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Encyclopedia > Socialism and LGBT rights
Qiu Jin (1875-1907), Chinese left-wing revolutionary who cross-dressed and had female lovers.
Qiu Jin (1875-1907), Chinese left-wing revolutionary who cross-dressed and had female lovers.

While gay rights is seen by many in the western world today as a left-wing political issue, sexual minorities and gender variant people do not belong as a group to the Left or Right of politics. Different currents within socialism (and within political ideologies of the right) have both opposed and supported gay rights, their attitudes often matching the prevailing values of the broader society. As with other issues of sexual politics such as pornography, attitudes regarding sexual minorities tend to be divided along authoritarian and libertarian rather than right/left lines; as sociologist Jeffrey Weeks noted in 1989, a belief that homosexuality is "something to be reviled and prevented" may be one of the few political viewpoints shared by both Fidel Castro and Margaret Thatcher.[1] Qiu Jin. ... Qiu Jin. ... Qiú Jǐn (秋瑾) (1875 - July 15, 1907) was a Chinese female anti-Qing Empire revolutionary killed after a failed uprising. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... A sexual minority—the term is most commonly used in the plural, sexual minorities— is a group whose sexual orientation or practices differ from the majority of the surrounding society. ... Transgender is an overarching term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply The Right, are terms that refer to the segment of the political spectrum often associated with any of several strains of conservatism, the religious right, and areas of classical liberalism, or simply the opposite of left-wing politics. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ... Pornography (from Greek πόρνη prostitute and γραφία writing) (more informally referred to as porn or porno) is the representation of the human body or sexual activity with the goal of sexual arousal. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... A civil libertarian is one who is actively concerned with the protection of individual civil liberties and civil rights. ... Jeffrey Weeks (Born 1945, in Rhondda, Wales) is a historian and sociologist specialising in work on sexuality, and is also a gay activist. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990. ...


However, the radical left and LGBT movements have intersected and clashed in unique ways since they both emerged from 19th century Europe. Most writers agree that historically, the labour movement’s record with regard to homosexuality has not on the whole been positive, and some of the worst atrocities against LGBT people have been perpetrated by authoritarian communist states. Despite this, LGBT activists have usually identified with the left, and a number of significant figures within socialism (particularly libertarian socialism) have been lesbian, gay or bisexual themselves. Since the early 20th century, Radical Left has been used as an umbrella term to describe those on the political left who adhere explicitly and openly to revolutionary socialism, communism, or anarchism. ... LGBT movements is a collective term for a number of social movements that share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality and/or gender variance. ... The labour movement (or labor movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments. ... LGBT (or GLBT) is an abbreviation used as a collective term to refer to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... World map Authoritarianism (red) Authoritarianism describes a form of government characterized by strict obedience to the authority of the state, which often maintains and enforces social control through the use of oppressive measures. ... This article is about one-party states governed by Communist parties. ... Libertarian socialism is any one of a group of political philosophies dedicated to the abolition of property by restoring direct control of production and resources to the working class. ... A lesbian is a female who is aesthetically, sexually, or romantically attracted to other females. ... In modern society, gay is a word which can be used as either a noun or adjective. ... In human sexuality, bisexuality describes a man or woman having a sexual orientation to persons of either or both sexes (a man or woman who sexually likes both sexes; people who are sexually and/or romantically attracted to both males and females). ...

Contents


The sexual politics of utopian socialism

Charles Fourier, Utopian socialist who coined the word feminism in 1837 and defended same-sex sexuality.
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Charles Fourier, Utopian socialist who coined the word feminism in 1837 and defended same-sex sexuality.

The first currents of modern socialist thought are now often described with the phrase utopian socialism. Gender and sexuality were significant concerns for many of the leading thinkers, such as Charles Fourier and Henri de Saint-Simon in France and Robert Owen in Britain, as well as their followers, many of whom were women. For Fourier, for example, true freedom could only occur without masters, without the ethos of work, and without suppressing passions; the suppression of passions is not only destructive to the individual, but to society as a whole. Writing before the advent of the term "homosexuality", Fourier recognised that both men and women have a wide range of sexual needs and preferences which may change throughout their lives, including same-sex sexuality and androgénité. He argued that all sexual expressions should be enjoyed as long as people are not abused, and that "affirming one's difference" can actually enhance social integration.[2] Image File history File links Hw-fourier. ... Image File history File links Hw-fourier. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Utopian Socialism is the term for the first currents of modern Socialist thought. ... Statue of Emmeline Pankhurst, a famous suffragette, in Victoria Tower Gardens next to the Houses of Parliament, Westminster. ... Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern Socialist thought. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Henri de Saint-Simon Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (October 17, 1760 – May 19, 1825), the founder of French socialism, was born in Paris. ... Robert Owen Robert Owen continues to be looked up to in this Manchester statue Robert Owen (May 14, 1771 – November 17, 1858) was a Welsh socialist and social reformer. ...


However, these ideas would be dismissed by the influential socialist thinkers Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels, who disparaged "utopian" socialists who "want to improve the condition of every member of society" and "wish to attain their ends by peaceful means"; their ideas are "phantasies, which today only make us smile."[3] Marx condemned the sexual freedom advocated by Fourier and Saint-Simon as a relapse into a "bestial" state of "universal prostitution".[4] Historian Saskia Poldevaart (1995) argues that: Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and socialist revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820 - August 5, 1895) was a German Socialist philosopher and the co-founder of modern Communist theory with Karl Marx. ...

sexuality and the problematic of femininity/masculinity were disowned as legitimate issues as Marxism came to dominate. Utopian socialism's methods — changing the relationships of production as well as relations between the sexes by problematizing sexuality, the family, and the public/private distinction — were narrowed by Marxism to class struggle; utopian socialism's goal — new social relationships between people — was restricted to a new economic order and redistribution of material goods.[5]

Marx, Engels, Ulrichs and Schweitzer

Jean Baptista von Schweitzer, German socialist arrested on a homosexual charge in 1862.

From the earliest European homosexual rights movements, activists such as Karl-Heinrich Ulrichs and Magnus Hirschfeld approached the Left for support. During the 1860s, Ulrichs wrote to Karl Marx and sent him a number of books on Uranian (homosexual/transgender) emancipation, and in 1869 Marx passed one of Ulrich's books on to Engels.[6] Engels responded with disgust to Marx in a private letter, lashing out at "pederasts" who are "extremely against nature", and described Ulrichs' platform of homosexual rights as "turning smut into theory". He worried that things would go badly for heterosexuals like himself and Marx should homosexual rights be gained.[7] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2069x2822, 509 KB) Summary http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2069x2822, 509 KB) Summary http://www. ... Jean Baptista von Schweitzer (July 12, 1833 - 1875), German politician and dramatic poet, was born at Frankfurt am Main, of an old aristocratic Catholic family. ... Karl-Heinrich Ulrichs Karl-Heinrich Ulrichs (1825 – 1895), pioneer gay rights activist, was born in Westerfeld, in north-western Germany. ... Magnus Hirschfeld Magnus Hirschfeld (Kolberg, May 14, 1868 - Nice, May 14, 1935) was a prominent German physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and socialist revolutionary. ... From John Addington Symonds 1891 book A Problem in Modern Ethics. ...


Known to both Ulrichs and Marx was the case of Jean Baptista von Schweitzer, an important labor organiser who had been charged with attempting to solicit a teenage boy in a park in 1862. Social democrat leader Ferdinand Lassalle defended Schweitzer on the grounds that while he personally found homosexuality to be dirty, the labor movement needed the leadership of Schweitzer too much to abandon him, and that a person's sexual tastes had "absolutely nothing to do with a man’s political character".[8] Marx, on the other hand, suggested that Engels use this incident to smear Schweitzer: "You must arrange for a few jokes about him to reach Siebel, for him to hawk around to the various papers."[9] However, Schweitzer would go on to become President of the German Labor Union, and the first Social Democrat elected to a parliament in Europe. Jean Baptista von Schweitzer (July 12, 1833 - 1875), German politician and dramatic poet, was born at Frankfurt am Main, of an old aristocratic Catholic family. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Ferdinand Lassalle Ferdinand Lassalle (born April 11, 1825 in WrocÅ‚aw, died August 31, 1864), was a German socialist politician. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in orange and red—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ...


Engels condemned homosexuality among men of ancient Greece in two separate passages of Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State, describing it as "morally deteriorated", "abominable", "loathsome" and "degrading".[10] Marx apparently shared Engels' views, writing that "the relation of man to woman is the most natural relation of human being to human being"[11] and describing the author of a text promoting sexual freedoms[12] as "that queer prick" ("Schwanzschwulen").[13] According to the socialist writers Hekma, Oosterhuis and Steakley, Marx and Engels saw any form of sexuality outside of a monogamous heterosexual marriage as a kind of degeneracy fostered by capitalism, which could be cured by socialism. According to Engels, "natural moral principles" would flourish in the socialist future, when (heterosexual) "monogamy, instead of declining, finally becomes a reality — for the man as well,"[14] and homosexuality would simply disappear.[15] Same-sex love was an sporadic part of civic life in ancient Greece from the seventh century until the Roman era. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


August Bebel's Woman under Socialism (1879), the "single work dealing with sexuality most widely read by rank-and-file members of the SPD,"[16] was even more explicit in warning socialists of the dangers of same-sex love. Bebel attributed "this crime against nature" in both men and women to sexual indulgence and excess, describing it as an upper-class, metropolitan and foreign vice.[17] August Ferdinand Bebel (February 22, 1840 – March 18, 1913) was a German social democrat and one of the founders of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. ... SPD redirects here. ...


The Magnus Hirschfeld circle

1970s reissue of Richard Linsert's 1920s pamphlet on "Marxism and Free Love".
1970s reissue of Richard Linsert's 1920s pamphlet on "Marxism and Free Love".

The leading figure of the LGBT movement from the turn of the century until the Nazi government came to power in 1933 was undoubtedly Magnus Hirschfeld. Hirschfeld, who was also a socialist and supporter of the Women's Movement, formed the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee to campaign against the law "Paragraph 175" which outlawed male-male sex. Hirschfeld's organisation did a deal with the Social Democratic Party of Germany (of which Lassalle and Schweitzer had been members) to get them to put forward a bill in the Reichstag in 1898, but it was opposed by the rest of the parliament and failed to pass. Most of Hirschfeld's circle of homosexual activists had socialist politics, including Kurt Hiller, Richard Linsert, Johanna Elberskirchen and Bruno Vogel. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (669x945, 125 KB) Summary www2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (669x945, 125 KB) Summary www2. ... Marxism is the philosophy, social theory and political practice based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German, Jewish, socialist philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary. ... The term free love has been used since at least the nineteenth century to describe a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage, especially for women. ... Fin de siècle is French for End of the Century. The term turn-of-the-century is sometimes used as a synonym, but is more neutral (lacking some or most of the connotations described below), and can include the first years of a new century. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Magnus Hirschfeld Magnus Hirschfeld (Kolberg, May 14, 1868 - Nice, May 14, 1935) was a prominent German physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate. ... First-wave feminism was the feminist movement in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century, which primarily focused on gaining the right of womens suffrage. ... The Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee, WhK) was founded in Berlin in 1897 to campaign for social recognition of homosexual and transgender men and women, and against their legal persecution. ... Paragraph 175 (known formally as §175 StGB; also known as Section 175 in English) was a provision of the German Criminal Code from 15 May 1871 to 10 March 1994. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Reichstag (German for Imperial Diet) was the parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, the North German Confederation, and of Germany until 1945. ... Kurt Hiller (also known as Keith Lurr and Klirr (Thule)), born 17 August 1885 in Berlin, died 1 October 1975 in Hamburg, was a German writer and pacifist journalist from a Jewish family. ...


Libertarian socialism and LGBT rights

Edna St. Vincent Millay, American bisexual anarchist and 'free love' advocate.
Edna St. Vincent Millay, American bisexual anarchist and 'free love' advocate.

Contemporaries of Marx and Engels, Michael Bakunin and Sergei Nechaev were influential anarchists and, some believe, gay lovers.[18] They didn't write about sexual liberation or speak publicly of any romance, but their passionate relationship is revealed in private letters. Bakunin wrote to Nechaev on June 2, 1870, after being betrayed by him: “I loved you deeply and still love you, Nechaev... how deeply, how passionately, how tenderly I loved you and believed in you!”[19] Edna St. ... Edna St. ... Edna St. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian — Михаил Александрович Бакунин), (May 30, 1814–June 13, 1876) was a well-known Russian anarchist contemporaneous to Karl Marx. ... Sergey Gennadiyevich Nechayev (also Sergei Nechaev, Сергей Геннадиевич Нечаев), born October 2, 1847, died either November 21 or December 3, 1882. ... Anarchism is the name for both a political philosophy and manner of organizing society, derived from the Greek αναρχία (without archons or without rulers). Thus anarchism, in its most general semantic meaning, is the belief that all forms of rulership are undesirable and should be abolished. ... June 2 is the 153rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (154th in leap years), with 212 days remaining. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


In Oscar Wilde's The Soul of Man Under Socialism, he passionately advocates for an egalitarian society where wealth is shared by all, while warning of the dangers of authoritarian socialism that would crush individuality. He later commented, "I think I am rather more than a Socialist. I am something of an Anarchist, I believe." Wilde's left libertarian politics were shared by other figures who actively campaigned for homosexual emancipation in the late 19th century, John Henry Mackay and Edward Carpenter.[20] Several writers have noted that in the European Left of early 20th century, where a climate of hostility toward homosexuality prevailed, most of those who supported sexual freedoms such as homosexuality were anarchists.[21] Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Anglo-Irish playwright, novelist, poet, short story writer and Freemason. ... Egalitarianism is the moral doctrine that equality ought to prevail among some group along some dimension. ... The chart proposed by the Political Compass Organisation A political compass or political diamond is a multi-axis model used to label or organize political thought on several dimensions. ... John Henry Mackay (Greenock, Scotland, 1864 - Stahnsdorf 1933). ... Edward Carpenter (29 August 1844 – 28 June 1929) was a socialist poet, anthologist, and an early homosexual activist. ...


Free love and anarchy

In Europe and North America, the free love movement combined ideas revived from utopian socialism with anarchism and feminism to attack the "hypocritical" sexual morality of the Victorian era, and the institutions of marriage and the family that were seen to enslave women. Free lovers advocated voluntary sexual unions with no state interference[22] and affirmed the right to sexual pleasure for both women and men, sometimes explicitly supporting the rights of homosexuals and prostitutes. For a few decades, adherence to "free love" became widespread among European and American anarchists, but these views were opposed at the time by the dominant actors of the Left: Marxists and social democrats. Radical feminist and socialist Victoria Woodhull was expelled from the International Workingmen's Association in 1871 for her involvement in the free love and associated movements.[23] Indeed, with Marx's support, the American branch of the organisation was purged of it's pacifist, anti-racist and feminist elements, which were seen to be incompatible with the "scientific socialism" of Marx and Engels.[24] The term free love has been used since at least the nineteenth century to describe a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage, especially for women. ... Statue of Emmeline Pankhurst, a famous suffragette, in Victoria Tower Gardens next to the Houses of Parliament, Westminster. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anarchism is the name for both a political philosophy and manner of organizing society, derived from the Greek αναρχία (without archons or without rulers). Thus anarchism, in its most general semantic meaning, is the belief that all forms of rulership are undesirable and should be abolished. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Victoria Woodhull Victoria Claflin Woodhull (September 23, 1838 – June 9, 1927) was an American suffragist who was one of the early leaders of the American womans suffragette movement in the 19th century. ... The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes. ... Anti-racism refers to beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism. ... Scientific Socialism is a socio-political-economic theory pioneered by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...


The Verband Fortschrittlicher Frauenvereine (League of Progressive Women's Associations), a turn-of-the-century left-wing organisation led by Lily Braun campaigned for the decriminalisation of homosexuality in Germany and aimed at organising prostitutes into labor unions. The broader labour movement either attacked the League, saying they were utopians, or ignored it,[25] and Braun was driven out of the international Marxist movement.[26] Helene Stöcker, another German activist from the left wing of the women's movement, became heavily involved in the sexual reform movement in 1919, after World War I, and served on the board of the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft. She also campaigned to protect single mothers and their children from economic and moral persecution.[27] Lily Braun (2 July 1865 - 8 August 1916), born Amalie von Kretschmann, was a German feminist writer. ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services. ... Helene Stöcker (* 13. ... The Institut für Sexualwissenschaft was an early sexology research institute in Germany, 1919-1933. ...


Across the Atlantic, in New York's Greenwich Village, "bohemian" feminists and socialists advocated self-realisation and pleasure for women (and also men) in the here and now, as well as campaigning against the first World War and for other anarchist and socialist causes. They encouraged playing with sexual roles and sexuality,[28] and the openly bisexual radical Edna St. Vincent Millay and the lesbian anarchist Margaret Anderson were prominent among them. The Villagers took their inspiration from the (mostly anarchist) immigrant female workers from the period 1905-1915[29] and the "New Life Socialism" of Edward Carpenter, Havelock Ellis and Olive Schreiner. Discussion groups organised by the Villagers were frequented by the Russian anarchist Emma Goldman, among others. Magnus Hirschfeld noted in 1923 that Goldman "has campaigned boldly and steadfastly for individual rights, and especially for those deprived of their rights. Thus it came about that she was the first and only woman, indeed the first and only American, to take up the defense of homosexual love before the general public."[30] In fact, prior to Goldman, heterosexual anarchist Robert Reitzel (1849–98) spoke positively of homosexuality from the beginning of the 1890s in his German-language journal "Der arme Teufel" (Detroit). The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (pronounced Grennich Village; also called simply the Village) is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City. ... Though a Bohemian is a native of the Czech province of Bohemia, a secondary meaning for bohemian emerged in 19th century France. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Military dead: 4 million The First World War, also known as The Great War, The War to End All Wars, and World War I (abbreviated WWI) was... Edna St. ... Margaret Caroline Anderson (November 24, 1886 - October 18, 1973) was founder and editor of the celebrated literary magazine The Little Review, which published an extraordinary collection of modern American and English writers between 1914 and 1929. ... The Fellowship of the New Life was an organization in the 19th century, most famous for a splinter group, the Fabian Society. ... Edward Carpenter (29 August 1844 – 28 June 1929) was a socialist poet, anthologist, and an early homosexual activist. ... Henry Havelock Ellis (February 2, 1859 - July 8, 1939), known as Havelock Ellis, was a British doctor, sexual psychologist and social reformer. ... Olive Schreiner (Olive Emilie Albertina Schreiner) (March 24, 1855 – December 11, 1920) was a South African writer. ... Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) was a Lithuanian-born anarcho-communist known for her anarchist writings and speeches. ... Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love or sexual desire exclusively for members of the opposite sex or gender, contrasted with homosexuality and distinguished from bisexuality and asexuality. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no...


European queer anarchists

Anarchism's foregrounding of individual freedoms made for a natural marriage with homosexuality in the eyes of many, both inside and outside of the Anarchist movement. Emil Szittya, in Das Kuriositäten-Kabinett (1923), wrote about homosexuality that "very many anarchists have this tendency. Thus I found in Paris a Hungarian anarchist, Alexander Sommi, who founded a homosexual anarchist group on the basis of this idea.” His view is confirmed by Magnus Hirschfeld in his 1914 book Die Homosexualität des Mannes und des Weibes: “In the ranks of a relatively small party, the anarchist, it seemed to me as if proportionately more homosexuals and effeminates are found than in others.” Italian anarchist Luigi Bertoni (who Szittya also believed to be homosexual) observed that “Anarchists demand freedom in everything, thus also in sexuality. Homosexuality leads to a healthy sense of egoism, for which every anarchist should strive.”[31] Anarchism is the name for both a political philosophy and manner of organizing society, derived from the Greek αναρχία (without archons or without rulers). Thus anarchism, in its most general semantic meaning, is the belief that all forms of rulership are undesirable and should be abolished. ... Magnus Hirschfeld Magnus Hirschfeld (Kolberg, May 14, 1868 - Nice, May 14, 1935) was a prominent German physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate. ... Luigi Bertoni (born in Milan 1872, died in Geneva 1947) was an Italian-born anarchist writer and typographer. ...


Anarcho-syndicalist writer Ulrich Linse wrote about "a sharply outlined figure of the Berlin individualist anarchist cultural scene around 1900", the "precocious Johannes Holzmann" (known as Senna Hoy): "an adherent of free love, [Hoy] celebrated homosexuality as a ‘champion of culture’ and engaged in the struggle against Paragraph 175.”[32] The young Hoy (born 1882) published these views in his weekly magazine, ("Kampf") from 1904 which reached a circulation of 10,000 the following year. German anarchist psychotherapist Otto Gross also wrote extensively about same-sex sexuality in both men and women and argued against its discrimination.[33] In the 1920s and 1930s, French individualist anarchist publisher Emile Armand campaigned for acceptance of free love, including homosexuality, in his journal L’en dehors. Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labor movement, Syndicalisme is a French word meaning trade unionism hence the syndicalism qualification. ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ... Paragraph 175 (known formally as §175 StGB; also known as Section 175 in English) was a provision of the German Criminal Code from 15 May 1871 to 10 March 1994. ... Psychotherapy is a set of techniques intended to improve mental health, emotional or behavioral issues of individuals, family members or a whole familys interactional climate. ... Dr Otto Gross (1877 - 1920) A maverick early disciple of Freud who rebelled against his teacher, became an anarchist and joined the utopian Ascona community. ... ARMAND, E. (pseud. ...


The indivualist anarchist Adolf Brand was originally a member of Hirschfeld's Scientific-Humanitarian committee, but formed a break-away group. Brand and his colleagues, known as the Gemeinschaft der Eigenen, were heavily influenced by homosexual anarchist John Henry Mackay. The group despised effeminacy and saw homosexuality as an expression of manly virility available to all men, espousing a form of nationalistic masculine Lieblingminne (chivalric love) that would later be linked to the rise of Nazism. They were opposed to Hirschfeld's medical characterisation of homosexuality as the domain of an "intermediate sex". Brand "toyed with anti-Semitism",[34] and disdained the Jewish Hirschfeld. Ewald Tschek, another homosexual anarchist writer of the era, regularly contributed to Adolf Brand's journal Der Eigene, and wrote in 1925 that Hirschfeld’s Scientific Humanitarian Committee was a danger to the German people, caricaturing Hirschfeld as "Dr. Feldhirsch". Individualist Anarchism is an anarchist philosophical tradition that has a strong emphasis on sovereignty of the individual[1] and is generally opposed to collectivism[2]. The tradition appears most often in the United States, most notably in regard to its advocacy of private property. ... Adolf Brand (1874-1945) was a German journalist and school teacher who began publishing the first German homosexual periodical, Der Eigene (The Special), in 1896. ... John Henry Mackay (Greenock, Scotland, 1864 - Stahnsdorf 1933). ... National Socialism redirects here. ...


Anarchist homophobia

Despite these supportive stances, the anarchist movement of the time certainly wasn't free of homophobia: an editorial in an influential Spanish anarchist journal from 1935 argued that an Anarchist shouldn't even associate with homosexuals, let alone be one: "If you are an anarchist, that means that you are more morally upright and physically strong than the average man. And he who likes inverts is no real man, and is therefore no real anarchist."[35] Such attitudes have continued in the anarchist movement through to the present day.[36] Anarchist communist political theorist Daniel Guérin, who was himself bisexual, pointed out that Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, the "original" anarchist thinker, was a sexual puritan[37] who condemned homosexuality as a bourgeois and not a working class phenomenon.[38] The word homophobia means fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals. ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... Daniel Guérin (May 19, 1904-April 14, 1988) was a French anarchist and author. ... Pierre Joseph Proudhon. ...


Daniel Guérin

The writings of Daniel Guérin offer an insight into the tension sexual minorities among the Left have often felt. A leading figure in the French Left from the 1930s until his death in 1988, Guérin was also bisexual. After coming out in 1965, he spoke about the extreme hostility toward homosexuality that permeated the left throughout much of the 20th century.[39] "Not so many years ago, to declare oneself a revolutionary and to confess to being homosexual were incompatible," Guérin wrote in 1975.[40] In 1954, Guérin was widely attacked for his study of the Kinsey Reports in which he also detailed the oppression of homosexuals in France. "The harshest [criticisms] came from marxists, who tend seriously to underestimate the form of oppression which is antisexual terrorism. I expected it, of course, and I knew that in publishing my book I was running the risk of being attacked by those to whom I feel closest on a political level."[41] After coming out publicly in 1965, Guérin was abandoned by the Left, and his papers on sexual liberation were censored or refused publication in left-wing journals.[42] From the 1950s, Guérin moved away from Marxism-Leninism and toward a synthesis of anarchism and communism which allowed for individual freedoms while rejecting capitalism. Guérin was involved in the uprising of May 1968, and was a part of the French Gay Liberation movement that emerged after the events. Decades later, Frédéric Martel described Guérin as the "grandfather of the French homosexual movement."[43] Daniel Guérin (May 19, 1904-April 14, 1988) was a French anarchist and author. ... Coming out of the closet (very often shortened to coming out in winking reference to the public introduction of debutantes) describes the voluntary public announcement of ones sexual orientation, sexual attractions, gender identity, or (less commonly) paraphilia. ... The Kinsey Reports are two books on human sexual behavior, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953), by Dr. Alfred C. Kinsey, Wardell Pomeroy and others. ... Coming out of the closet (very often shortened to coming out in winking reference to the public introduction of debutantes) describes the voluntary public announcement of ones sexual orientation, sexual attractions, gender identity, or (less commonly) paraphilia. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also...


"Fascism and homosexuality" in the Left imagination

Soviet anti-Nazi propaganda, 1941
Soviet anti-Nazi propaganda, 1941

Russian Communist Maxim Gorky infamously remarked in his 1934 essay Proletarian Humanism: "Exterminate homosexuals, and Fascism will disappear."[44] While orthodox Marxist analyses of fascism have generally portrayed fascism as an advanced state of capitalism, leftist writers who have proposed psychosexual theories linking fascism to homosexuality include the Frankfurt School Marxist theorists Erich Fromm, Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer,[45] and later Jean-Paul Sartre[46] and Jacques Lacan.[47] Historian Carolyn Dean notes that members of the interwar German Left were the first to posit such a link.[48] The Social Democratic Party of Germany's Münchner Post ran a series of articles entitled 'National Socialism and Homosexuality' with headlines like 'Stammtisch 175' and 'Brotherhood of Poofs in the Brown House'. The party's Rheinische Zeitung warned, 'Parents, protect your sons from "physical preparation" in the Hitler Youth.'[49] Harry Oosterhuis, writing about anti-fascism in the 1930s, observed that "such socialist theorists as Wilhelm Reich tended to view homosexuality sociologically and psychologically as a typical rightist, nationalist, and above all fascist aberration... Against the presumed immorality and perversion of the Nazis, the antifascists stressed their own rationality and purity.[50] Mark Meyers writes: "Indeed, although historians have mostly overlooked it, a wealth of evidence suggests that the construction of the fascist man as effeminate and/or homosexual has circulated in Western culture without interruption since the 1930s."[51] Image File history File links 1941SovietPropaganda. ... Image File history File links 1941SovietPropaganda. ... Gorkys autographed portrait Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov (In Russian Алексей Максимович Пешков) (March 28 [O.S. March 16] 1868–June 14, 1936), better known as Maxim Gorky (Максим Горький), was a Soviet/Russian author, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist social theory (which is more akin to anarchism than communism), social research, and philosophy. ... Erich Fromm Erich Fromm (March 23, 1900 – March 18, 1980) was an internationally renowned German-American psychologist and humanistic philosopher. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg. ... Max Horkheimer (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas in the background, right, in 1965 at Heidelberg Max Horkheimer (February 14, 1895 – July 7, 1973) was a Jewish-German philosopher and sociologist, known especially as the founder and guiding thinker of the Frankfurt School of critical theory. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (IPA: or or ) (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic. ... Cover of Elisabeth Roudinescos biography of Lacan Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor. ... SPD redirects here. ... Anti-fascism is the opposition to fascist ideology, organization, or government, on all levels. ... Dr. Wilhelm Reich Wilhelm Reich (March 24, 1897–November 3, 1957) was a Jewish-Austrian psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, and author, who was trained in Vienna by Sigmund Freud. ...


Lenin

The few recorded statements Vladimir Lenin made about sexuality are devoted to criticising arguments for sexual freedom as a legitimate issue for the Left.[52] One group of leftist writers wrote: "According to Lenin, the very notion of sexual emancipation was typical of capitalist societies and a symptom of bourgeois degeneracy."[53] Clara Zetkin records Lenin's words: (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин, Vladimir Ilič Lenin; IPA:; born Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov; April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Communist revolutionary of Russia, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the main theorist of what has come to be called... The term free love has been used since at least the nineteenth century to describe a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage, especially for women. ... Clara Zetkin, maiden name Eissner (born 5 July 1857 in Wiederau, Saxony; died 20 June 1933 in Archangelskoye near Moscow) was an influential socialist German politician and a fighter for womens rights. ...

"It seems to me that this superabundance of sex theories [...] springs from the desire to justify one’s own abnormal or excessive sex life before bourgeois morality and to plead for tolerance towards oneself. This veiled respect for bourgeois morality is as repugnant to me as rooting about in all that bears on sex. No matter how rebellious and revolutionary it may be made to appear, it is in the final analysis thoroughly bourgeois. It is, mainly, a hobby of the intellectuals and of the sections nearest to them. There is no place for it in the party, in the class-conscious, fighting proletariat.”[54]

Communist states

See also: Gay rights in Russia (USSR 1922 - 1991); Gay rights in Germany#East Germany (1949 - 1990); LGBT rights in Cuba (1959 - present)

The low point in the history of the relationship between socialism and lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transpeople undoubtedly begins with the rise of Josef Stalin in the USSR and continues through the era of Communist state power in the USSR, East Germany, China, Cuba and North Korea. In all cases, conditions for sexual minorities and gender variant people worsened under post-Stalin Communist states. Some in the West withdrew their support for Communism after seeing the severity of repression in the USSR, including gay writer André Gide.[55] // Imperial Russia In Imperial Russia, most of the radicals and socialists developed a view on gender and sexuality that was Victorian, puritanical, and patriarchal (Hidden From History: Reclaiming The Gay and Lesbian Past p. ... For extensive information regarding legislation against homosexuality in Germany, see Paragraph 175. ... Sexual relations between same-sex consenting adults sixteen and over have been legal in Cuba since 1992, though same-sex relationships are not presently recognised by the state. ... (Russian, in full: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин [Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin]; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922-1953... This article is about one-party states governed by Communist parties. ... André Paul Guillaume Gide (November 22, 1869 – February 19, 1951) was a French author and, at times, a spokesman for gay rights (disputed — see talk page). ...


Historian Jennifer Evans reports that the East German government "alternately viewed [same sex activity] as a remnant of bourgeois decadence, a sign of moral weakness, and a threat to the social and political health of the nation."[56] These three characterisations imbued the policies and practises of all the Communist states, as well as those of the socialist/communist organisations that followed their lead.


Productivity and uniformity is paramount in Communist states, and sexual minorities are viewed as unproductive and nonconformist; Communists generally associate male effeminacy with luxury, leisure and the upper classes. Effeminate and homosexual males in some cases have been forced into "re-education" programs involving hard labor, reparative therapy, psychotropic drugs or confinement to psychiatric hospitals. Hard Labor is the eleventh album by American rock band Three Dog Night, released in 1974 (see 1974 in music). ... Reparative therapy (also known as conversion, reorientation or differentiation therapy), refers to any of several techniques that are aimed at changing a persons sexual orientation from homosexuality to heterosexuality. ...


Gay writer and Cuban revolutionary Reinaldo Arenas recalled that soon after Castro's Communist government came to power, "the persecution started and concentration camps were opened... the sexual act became taboo while the 'new man' was being proclaimed and masculinity exalted."[57] Similar programs of "moral reform" were instituted in the USSR, Communist China and East Germany, as part of building a solid foundation for the new socialist republics. Following the uprising of 1953 in East Germany, the East German government championed the traditional family, while homosexuality was seen to contravene "healthful mores of the working people".[58] Reinaldo Arenas (born July 16, 1943 in Holguín, Cuba, died December 7, 1990 in New York) was a Cuban poet, novelist, and playwright who spent most of his life fighting the Fidel Castro regime through his art. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist state. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ...


All Communist states have banned associations of lesbians and gays, whether social or political, and have outlawed the publication of gay and lesbian materials. Often, particularly during the 1950s and 60s, lesbians and gays have been denounced, fired from their jobs, imprisoned, deported, and, in some cases, castrated or even executed. As in many parts of the world, conditions improved greatly for LGBT people living in Communist states through the 1980s, 1990s and early 2000s. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


China: 1949 - present

See also Gay rights in China.

While traditional Chinese culture had a place for certain kinds of same-sex love and transgender behaviours, the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911 marked the end of an era. The emergent "socialist" May Fourth Movement looked to the future rather than the past, and China began to adopt Western medical models that saw homosexuality as abnormal. Young men sipping tea, reading poetry, and making love; Individual panel from a hand scroll on homosexual themes, paint on silk; China, Qing dynasty (18th–19th c. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: 清朝; Pinyin: Qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China and the surrounding territories, establishing the Empire... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Toward the end of the Qing era, one female left-wing revolutionary, Qiu Jin, was known for flouting convention by wearing Western male dress. She also had female lovers, and fought for women's rights. She was executed in 1907 after taking part in a failed uprising. Qiú Jǐn (秋瑾) (1875 - July 15, 1907) was a Chinese female anti-Qing Empire revolutionary killed after a failed uprising. ...


Little has been written about LGBT rights under the socialist government of the Kuomintang. Later, following the proclamation of the People's Republic of China by the Communist Party in 1949, repression of homosexuality became more severe. Chinese Communist leaders felt that homosexuality was a capitalist perversion that needed to be eliminated to ensure the success of the liberation of the peasant and working classes. Although no specifically anti-homosexual legislation existed, people suspected of homosexuality were subject to harsh prison sentences, forced castration, and even execution under a range of vaguely-worded laws designed to maintain social order. Anti-homosexual policies were enforced through ostracism and social programs such as compulsory marriage. The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional Chinese: 中國國民黨; Simplified Chinese: 中国国民党; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhōngguó Guómíndǎng), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a conservative political party currently active in the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name) also known as Chinese Communist Party (CCP) (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; Pinyin: Zhōngguó Gòngchǎndǎng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


In 1997 the Chinese government announced that it would no longer treat homosexual relations between consenting adults in private a crime, and in 2001 the government stated that homosexuality was no longer going to be considered a mental illness. However, the government censorship of the media prohibits the display or reference to homosexuality as being "going against the healthy way of life in China."[59] Since 2001, NGOs serving and advocating for people living with HIV/AIDS have been harassed, hampered or forced to close.[60] In Henan, young activists who started an AIDS orphanage have been beaten and jailed, and many people living with HIV/AIDS who have sought medical care or assistance for their children have been harassed and incarcerated.[61] Chinese authorities have shut down websites offering information to LGBT people, and in December 2005, a planned gay and lesbian cultural festival in Beijing was banned by authorities, resulting in a police raid.[62] 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... The Rhodesia Herald of September 21, 1966. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a non-profit group or association that acts outside of institutionalized political structures and pursues matters of interest to its members by lobbying, persuasion, or direct action. ...


1945 - 1968: The homophile movement — "politically neutral"

U.S. homophile publication Mattachine Review, August 1962, with an article by individualist anarchist Robert Anton Wilson and another on class warfare.
U.S. homophile publication Mattachine Review, August 1962, with an article by individualist anarchist Robert Anton Wilson and another on class warfare.

Post World War II, a sexually conservative mood dominated both the Left and the Right. McCarthyism in the US believed a "homosexual underground" was abetting the "communist conspiracy", while the USSR continued to imprison homosexuals for their "bourgeois capitalist vice". A number of homosexual rights groups came into being or were revived across the Western world, in Britain, France, Germany, Holland, the Scandinavian countries and the United States. These groups, now known as the "homophile" movement, were largely politically neutral, although their backgrounds were diverse: the American Mattachine Society and the Dutch COC originated on the left[63], while the French Arcadie circle sprang from the right.[64] Image File history File linksMetadata Mattachine_Review_magazine_cover_Aug_1962. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mattachine_Review_magazine_cover_Aug_1962. ... Cover of French homophile literary journal Arcadie, 1975 The word homophile is an alternative to the word homosexual, preferred by some because it emphasizes love (-phile from Greek φιλία) over sex. ... U.S. homophile publication Mattachine Review, May 1959. ... In politics, individualist anarchism is a variety of anarchism that emphasises the importance of the individual. ... Robert Anton Wilson Robert Anton Wilson or RAW (born January 18, 1932) is a futurist, libertarian, essayist, and novelist. ... Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society. ... Combatants Allies: Soviet Union United States United Kingdom France and others Axis Powers: Germany Japan Italy and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II, also known as the... Sen. ... Cover of French homophile literary journal Arcadie, 1975 The word homophile is an alternative to the word homosexual, preferred by some because it emphasizes love (-phile from Greek φιλία) over sex. ... U.S. homophile publication Mattachine Review, May 1959. ... COC can refer to: Canadian Olympic Committee - The private, non-profit organization representing Canadian athletes in the International Olympic Committee and the Pan American Games. ... Cover of French homophile literary journal Arcadie, 1975 The word homophile is an alternative to the word homosexual, preferred by some because it emphasizes love (-phile from Greek φιλία) over sex. ...


Harry Hay, who is seen by many as the father of the modern gay rights movement in the United States, was originally a trade union activist. In 1934, he organised an important 83-day-long workers' strike of the port of San Francisco with his lover, actor Will Geer. Despite being an active member of the Communist Party, his founding of the Mattachine Society in the early 1950s got him unceremoniously kicked out. A few years earlier (in 1949), Marxist poet and film-maker Pier Paolo Pasolini had also been expelled from the Communist Party in Italy after being arrested for a homosexual act. Homosexuality would continue to be grounds for expulsion from most socialist and communist groups for decades. For the Australian Olympic swimmer, see Henry Hay. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Will Geer (born on March 9, 1902 in Frankfort, Indiana) was an American actor. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is one of several Marxist-Leninist groups in the United States. ... U.S. homophile publication Mattachine Review, May 1959. ... The 1950s were the decade that traditionally speaking, spanned the years 1950 through 1959. ... Pier Paolo Pasolini (March 5, 1922 - November 2, 1975) was an Italian poet, intellectual, film director, and writer. ...


1968 - 1985

Gay liberation and the New Left

U.S. magazine Gay Liberator satirizes Freud and Marx, 1974
U.S. magazine Gay Liberator satirizes Freud and Marx, 1974

The emergence of the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s forced the Left to review its relationship to gender, sexuality and identity politics. Socialist feminism critiqued Marxism for not properly engaging with gender oppression and subsuming it beneath a broader class oppression. Emerging from a number of events, such as the May 1968 insurrection in France, the anti-Vietnam war movement in the U.S and the Stonewall riot of 1969, militant Gay Liberation organisations began to spring up around the world. Many saw their roots in left radicalism more than in the established homophile groups of the time,[65] such as British and American Gay Liberation Front, the British Gay Left Collective, the Italian Fuori!, the French FHAR, the German Rotzschwule, and the Dutch Red Faggots. The Gay Lib leaders and writers also came from a left-wing background, such as Dennis Altman, Martin Duberman, John D'Emilio, David Fernbach (writing in the English language), Pierre Hahn (in French) and the Italian Mario Mieli. Some were inspired by Herbert Marcuse's Eros and Civilization, which attempts to synthesise the ideas of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud. Alhough 60s radical Angela Davis had studied under Marcuse and was greatly influenced by him, she didn't come out until 1999. Image File history File linksMetadata Gay_Liberator_magazine_cover_April_1974. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gay_Liberator_magazine_cover_April_1974. ... The term new social movements (NSM) refers to a plethora of social movements that have come up in various western societies roughly since the mid-1960s (i. ... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ... Socialist feminism is a branch of feminism that focuses upon both the public and private spheres of a womans life and argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both the economic and cultural sources of womens oppression. ... Marxism is the philosophy, social theory and political practice based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German, Jewish, socialist philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary. ... May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up. ... Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States. ... The Stonewall riots were a series of violent conflicts between homosexuals and police officers in New York City. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Gay Liberation Front Poster, New York 1970 Gay Liberation Front (GLF) was the name of a number of Gay Liberation groups, the first of which was formed in New York City in 1969, immediately after the Stonewall riots. ... Dennis Altman (1943-) was a Fullbright scholar at Cornell University in the 1960s when he met and began working with leading gay activists in the United States. ... Martin Bauml Duberman (b. ... John DEmilio is a professor of history and of womens and gender studies at the University of Illinois at Chicago. ... Herbert Marcuse (July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a prominent German-American philosopher and sociologist of Jewish descent, member of the Frankfurt School. ... Eros and Civilization is one of the Herbert Marcuses best known early works. ... Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud (IPA: []) (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Angela Davis in the 1970s Angela Yvonne Davis (born January 26, 1944 in Birmingham, Alabama) is an American radical activist and philosopher who was associated with the Black Panther Party in the 1960s and 1970s. ...


In France, gay activist and political theorist Guy Hocquenghem, like many others, developed a commitment to socialism through participating in the May 1968 insurrection — despite the fact that the young far-left soixante-huitards ('68ers) were initially hostile to "supposedly bourgeois homosexuality".[66] Hocquenghem, like Harry Hay in the U.S, was an active member of the Communist Party who was expelled because of his homosexuality. He later joined the Front Homosexuel d'Action Révolutionnaire (FHAR), formed by radical lesbians who split from the Mouvement Homophile de France in 1971, including the left ecofeminist Françoise d'Eaubonne. That same year, the FHAR became the first homosexual group to demonstrate publicly in France when they joined Paris’s annual May Day march held by trade unions and left-wing parties. However, many on the traditional left opposed their presence: "the Communists characteristically declared in 1972 that “this disorder does not represent the advance guard of society, but the rot of capitalism in its decline.”"[67] May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up. ... The French Communist Party (French: Parti communiste français or PCF) is a political party in France which advocates the principles of communism. ... Gay Liberation (or Gay Lib) is the name used to describe the radical lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s in North America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. ... Cover of French homophile literary journal Arcadie, 1975 The word homophile is an alternative to the word homosexual, preferred by some because it emphasizes love (-phile from Greek φιλία) over sex. ... Ecofeminism is a social and political movement which unites deep ecology and feminism. ... Françoise dEaubonne (March 12, 1920 in Paris - August 3, 2005 in Paris), French feminist, introduced the term ecofeminism (écologie-féminisme, éco-féminisme or écoféminisme) in 1974. ... May Day refers to any of several holidays celebrated on May 1 or in the beginning of May. ...


Socialist groups in the English-speaking world responded to Gay Liberation in one of two main ways. Some, especially those taking their lead from the Soviet Union or China like the Communist Party USA and the Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) (USA), continued to oppose gay rights and expel homosexual members. The Revolutionary Communist Party's policy that "struggle will be waged to eliminate [homosexuality] and reform homosexuals"[68] wasn't abandoned until 2001.[69] The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is one of several Marxist-Leninist groups in the United States. ... The Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) was a Maoist political party in the United States. ... The Revolutionary Communist Party, USA (RCP, USA), known originally as the Revolutionary Union, is a Maoist communist party formed in 1975 in the United States. ...


Other socialists bemoaned the perceived decline of the traditional left and the shift of focus from the labour movement to what they saw as middle-class "side issues", distracting from or watering down the class struggle. Many socialist organisations began to recognise "lesbian and gay oppression", but opposed any separate organising. The large and influential Socialist Workers Party (SWP) in the US released a memo stating that gay oppression had less "social weight" than black and women's struggles, and prohibited members from being involved in gay political organisations.[70] They also believed that too close an association with gay liberation would give the SWP an "exotic image" and alienate it from the masses.[71] The labour movement (or labor movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments. ... The Socialist Workers Party is a communist political party in the United States. ...


In 1977, a group of socialist lesbian and gay activists noted that "the left, broadly speaking, has been very reluctant to support gay liberation and much of the left has actively opposed it, reproducing same of the worst antigay attitudes of straight society".[72] As the Gay Liberation movement began to gain ground, some Socialist organisations' policies evolved, and a small number of groups actively campaigned for gay rights. A notable examples is the feminist Freedom Socialist Party. Logo of Freedom Socialist newspaper: Voice of Revolutionary Feminism The Freedom Socialist Party is a socialist political party with a unique program of revolutionary feminism that emerged from a split in the United States Socialist Workers Party in 1966. ...


Anti-gay laws and civil rights

Meanwhile, at least in the Western World, a broader political trend of extending civil rights to minorities had been developing since the 1960s, which both contributed to Gay Liberation and was furthered by it. Various countries and administrative divisions began to repeal sodomy laws — many were led by socialist or labor party governments,[73] while others were liberal, Christian Democrat[74] or even conservative.[75] Sometimes this decriminalisation of certain sex acts coincided with an increase in prosecutions of homosexuals; this occurred in England[76] and France,[77] while both were under socialist governments. Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... A sodomy law is a law which defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ... The name Labour Party or Labor Party is used by several political parties around the world. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Christian Democracy is a political ideology, born at the end of the 19th century, largely as a result of the papal encyclical Rerum Novarum of Pope Leo XIII, in which the Vatican recognizes workers misery and agrees that something should be done about it, in reaction to the rise of... Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ...


1985 - present

In recent years, significant social and political gains have been made by LGBT communities, while traditional Left has declined. As a result, the Left is more likely to accept or even support sexual and gender diversity than they have historically, while LGBT public figures are somewhat less likely to support the Left. In countries with a degree of social acceptance of homosexuality, a new voice of gay conservatives has emerged — although political conservatism has also been found to be a strong predictor of prejudice against lesbians and gays.[78] Some leftists continue to blame the decline of the Left on "identity politics" (which includes LGBT social movements).[79] This article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ... LGBT social movements is a collective term for a number of movements that share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality and/or transgenderism. ...


New Zealand

In New Zealand, the Socialist Action League was an early supporter of lesbian and gay rights. This Trotskyite organisation could be relied upon to field activists for causes like pro-choice counter-demonstrations against anti-abortion activists at local abortion clinics and supported homosexual law reform in the mid-eighties.


As time went on, the SAL faded from significant active involvement, and the merged Socialist Workers Organisation now also supports LGBT and sex worker rights. There was some common cause between LGBT supporters of sex workers rights and socialists when the former upheld the right to decriminalisation and unionisation amongst sex workers.


New Zealand LGBT community members tend to be centre-left and social democratic in sympathy, supporting the current Labour-led Clark administration (1999- ). There are some areas of contention, such as delays in passing transgender inclusive anti-discrimination laws, inclusive adoption law reform and pharmaceutical supply rationing policies. More recently, some 'workerist' leftists have taken to labelling anything outside traditional trade union and economic redistribution issues as 'identity politics,' while displaying profound ignorance that income maldistribution certainly is relevant to gay men who cannot afford non-subsidised protease inhibitor medication if HIV+ under the current Pharmac regime. Gay leftists find this ignorance and obliviousness annoying.


United States

At the beginning of the 21st century, lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transpeople have greater political purchase than ever before, while the socialist/communist left is in a greatly reduced state. LGBT communities and political movements are less likely than ever to identify with left-wing politics — a nationwide exit poll of the 2000 US election found that a quarter of gays and lesbians voted for rightist candidate George W. Bush, although the same poll showed that seventy percent of gay and lesbians voted for Al Gore and another five percent voted for Ralph Nader. An exit poll is an opinion poll taken after voters have exited the polling stations and is designed to give an early indication as to how an election has turned out as the actual result may take hours to count (such as in UK General Elections) and are usually done... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American businessman and politician, was elected in 2000 as the 43rd President of the United States of America, re-elected in 2004, and is currently serving his second term in that office. ... Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. ... Ralph Nader Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney and political activist. ...


Some sectors of the right, emphasising individual liberties rather than social conservatism, have begun to champion a libertarian perspective on gay rights; gay groups in the US such as the Log Cabin Republicans and the Independent Gay Forum criticise the "left orthodoxy" of the LGBT movement and the perceived promiscuity and effeminacy of gay culture, while championing American "traditional values". The American business community has widely adopted anti-discrimination policies that cover sexual orientation, including 460 of the Fortune 500 (as of 2006).[80] However, the most vocal opposition to LGBT rights comes from the religious right, and broadly speaking, the Left continues to be more supportive of sexual minorities and gender variance than the Right. The American democratic socialist group (the Democratic Socialists of America) endorsed gay rights as part of a larger endorsement of the policies of the Socialist International, although the group doesn't display such support openly on their official website. An American democratic socialist party, Socialist Party USA has run an openly gay man for U.S. president. The libertarian perspective on gay rights has been a topic of debate among libertarians, especially in the United States. ... The Log Cabin Republicans is a political organization in the United States, consisting of gay, lesbian and bisexual supporters of the Republican Party. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... See labrys, black triangle. ... The Fortune 500 is a ranking of the top 500 United States corporations as measured by gross revenue. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... LGBT social movements is a collective term for a number of movements that share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality and/or gender variance. ... The term Religious Right is a broad label applied by both scholars and critics to a number of political and religious movements and groups that primarily are active around conservative and right wing social issues. ... Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) is the largest socialist organization in the United States and the principal U.S. affiliate of the Socialist International, a federation of socialist, social democratic and labour parties and organizations. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... The official symbol of Socialist International The Socialist International (SI) is an international organisation for social democratic and democratic socialist parties. ... The Socialist Party USA (SPUSA) is one of the heirs to the Socialist Party of America of Eugene V. Debs and Norman Thomas. ...


In 2005 the Communist Party USA issued an official statement endorsing LGBT human rights at its national convention and promised to create a national party commission to address the issue, although the party did not aplogize for kicking out gay men from the party [1]. 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is one of several Marxist-Leninist groups in the United States. ... LGBT (or GLBT) is an abbreviation used as a collective term to refer to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ...


Europe

U.K. journal Gay Left, 1978/1979
Enlarge
U.K. journal Gay Left, 1978/1979

Most Leftist groups in Europe now support gay rights, at least on paper. The fringe German Marxist group Neue Einheit maintains a web page denouncing homosexuality and opposing same-sex marriage.[81] RESPECT The Unity Coalition is a new socialist political party in Great Britain, whose leadership is dominated by Trotskyists of the Socialist Workers Party. At its party convention its grassroots membership revolted against the leadership for failing to endorse gay rights in the party manifesto, and some party members, along with other groups on the British left, accused the party leadership of backpeddling on gay rights in order to satify the demand of one of the political party's major financial backers; Dr Mohammed Naseem [2]. Naseem is the founder of the fundamentalist Islamic Party of Britain, and gay rights activists and socialists accused the Respect Party leadership of pandering to the homophobia of conservative Muslim constituents as opposed to working with progressive Muslims and standing up for the rights of gay Muslims. Despite the row that erupted, the Respect Party website does include its official position on gay rights issues [3]. Image File history File linksMetadata Gay_Left_journal_cover_1978-1979. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gay_Left_journal_cover_1978-1979. ... RESPECT The Unity Coalition is a left wing British political party founded on January 25, 2004 in London. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... The Islamic Party of Britain was formed in 1989. ... The word homophobia means fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals. ...


Russia

Online news site Pravda.ru reported that a gay pride march in 2006 was violently attacked by communists, alongside right-wing patriots and Orthodox christians. The leader of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF), Gennady Zyuganov also publicly condemned the gay parade, stating that it was an 'unhealthy' idea.[82] This article describes the Soviet/Russian newspaper. ... Baton twirlers perform in the 2002 Divers-Cité pride parade in downtown Montreal A pride parade is part of a festival or ceremony held by the LGBT community of a city to commemorate the struggle for gay liberation, gay rights, and Lesbian and Gay pride. ... The Russian Orthodox Church (also known as the Orthodox Catholic Church of Russia) (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Communist Party supporters attend a May Day rally in Moscow The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (Russian: Коммунистическая партия Российской Федерации = КПРФ; translit. ... Zyuganov on a November 7 rally Gennady Andreyevich Zyuganov or Guennady Ziuganov (Russian: ) (born 26 June 1944) is a Russian politician, and head of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (since 1993), a member of Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (since 1996). ...


India

Vimla Farooqi, of the National Federation of Indian Women, the women's wing of the Communist Party of India, opposed a gay conference in Bombay in 1994, stating that homosexuality was a western capitalist import.[83] The All India Democratic Women's Association, the women's movement associated with the Communist Party of India (Marxist), has demanded that homosexual relations be decriminalized. In 1996, a Marxist, H. Srikanth, argued at length that homosexuality was a decadent bourgeois perversion that Marxists would proscribe, try to reform by psychiatric treatment, and if these failed, would ‘not hesitate to use force against such homosexual activism.’[84] NFIW logo National Federation of Indian Women, the womens wing of Communist Party of India. ... The Communist Party of India (CPI) is a political party in India. ... All India Democratic Womens Association (in Hindi: अखिल भरतिय जनवादी महिला समिति), the womens wing of Communist Party of India (Marxist). ... The Communist Party of India (Marxist), or CPI(M), is a political party in India. ...


Middle East

The rise of Pan-Arab Socialism in the Muslim Middle East has viewed homosexuality as a capitalist disease and a violation of the teachings of Islam. Socialist and Communist political parties prefer to ignore the issue of gay rights, with the Worker-Communist Parties being the rare exception. In the Republic of Iraq the ruling Baath Party, which described itself as socialist, treated homosexuality as a crime under various laws governing indecency and made it a capital crime in 2001. Egypt, like Iraq until 2001, said nothing about homosexuality or sodomy in the criminal code but views homosexuality as a crime under similar laws against Satanism, spreading false religious teachings, immorality and indecency. Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان) is an adherent of Islam. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... There are some Iranian and Iraqi parties known as Worker-Communist Parties. ... Baath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Sodomy is a term of religious origin used to characterize certain sexual acts. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Nepal

The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) claim to be recruiting homosexuals to their guerrilla forces. The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) or CPN(M) is a Maoist political party and military organization founded in 1994 and led by Pushpa Kamal Dahal (referred to as Chairman Prachanda). It was formed following a split in the Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre) and it used the name...


Philippines

The Communist New People's Army gave its support to legal recognition for same-sex marriages on February 4th 2005. The paramilitary organization performed a marriage ceremony between two male guerilla fighters [4]. The government cited such actions as proof that the Communist guerilla fighters have no moral values or a belief in God. The New Peoples Army, or NPA, is a communist-based revolutionary group in the Philippines, formed in March 29, 1969. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mexico

Although the main queer political organisation of Juchitán de Zaragoza supports the dominant right-wing Institutional Revolutionary Party, muxe (third gender) activist Amaranta Gómez Regalado campaigned as a congressional candidate in the 2003 Oaxaca state elections on a radical left-wing platform, becomg the first transgender person to run in a Mexican election. Juchitán de Zaragoza is an indigenous town in the southeast of the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. ... The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) is a Mexican political party that wielded hegemonic power in the country—under a succession of names—for more than 70 years. ... In Zapotec cultures of Oaxaca (southern Mexico), a muxe (or muxhe) is a physically male individual who dresses and behaves in a feminine manner; they may be seen as a third gender. ... Third gender was used from the late 19th century to describe people who did not fit into the then existing gender categories: female genitalia = female identity = female behavior = desire male partner male genitalia = male identity = male behavior = desires female partner Today this scheme is also known as binary gender system...


Venezuela

See main article: Gay rights in Venezuela This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


External links

  • Gay Left entry in GLBTQ encyclopedia.

References

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  2. ^ Fourier, Charles, Le Nouveau Monde amoureux (written 1816-18, not published widely until 1967: Paris: Éditions Anthropos). pp. 389, 391, 429, 458, 459, 462, and 463.
  3. ^ Engels, Friedrich, 1882. Socialism: Utopian and Scientific, in 'Marx and Engels, Selected Works in One Volume', p. 403.
  4. ^ Marx, Karl (1844). Economic and philosophic manuscripts of 1844. ed. Dirk J. Struik, translated by Martin Milligan (Moscow: Progress; New York: International, 1964). p. 133
  5. ^ Poldervaart, Saskia. 1995. Theories About Sex and Sexuality in Utopian Socialism. In 'Journal of Homosexuality.' New York: Sep 30, 1995. Vol.29, Iss. 2/3; pg. 41
  6. ^ Most of the information on this incident is taken from: Kennedy, Hubert, Johann Baptist von Schweitzer: The Queer Marx Loved to Hate. In: 'Journal of Homosexuality' (ISSN 0091-8369) Volume: 29 Issue: 2/3, pp 69-96. Hereafter, original sources cited by Kennedy are given.
  7. ^ The letter, dated June 22 1869, is published in Marx, Karl, Engels, Friedrich: Collected Works, vols. 42, 43 (New York: International,1988), 43: 295–96
  8. ^ Linsert, Richard. 1931. Kabale und Liebe: Uber Politik und Geschlechtsleben. Berlin, Man.
    See also:
    • Footman, David, 1947. Ferdinand Lassalle, Romantic Revolutionary (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1947; reprint, New York: Greenwood, 1969), p. 182.
    • Mayer, Gustav, 1909. Johann Baptist von Schweitzer und die Sozialdemokratie, ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung (Jena: Gustav Fisher, 1909). p 91
  9. ^ Karl Marx, Frederick Engels: Collected Works, vols. 42, 43 (New York: International,1988), 42: 120
  10. ^ Engels, Friedrich. The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State (New York: International, 1972), pp. 61–62.
  11. ^ Marx, Karl. Early Writings, trans. and ed. T. B. Bottomore. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, in the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts (Third manuscript, section on private property and communism), p. 154.
  12. ^ Boruttau, Karl. Gedanken über Gewissens Freiheit, Thoughts on Freedom of Conscience
  13. ^ Marx Engels Werke, vol. 32 (Berlin: Dietz, 1965). p. 124
  14. ^ Engels. Friedrich, The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. Translated by Alec West, in "Selected Works in One Volume" (Moscow: Progress; New York: International, 1968). p. 511
  15. ^ Hekma, Gert; Oosterhuis, Harry; and Steakley, James (1995). Leftist sexual politics and Homosexuality: A Historical Overview. Journal of Homosexuality, 1995, Volume 29, Issue 2/3. ISSN 0091-8369 — Simultaneously published as: Gay men and the sexual history of the political left, Gert Hekma et al. Eds. Harrington Park Press 1995, ISBN 1560230673.
  16. ^ Hekma et al. (1995). p. 14
  17. ^ Bebel, August (1879). Woman under Socialism. translated by Daniel De Leon, New York: New York Labor Press, 1904. pp 164 - 165. In a footnote added in 1909, he remarked that the Eulenburg scandal proved that homosexuality was widespread in the upper classes.
  18. ^ Robynski. 1994. Nechaev And Bakunin: Left Libertarianism's Lavender Lineage. Northcote, Vic: Autonomous Tendency.
  19. ^ Confino, Michael (ed.) Daughter of a Revolutionary: Natalie Herzen and the Bakunin-Nechayev Circle, trans. Hilary Sternberg and Lydia Bott (LaSalle, IL: Library, 1974), pp. 273, 275.
  20. ^ According to his biographer Neil McKenna, Wilde was part of a secret organisation that aimed to legalise homosexuality, and was known among the group as a leader of "the Cause". (McKenna, Neil. 2003. The Secret Life of Oscar Wilde.)
  21. ^ "[P]rior to World War I and into the 1920s, German anarchists — especially when compared with the Social Democrats — intervened consistently on behalf of individual self-determination extending into the sexual sphere, even though an undercurrent of hostility toward homosexuals persisted within the leftist movement as a whole." (Fähnders, Walter. 1995. Anarchism and Homosexuality in Wilhelmine Germany: Senna Hoy, Erich Mühsam, John Henry Mackay. Journal of Homosexuality Volume: 29 Issue: 2/3)
  22. ^ See, for example, Heywood, Ezra, 1876. Cupid's Yokes: or, The Binding Forces of Conjugal Life: An Essay to Consider Some Moral and Physiological Phases of Love and Marriage, Wherein Is Asserted the Natural Rights and Necessity of Sexual Self Government. Princeton, MA: Co-operative Publishing.
  23. ^ Messer-Kruse, Timothy. 1998. The Yankee International: 1848-1876. (University of North Carolina)
  24. ^ Ibid.
  25. ^ Poldevaart, Saskia, 2000 The Recurring Movements of ‘Free Love’, Written for the workshop ‘Free Love and the Labour Movement’, Second workshop in the series ‘Socialism and Sexuality’. International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, 6 October 2000
  26. ^ Karlinsky, Simon. 1981. "The Menshivik, Bolshevik, Stalinist Feminist", January 4, 1981, New York Times. full text online
  27. ^ Researching the "Father of the Homosexual Movement" and the "Godmother of the Homo-Sexual Reform Movement" - The Magnus Hirschfeld society of Berlin.
  28. ^ Sochen, June. 1972. The New Woman: Feminism in Greenwich Village 1910-1920. New York: Quadrangle.
  29. ^ Cott, Nancy. 1987. The Grounding of Modern Feminism, New Haven/London.
  30. ^ Katz, Jonathan Ned. Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A. (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1976)
  31. ^ Hirschfeld, Magnus, 1914. Die Homosexualität des Mannes und des Weibes (Berlin: Louis Marcus)
  32. ^ Linse, Ulrich, Individualanarchisten, Syndikalisten, Bohémiens, in "Berlin um 1900", ed. Gelsine Asmus (Berlin: Berlinische Galerie, 1984)
  33. ^ Otto Gross
  34. ^ Mosse, George L. Nationalism and Sexuality: Respectability and Abnormal Sexuality in Modern Europe. New York: Howard Fertig, 1985.
  35. ^ Quoted in Cleminson, Richard. 1995. Male inverts and homosexuals: Sex discourse in the Anarchist Revista Blanca, Published in Gert Hekma et al. (eds.)"Gay men and the sexual history of the political left" by Harrington Park Press 1995, ISBN 1 56023 067 3.
  36. ^ Howard, Martin, 1998. Anarchism, Heterosexism and Secular Religions, Black Flag (newspaper), April 1998. full text online
  37. ^ Guérin, Daniel, 1965. Proudhon et l’amour "unisexuel" in Arcadie nos. 133 (January 1965) & 134 (February 1965); see also: Guérin, Daniel, Proudhon oui et non (Paris : Gallimard, 1978).
  38. ^ Copley, Antony. 1989. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon: A Reassessment of his role as a Moralist. In: 'French History', Volume 3 no. 2 June 1989
  39. ^ *The Parti Communiste Français was "hysterically intransigent as far as ’moral behaviour’ was concerned" (Aragon, victime et profiteur du tabou, in Gai Pied Hebdo, 4 June 1983, reproduced in Homosexualité et Révolution, pp. 62-3, quote p. 63.);
    • The trotskyist Pierre Lambert's OCI was "completely hysterical with regard to homosexuality"; Lutte ouvrire was theoretically opposed to homosexuality ; as was the Ligue communiste, despite their belatedly paying lip service to gay lib. (à confesse, Interview with Gérard Ponthieu in Sexpol no. 1 (20 January 1975), pp.10-14.)
    • Together, Guérin argued, such groups bore a great deal of responsiblity for fostering homophobic attitudes among the working class as late as the 1970s. Their attitude was "the most blinkered, the most reactionary, the most antiscientific". (Etre homosexuel et révolutionnaire, La Quinzaine littéraire, no. 215, no. spécial : ‘Les homosexualités’ (August 1975), pp. 9-10. Quote p. 10)
  40. ^ Guérin, Daniel. 1975. Etre homosexuel et révolutionnaire, La Quinzaine littéraire, no. 215, no. spécial : ‘Les homosexualités’ (August 1975), pp. 9-10.
  41. ^ Letter of 27 May 1955, Fonds Guérin, BDIC, F° Δ 721/carton 12/4, quoted in Chaperon, ‘Le fonds Daniel Guérin et l’histoire de la sexualité’ in Journal de la BDIC, no.5 (June 2002), p.10
  42. ^ Berry, David. 2003. For a dialectic of homosexuality and revolution. Paper for "Conference on "Socialism and Sexuality. Past and present of radical sexual politics", Amsterdam, 3-4 October 2003. full text online
  43. ^ Frédéric Martel, Le rose et le noir. Les homosexuels en France depuis 1968 (Paris : Seuil, 2000), pp.46
  44. ^ Quoted from Siegfried Tornow, "Maennliche Homosexualitaet und Politik in Sowjet-Russland," in Homosexualitaet und Wissenschaft II, Berlin: Verlag Rosa Winkel 1992, p. 281
  45. ^ Halle, Randall (1995). Between Marxism and Psychoanalysis: Antifascism and Antihomosexuality in the Frankfurt school. Journal of Homosexuality, 1995, Volume 29, Issue 2/3. ISSN 0091-8369
    see also: Žižek, Slavoj, Repeating Lenin, for Lacan.com 1997/2001
  46. ^ David Carroll, French Literary Fascism: Nationalism, Anti-Semitism, and the Ideology of Culture (Princeton, NJ, 1995), 147–58.
  47. ^ Carolyn J. Dean, The Self and Its Pleasures: Bataille, Lacan, and the History of the Decentered Subject (Ithaca, NY, 1992), esp. 86 –97. Lacan wrote of the connection between "virile display" and femininity in The Signification of the Phallus, in Ecrits: A Selection, trans. Alan Sheridan (New York, 1977), 291.
  48. ^ Dean, Carolyn J. 2004. The Fragility of Empathy after the Holocaust. (Ithaca, NY), chap. 4.
  49. ^ Burleigh, Michael and Wippermann, Wolfgang. 1993. The Racial State: Germany 1933-1945. New York, Cambridge University Press. See excerpt: Hitler's Homosexual Policies
  50. ^ Oosterhuis, Harry, The ”Jews” of the Antifascist Left: Homosexuality and the Socialist Resistance to Nazism. in Journal of Homosexuality (ISSN 0091-8369) Volume: 29 Issue: 2/3
  51. ^ Meters, Mark. 2006. Feminizing Fascist Men: Crowd Psychology, Gender, and Sexuality in French Antifascism, 1929–1945, French Historical Studies, Vol. 29, No. 1 (Winter 2006). Meyers gives the following references:
    • Literary critic Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick gives multiple examples to support the claim that an association of fascism with homosexuality is part of a "dangerously homophobic folk wisdom now endemic in both high- and middle-brow culture" (Tendencies [Durham, NC, 1993], 49n14);
    • Hewitt, Andrew. 1996. Political Inversions: Homosexuality, Fascism, and the Modernist Imaginary (Stanford, CA);
    • Frost, Laura. 2002. Sex Drives: Fantasies of Fascism in Literary Modernism (Ithaca, NY);
    • Slane, Andrea. 2001. A Not So Foreign Affair: Fascism, Sexuality, and the Cultural Rhetoric of American Democracy (Durham, NC)
  52. ^ Healey, Dan, 2002. Homosexual Existence and Existing Socialism: New Light on the Repression of Male Homosexuality in Stalin’s Russia. In: 'GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies', Volume 8, Number 3, 2002, p. 353
    • After reading Inessa Armand's pamphlet for women workers, Lenin wrote to her: “I suggest you delete altogether paragraph 3 dealing with ‘the demand (on the part of women) for free love.’ This is, in fact, a bourgeois, not a proletarian demand.” (Jan. 17, 1915 letter to Inessa Armand, Collected Works vol. 34).
    • Clara Zetkin recalls that Lenin criticised the free love advocated by fellow Communist Alexandra Kollontai as "completely un-Marxist, and moreover, anti-social", presenting procreation within a monogamous marriage as a more legitimate context for sexuality. Zetkin also recounts Lenin's denouncement of plans to organise Hamburg’s women prostitutes into a “special revolutionary militant section”: he saw this as “corrupt and degenerate.” (Zetkin, Clara, 1934, Lenin on the Woman Question, New York: International , p.7. Published in Reminiscences of Lenin. Text online: translation 1 translation 2).
  53. ^ Hekma, Oosterhuis and Steakley (1995). p. 23. The authors also cite: Fannina W. Halle, Women in Soviet Russia, translated by Margaret M. Green (New Yoork, Viking, 1933). pp. 112-114
  54. ^ Zetkin, Clara, 1934. op cit.
  55. ^ Pollard, Patrick. Gide in the U.S.S.R.: Some Observations on Comradeship, in Journal of Homosexuality (ISSN 0091-8369) Volume: 29 Issue: 2/3
  56. ^ Evans, Jennifer V. The moral state : men, mining, and masculinity in the early GDR. In: "German History", 23 (2005) 3 , 355-370
  57. ^ Arenas, Reinaldo. Before Night Falls. Penguin Books. ISBN 0140157654
  58. ^ Minning, Heidi, 2000. Who is the 'I' in "I love you"?: The negotiation of gay and lesbian identitites in former East Berlin, Germany, In: 'Anthropology of East Europe Review', Volume 18, Number 2, Autumn, 2000
  59. ^ Homosexuality in China
  60. ^ China: Police Shut Down Gay, Lesbian Event, December 20 report from Human Rights Watch
  61. ^ Ibid.
  62. ^ Restrictions on AIDS Activists in China, June 2005, Human Rights Watch
  63. ^ On Mattahine's left beginnings, see: John D'Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States, 1940-1970. (Chicago: University of Chicago press, 1983). On the COC, see: Hans Warmerdam and Pieter Koenders, Cultuur en ontspanning: Het COC 1946-1966 (Utrecht: NVIH, COC & Interfacultaire Werkgroep Homostudies, Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht, 1987), p. 58.
  64. ^ Among the founders of Arcadie, André Baudry was a moderate, while Jacques de Ricaumont and Roger Peyrefitte were conservatives. See Jacques Girard, Le mouvement homosexuel en France 1945-1980 (Paris: Syros, 1981); pp. 39-73.
  65. ^ Gay movement boosted by ’79 march on Washington, Lou Chabarro 2004 for the Washington Blade.
  66. ^ Martel, Frédéric. 1999. The Pink and the Black: Homosexuals in France since 1968 (translated by Jane Marie Todd). Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8047-3273-6 or ISBN 0-8047-3274-4
  67. ^ Sibalis, Michael, 2005. Gay Liberation Comes to France: The Front Homosexuel d’Action Révolutionnaire (FHAR), French History and Civilization. Papers from the George Rudé Seminar. Volume 1.
  68. ^ Revolutionary Communist Party. On the Question of Homosexuality and the Emancipation of Women. Revolution. Spring 1988.
  69. ^ RCP Draft New Programme 2001
  70. ^ SWP and Gay Lib
  71. ^ Lesbian and Gay Liberation: A Trotskyist Analysis
  72. ^ The Last Word: Gay liberation, by Michael Beer, Peter Biskind, Laura Brousseau, Julianne Burton, Daniel Cetinich, Leslie Clark, Stephanie Goldberg, Linda Greene, John Hess, Judith Hess, Chuck Kleinhans, Robin Lakes, Ernie Larsen, Julia Lesage, Sherry Miner, Gerald Peary, Dana Polan, Ruby Rich, Kimberly Safford, Robert Stam, Anna Marie Taylor, William Van Wert, Linda Vick, Linda Williams. Published in "Jump Cut", no. 16, 1977, pp. 39-40 text online
  73. ^ England (1967), West Germany (1969)
  74. ^ The Netherlands (1971)
  75. ^ In the US and Australia, where sodomy laws are part of state (not federal) legislatures, they have been repealed by both major parties.
  76. ^ Weeks, Jeffrey, (1977), Coming Out: Homosexual Politics in Britain, from the Nineteenth Century to the Present. (London: Quartet, 1977). p. 176
  77. ^ Jan Willem Duyvendak and Mattias Duyves (1993). Gai Pied after Ten Years: A Commercial Success, a Moral Bankruptcy? in Journal of Homosexuality 25. 1-2 (1993) p.211.
  78. ^ *Estrada, A. X., & Weiss, D. J. (1999). Attitudes of military personnel toward homosexuals. Journal of Homosexuality,37, 83 – 97.
    • Mohr, J. J., & Rochlen, A. B. (1999). Measuring attitudes regarding bisexuality in lesbian, gay male and heterosexual populations. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46, 353 – 369.
    • Victor, S. B. (1996). Measuring attitudes toward lesbian mothers and their children among school psychologists: A new scale and correlates to the attitude measure. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, City University of New York.
    • Gonzalez-Rivera, Milagrito (2006). Attitudes toward homosexuality among U.S. residents of Mexican descent. The Journal of Sex Research; 5/1/2006. Article online.
  79. ^ Gitlin, T. (1994) From universality to difference: Notes on the fragmentation of the idea of the Left, in C. Calhoun (ed.) Social Theory and the Politics of Identity. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell: 150–74.
    Also: Gitlin, T. (1995) The Twilight of Common Dreams: Why America Is Wracked by Culture Wars. New York: Metropolitan Books.
  80. ^ Equality Forum, “Fortune 500 Project,” October 31, 2005.
  81. ^ Labour Movement and the Rejection of Homosexuality; http://www.neue-einheit.com/english/homoeng.htm (1998).
  82. ^ French communists end relations with Russian Communist Party because of gay scandal, by Pyotr Alekseyev, 09.06.2006, for Pravda.Ru
  83. ^ The Pioneer (daily), 1 November 1994.
  84. ^ ‘Natural is not always Rational’, Economic and Political Weekly, 13 April 1996.

Jeffrey Renwick Weeks is an American mathematician. ... New Internationalist Publications is a co-operative-run publisher based in Oxford. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820, Wuppertal – August 5, 1895, London), a 19th-century German political philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and socialist revolutionary. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was an immensely influential German philosopher, political economist, and socialist revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820 - August 5, 1895) was a German Socialist philosopher and the co-founder of modern Communist theory with Karl Marx. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820, Wuppertal – August 5, 1895, London), a 19th-century German political philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... August Ferdinand Bebel (February 22, 1840 – March 18, 1913) was a German social democrat and one of the founders of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. ... The Harden-Eulenburg affair, often simply Eulenburg affair, was the controversy surrounding a series of courts-martial and five regular trials regarding accusations of homosexual conduct, and accompanying libel trials, among prominent members of Kaiser Wilhelm IIs cabinet and entourage during 1907-1909. ... Ezra Heywood was a 19th century North American individualist anarchist, slavery abolitionist, and feminist. ... Ibid (Latin, short for ibidem, the same place) is the term used to provide an endnote or footnote citation or reference for a source that was cited in the last endnote or footnote. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Magnus Hirschfeld Magnus Hirschfeld (Kolberg, May 14, 1868 - Nice, May 14, 1935) was a prominent German physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate. ... Black Flag (Organ Of The Anarchist Black Cross) is the name of a British anarchist newspaper, mainly known for its coverage of international anarchist politics as well as supporting class war prisoners. ... Cover of French homophile literary journal Arcadie, 1975 The word homophile is an alternative to the word homosexual, preferred by some because it emphasizes love (-phile from Greek φιλία) over sex. ... The logo of the PCF. Note the absence of traditional communist imagery such as the hammer and sickle. ... Pierre Lambert (born June 9, 1920) (real name Pierre Boussel) is a French Trotskyist leader. ... Workers Struggle (Lutte Ouvrière) is the usual name under which the Communist Union (Trotskyist) (Union Communiste (Trotskyste)), a French Trotskyist political party, is known (technically, it is the name of the weekly paper edited by the party). ... See Communist League (disambiguation) for other groups of the same name. ... Daniel Guérin (May 19, 1904-April 14, 1988) was a French anarchist and author. ... Slavoj Žižek Slavoj Žižek (born March 21, 1949) is a Slovenian sociologist, philosopher and cultural critic. ... Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick (b. ... Inessa Armand (born Inès Stéphane; May 8, 1874–September 24, 1920) was a French-born Communist who spent most of her life in Russia. ... Clara Zetkin, maiden name Eissner (born 5 July 1857 in Wiederau, Saxony; died 20 June 1933 in Archangelskoye near Moscow) was an influential socialist German politician and a fighter for womens rights. ... The term free love has been used since at least the nineteenth century to describe a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage, especially for women. ... Alexandra Mikhailovna Kollontai (Алекса́ндра Миха́йловна Коллонта́й — born Domontovich, Домонто́вич) (March 31 [O.S. March 19] 1872 - March 9, 1952) was a Russian Communist revolutionary, first as a member of the Mensheviks, then from 1914 on as a Bolshevik. ... Clara Zetkin, maiden name Eissner (born 5 July 1857 in Wiederau, Saxony; died 20 June 1933 in Archangelskoye near Moscow) was an influential socialist German politician and a fighter for womens rights. ... Op cit - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Reinaldo Arenas (born July 16, 1943 in Holguín, Cuba, died December 7, 1990 in New York) was a Cuban poet, novelist, and playwright who spent most of his life fighting the Fidel Castro regime through his art. ... Young men sipping tea, reading poetry, and making love; Individual panel from a hand scroll on homosexual themes, paint on silk; China, Qing Dynasty (eighteenth to nineteenth centuries); Kinsey Institute, Bloomington, Indiana The situation of homosexuality in China and Taiwan is currently quite ambiguous, although many instances have been recorded... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a U.S.-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research on human rights. ... Ibid (Latin, short for ibidem, the same place) is the term used to provide an endnote or footnote citation or reference for a source that was cited in the last endnote or footnote. ... The Washington Blade is the main gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered newspaper in the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area. ... Jeffrey Weeks (Born 1945, in Rhondda, Wales) is a historian and sociologist specialising in work on sexuality, and is also a gay activist. ... This article describes the Soviet/Russian newspaper. ... Logo of the Pioneer Daily The Pioneer is an English language newspaper in India. ...

Further reading

  • Journal of Homosexuality, 1995, Volume 29, Issue 2/3. ISSN 0091-8369 — Simultaneously published as: Gay men and the sexual history of the political left, Gert Hekma et al. Eds. Harrington Park Press 1995, ISBN 1560230673.
  • Hidden From History: Reclaiming The Gay and Lesbian Past 1988.
  • Eileen Phillips (editor), (1983), The Left and The Erotic, London: Lawrence and Wishart, 184 pages, ISDN 5315 584 4
  • Engels, Homophobia and the Left By Max Elbaum 2002. online text
  • Marxist Theory of Homosexuality 1993. online text
  • Homosexual Existence and Existing Socialism New Light on the Repression of Male Homosexuality in Stalin's Russia By Dan Healey. 2002. GLQ 8:3, pp. 349 - 378.

 
 

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