarian socialism is any one of a group of political philosophies dedicated to opposing coercive forms of authority and social hierarchy, in particular the institutions of capitalism and the State. ... This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... While contemporary left-wing politics is often associated with support for sexual minorities, socialism has generally taken a conservative position on such issues, and socialist governments have usually introduced repressive legislation when they have come to power. ... Participatory economics, often abbreviated parecon, is a proposed economic system that uses participatory decision making as a economic mechanism to guide the allocation of resources and consumption in a given society. ...

External links

Pro socialism

Anti-socialism


  Results from FactBites:
 
Socialist - definition of Socialist in Encyclopedia (6443 words)
However, even the subset of socialists that considers itself nationalist rejects the racialist theories and totalitarianism of the Nazis, who are not considered socialist by most political theorists (historians and political theorists generally argue that the term "socialism" in "national socialism" existed solely for propaganda purposes; see Socialism and Nazism).
However, all socialists agree that a socialist economy must be run for the benefit of the vast majority of the people rather than for a small aristocratic, plutocratic, or capitalist class.
Socialists further point to the free will that they believe is inherent in every human being and to the variety of social structures that have existed in human history, using them to support the claim that no type of behaviour is fixed in stone.
Socialism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8182 words)
Socialists hold that capitalism is an illegitimate economic system that serves the interests of the wealthy and exploits the majority of the population.
Democratic socialists are also committed to the ideas of the redistribution of wealth and power, as well as social ownership of major industries, concepts widely abandoned by social democrats.
Socialists are also divided on which rights and liberties are desirable, such as the "bourgeois liberties" (such as those guaranteed by the U.S. First Amendment or the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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