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Encyclopedia > Socialism in one country
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Socialism in One Country was a thesis put forth by Joseph Stalin in 1924 in the second edition of his Foundations of Leninism, further developed by Nikolai Bukharin in 1925 and adopted as state policy Stalin. The thesis held that given the defeat of all communist revolutions in Europe from 19171921 except in Russia, the Soviet Union should begin to strengthen itself internally. This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory are terms which cover work in philosophy which is strongly influenced by Karl Marxs materialist approach to theory or which is written by Marxists. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... International Socialism redirects here. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Libertarian Communism redirects here. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Religious communism is a form of communism centered on religious principles. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Eurocommunism was a new trend in the 1970s and 1980s within various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant in a Western European democracy and less aligned to the partyline of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... See Communist League (disambiguation) for other groups of the same name. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... The International Workingmens Association, sometimes called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations which were based on the working class. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... The phrase Second International has two meanings: For the international association of socialist parties of the late 19th century, see Second International (politics) and a successor organization, the Socialist International For one of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries of American English, see Websters New International Dictionary, Second Edition This is... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Karl_Marx_001. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Engels redirects here. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 455 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (880 × 1160 pixel, file size: 500 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lenin redirects here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Rosa_Luxemburg. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Stalin1. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (658x617, 59 KB) Summary I obtained this image from here. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Mao redirects here. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Communist symbolism usually incorporates symbols representing the industrial workers and/or the peasants of a country. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... This article is on criticisms of communism, a branch of socialism. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... This article intentionally focuses only on the history of communism as a self-contained, self-aware political movement. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Left wing redirects here. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within communism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... The new class is a term to describe the privileged ruling class of bureaucrats and Communist party functionaries which typically arises in a Stalinist communist state. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Post-Communism is a name sometimes given to the period of political and economic transition in former communist states located in parts of Europe and Asia, usually transforming into a free market capitalist and globalized economy. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Primitive communism, according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is the original society of humanity. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Socialist economics is a broad, and sometimes controversial, term. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle_transparent. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Nikolai Bukharin Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Russian: ), (October 9 [O.S. September 27] 1888 â€“ March 15, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual, and later a Soviet politician. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A communist revolution is a proletarian revolution inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, typically with socialism (state or worker ownership over the means of production) as an intermediate stage. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


This theory revised Lenin's belief that, while a revolution may happen in one country, the final success of socialism in one country, especially in such as Russia, is impossible without proletarian revolutions in other, advanced countries of Western Europe (see "World revolution"). Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ...

Contents

Background

According to Stalin and his supporters, the idea of socialism in one country was strengthened by the defeat of several proletarian revolutions in countries like Germany and Hungary, which ended Bolshevik hopes for an imminent world revolution. A communist revolution is a social revolution inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, normally with socialism (public ownership over the means of production) as an intermediate stage. ... “November Revolution” redirects here. ... World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ...


In the first edition of the book Osnovy Leninizma (Foundations of Leninism, 1924), Stalin was still a follower of Lenin's idea that revolution in one country is insufficient. But by the end of that year, in the second edition of the book, his position started to turn around: the "proletariat can and must build the socialist society in one country". In April 1925 Nikolai Bukharin elaborated the issue in his brochure Can We Build Socialism in One Country in the Absence of the Victory of the West-European Proletariat? The position was adopted as the state policy after Stalin's January 1926 article On the Issues of Leninism (К вопросам ленинизма). For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Nikolai Bukharin Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (Russian: ), (October 9 [O.S. September 27] 1888 â€“ March 15, 1938) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and intellectual, and later a Soviet politician. ...


1925-6 signalled a shift from the immediate activity of the Comintern, the Communist International, from world revolution towards a defence of the Soviet state. This period, up to 1928, was known as the "Second Period", mirroring the shift in the USSR from war communism to the New Economic Policy.[1] The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... War communism or wartime communism (Russian: Военный коммунизм; 1918 - 1921) was the economic policy adopted by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War with the aim of keeping towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food, in conditions when all normal economic mechanisms and relations were being destroyed by the... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


In his 1915 article "On the Slogan for a United States of Europe", Lenin stated the following: "...Uneven economic and political development is an absolute law of capitalism. Hence, the victory of socialism is possible first in several or even in one capitalist country alone. After expropriating the capitalists and organising their own socialist production, the victorious proletariat of that country will arise against the rest of the world ...". After Lenin's death, Stalin used this quote and others to argue that Lenin shared his view of Socialism in One Country. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ...


Criticism and reaction

The theory of Socialism in One Country was vigorously criticized by Zinoviev and Trotsky. In particular, Trotskyists often claimed, and still claim, that Socialism in One Country opposes both the basic tenets of Marxism and Lenin's particular beliefs [2] that while a communist revolution may happen first in one country, the final success of socialism in one country depends upon the revolution's degree of success in internationalizing itself and would ultimately be impossible without successful proletarian revolutions in the more advanced countries of Western Europe. Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (Григо́рий Евсе́евич Зино́вьев, real name Ovsel Gershon Aronov Radomyslsky (Радомысльский), also known as Hirsch Apfelbaum), (September 23 [September 11, Old Style], 1883 - August 25, 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician. ... 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Trotskii, Trotski, Trotzky) (October 26 (O.S.) = November 7 (N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist intellectual. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... International Socialism redirects here. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


Trotskyists base their criticism of Socialism in One Country on Trotsky's theory of Permanent Revolution. Trotsky believed that the development of the international division of labor made autarky, or economic isolation from the world, economically reactionary in its own right. Yet, Trotsky acknowledged that dependence upon the international capitalist market leads to economic plans becoming subordinate to world capitalism. He elaborated on these theses in his works The Draft Program of the Communist International: A Criticism of Fundamentals and Permanent Revolution. Permanent Revolution is a term within Marxist theory, which was first used by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels between 1845 and 1850, but has since become most closely associated with Leon Trotsky. ... Division of labour is the breakdown of labour into specific, circumscribed tasks for maximum efficiency of output in the context of manufacturing. ... An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. ...


Relation to Leninism

Stalin claimed that his theory of "Socialism in one country" is a further development of Leninism. In his February 14, 1938 Response to Comrade Ivanov ("Ответ товарищу Иванову, Ивану Филиповичу"), formulated as an answer to a question of a "comrade Ivanov" mailed to Pravda newspaper, Stalin splits the question in two parts. is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Pravda (disambiguation). ...


The first side of the question is in terms of the internal relations within the Soviet Union: whether it is possible to construct the Socialist Society by defeating the local bourgeoisie and fostering the union of workers and peasants. Stalin quotes Lenin that "we have everything necessary to construct the complete socialism" and claims that despite the claims of Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev ("who late became spies and fascist agents", in Stalin's words), the socialist society has for the most part been indeed constructed.


The second side of the question is in terms in terms of external relations, whether the victory of the socialism is final, i.e., whether capitalism cannot possibly be restored. Here Stalin cites Lenin that the final victory is possible only on the international scale and only with the help of the workers of other countries.


In other words, Stalin draws a line between the "victory of socialism or the victory of socialist construction in one country" and the "ultimate victory of socialism" stating that the latter problem cannot be solved only by internal efforts.


Communist Revolution on One Country

"Will it be possible for this revolution to take place in one country alone?
No. By creating the world market, big industry has already brought all the peoples of the Earth, and especially the civilized peoples, into such close relation with one another that none is independent of what happens to the others. Further, it has co-ordinated the social development of the civilized countries to such an extent that, in all of them, bourgeoisie and proletariat have become the decisive classes, and the struggle between them the great struggle of the day. It follows that the communist revolution will not merely be a national phenomenon but must take place simultaneously in all civilized countries—that is to say, at least in England, America, France, and Germany. It will develop in each of the these countries more or less rapidly, according as one country or the other has a more developed industry, greater wealth, a more significant mass of productive forces. Hence, it will go slowest and will meet most obstacles in Germany, most rapidly and with the fewest difficulties in England. It will have a powerful impact on the other countries of the world, and will radically alter the course of development which they have followed up to now, while greatly stepping up its pace. It is a universal revolution and will, accordingly, have a universal range." — Friedrich Engels, The Principles of Communism, 1847

Engels redirects here. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Duncan Hallas The Comintern, chapter 5
  2. ^ The Immediate Tasks of the Soviet Government by V.I. Lenin (1918). Lenin' Collected Works 4th English Edition, Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1972 Volume 27, pages 235-77

External links

Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... The history of socialism, sometimes termed modern socialism,[1] finds its origins in the French Revolution of 1789 and the changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution, although it has precedents in earlier movements and ideas. ... This article gives an overview of socialism in the Netherlands, including communism and social democracy. ... The History of socialism in Great Britain is generally thought to stretch back to the 19th century. ... The Left in France at the beginning of the 20th century was represented by two main political parties, the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party and the SFIO (French Section of the Workers International), created in 1905 as a merger of various Marxist parties. ... Democratic Socialism and Social Democracy have been, along with liberalism and conservatism, a political force in Canada. ... African socialism is a belief in sharing economic resources in a traditional African way, as distinct from classical socialism. ... Arab Socialism (ar. ... Labor Zionism (or Socialist Zionism, Labour Zionism) is the traditional left wing of the Zionist ideology and was historically oriented towards the Jewish workers movement. ... The concept of Melanesian socialism was first advocated by Father Walter Lini of the New Hebrides (now Vanuatu), who became the countrys first prime minister upon its independence from France and the United Kingdom in 1980. ... This article is about the term itself and its relationships. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers state) can carry one of several different (but related) meanings: Strictly speaking, any real or hypothetical state organized along the principles of socialism may be called a socialist state. ... The Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was the communist governance in Afghanistan between 1978 and 1992. ... From 1945 until 1992 Albania had a Communist government. ... A surcharged stamp published under the name of Azarbaijan Peoples Government The Azerbaijan Peoples Government (APG) was a short-lived, Soviet-backed client state (November 1945 - November 1946) in northern Iran. ... The Bavarian Soviet Republic (Bayrische Räterepublik) — also known as the Munich Soviet Republic (Münchner Räterepublik) — was a short-lived revolutionary government in the German state of Bavaria in 1919 that sought to replace the fledgling Weimar Republic in its early days. ... Flag Capital Bukhara Language(s) Tajik, Uzbek, Bukhori Religion Sunni Islam, Sufism (Naqshbandi), Judaism Government Socialist republic President Faizullah Khojaev Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy overthrown 1920-09-02  - Established October 8, 1920  - Joined the Uzbek SSR February 17, 1925 The Bukharan Peoples Soviet Republic (Russian: Бухарская Народная Советская Республика) was the name... Motto Pravda vítÄ›zí (Czech: Truth prevails) Anthem Kde domov můj and Nad Tatrou sa blýska Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, Slovak Government Socialist republic  - 1975-1989 Gustáv Husák  - 1970-1988 Lubomír Å trougal Historical era Cold War  - Established 1960  - Constitution July 11, 1960  - Federation... 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Flag Capital Budapest Language(s) Hungarian Government Socialist republic History  - Established March 21, 1919  - Downfall August 6, 1919 The Hungarian Soviet Republic (Hungarian: Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság) was a Communist regime established in Hungary from March 21 until August 6, 1919, under the leadership of Béla... Flag Capital Phnom Penh Language(s) Khmer language Government Socialist republic Leader Pol Pot Historical era Cold War  - Civil War 1967-1975  - Established April 17, 1975  - Fall of Phnom Pehn January 7, 1979  - Monarchy restored 1993-09-24 Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer: Khmer: , French:Kampuchea démocratique, Vietnamese:Kampuchea Dân... Flag Anthem Dap Prampi Mesa Chokchey Capital Phnom Penh Language(s) Khmer language Government Socialist republic Historical era Cold War  - Civil War 1967-1975  - Established April 17, 1975  - Fall of Phnom Pehn January 7, 1979  - Monarchy restored 1993-09-24 Currency Riel Democratic Kampuchea (French:Kampuchea démocratique, Khmer: ) was... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the Soviet Latvian state in 1918–1920. ... The Peoples Repubic of Mongolia was a communist state in central Asia which existed between 1924 and 1990. ... National motto: None [[Image:|Location of Naissaar]] Official language Estonian, Russian Capital Lääneküla Chairman Stepan Petrichenko Area 18, 56 km² Population ca 200 Navigation From WP1 – 59°33. ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1948–1956 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (First)  - 1981-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski (Last) Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. 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Capital Aden Language(s) Arabic Government Socialist republic President Sam Hazlewood al-Attas Prime Minister Yasin Said Numan Historical era Cold War  - Independence November 30, 1967  - UN membership December 14, 1967  - Constitution October 31, 1978  - Reunification May 22, 1990 Area  - 1990 332,970 km² Population  - 1990 est. ...

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