FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Social democracy" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Social democracy
Part of the Politics series on
Social democracy
Precursors
The Age of Enlightenment
Utopian socialism
Trade Unionism
The Revolutions of 1848
Orthodox Marxism
Politics
Representative democracy
Labour rights
Civil liberties
Welfare state
Mixed economy
Secularism
Fair trade
Environmental protection
Organizations
Social democratic parties
Socialist International
Party of European Socialists
ITUC
Important figures
Eduard Bernstein
Hjalmar Branting
Friedrich Ebert
Jean Jaurès
Léon Blum
Karl Kautsky
Ignacy Daszyński
Ramsay MacDonald
Clement Attlee
Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

Social democracy is a political ideology that emerged in the late 19th century out of the socialist movement.[1] Modern social democracy is unlike socialism in the traditional sense which aims to end the predominance of the capitalist system, or in the Marxist sense which aims to to replace it entirely; instead, social democrats aim to reform capitalism democratically through state regulation and the creation of state sponsored programs and organizations which work to ameliorate or remove perceived injustices inflicted by the capitalist market system. The term itself is also used to refer to the particular kind of society that social democrats advocate. While some consider social democracy a moderate type of socialism, others, defining socialism in the traditional or Marxist sense, reject that designation. This latter attitude is perhaps reinforced by the use of the term by some to describe the economic position of modern liberals, sharing as they do policy aims with social democrats, any differences between the two groups being of degree rather than kind. For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern Socialist thought. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... Orthodox Marxism is the term used to describe the version of Marxism which emerged after the death of Karl Marx and acted as the official philosophy of the Second International up to the First World War and of the Third International thereafter. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Labor rights are laws created in order to always have fairness and keep peace between employees and employers. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... The Welfare State of the United Kingdom was prefigured in the William Beveridge Report in 1942, which identified five Giant Evils in society: squalor, ignorance, want, idleness and disease. ... A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ... This article is about secularism. ... For other uses, see Fair trade (disambiguation). ... Environmental movement is a term often used for any social or political movement directed towards the preservation, restoration, or enhancement of the natural environment. ... This is a list of parties in the world that consider themselves to be upholding the principles and values of social democracy. ... The official symbol of Socialist International. ... The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a European political party whose members are 33 social democratic, socialist and labour parties of the European Union member states as well as Norway. ... The International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) is the worlds largest trade union federation. ... Eduard Bernstein Eduard Bernstein (January 6, 1850 - December 18, 1932) was a German social democratic theoretician and politician, member of the SPD, and founder of evolutionary socialism or reformism. ... Hjalmar Branting (November 23, 1860 – February 24, 1925) was a Swedish statesman and the countrys chief Social Democratic leader. ... This is not the Friedrich Ebert involved in the founding of the GDR, but rather his father. ... Jean Jaurès. ... Léon Blum Léon Blum (9 April 1872 - 30 March 1950), was the Prime Minister of France three times: from 1936 to 1937, for one month in 1938, and from December 1946 to January 1947. ... Karl Kautsky (October 18, 1854 - October 17, 1938) was a leading theoretician of social democracy. ... Ignacy DaszyÅ„ski Ignacy DaszyÅ„ski (1866-1936) was a Polish politician. ... James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... An ideology is a collection of ideas. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... Justice is a concept involving the fair and moral treatment of all persons, especially in law. ... Social liberalism is either a synonym for new liberalism or a label used by progressive liberal parties in order to differentiate themselves from the more conservative liberal parties, especially when there are two or more liberal parties in a country. ...


Social democratic parties initially advocated socialism in the strict sense, achieved by class struggle as defined by the Orthodox Marxists within or affiliated with the Social Democratic Party of Germany: August Bebel, Eduard Bernstein, Friedrich Engels, Karl Kautsky and Wilhelm Liebknecht.[1] Schisms within the party during the early 20th century led to the desertion of the revolutionary socialists, and the primacy of Bernstein's evolutionary or reformist democratic path for social progress within the social democratic movement.[1] Throughout Europe, a number of other socialist parties simultaneously rejected revolutionary socialism, and the followers of these movements ultimately came to identify themselves as social democrats or democratic socialists. Consequently, while social democrats share many views with the democratic socialists, they often differ on specific policy issues. While social democracy is currently the strongest current of socialism in international politics, followed quite closely by democratic socialism[citation needed], the two movements often share political parties, such as the British Labour Party in the 1980s, and the Brazilian Workers' Party today.[2] The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... Orthodox Marxism is the term used to describe the version of Marxism which emerged after the death of Karl Marx and acted as the official philosophy of the Second International up to the First World War and of the Third International thereafter. ... SPD redirects here. ... August Ferdinand Bebel (February 22, 1840 – March 18, 1913) was a German social democrat and one of the founders of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. ... Eduard Bernstein Eduard Bernstein (January 6, 1850 - December 18, 1932) was a German social democratic theoretician and politician, member of the SPD, and founder of evolutionary socialism or reformism. ... Engels redirects here. ... Karl Kautsky (October 18, 1854 - October 17, 1938) was a leading theoretician of social democracy. ... Wilhelm Liebknecht Wilhelm Liebknecht (March 29, 1826 - August 7, 1900) was a German social democrat, one of the founders of the SPD and father of Karl Liebknecht and Theodor Liebknecht. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Flag of the Revolutionary Socialists Revolutionary Socialism is a political ideology based on the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels advocating the revolutionary yet democratic liberation of the Proletariat. ... Reformism (also called revisionism or revisionist theory) is the belief that gradual changes in a society can ultimately change its fundamental structures. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Democratic socialism advocates socialism as a basis for the economy and democracy as a governing principle. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The Partido dos Trabalhadores (Portuguese for Workers Party) is a left-wing political party in Brazil. ...


One way to delineate between social democratic parties and movements and democratic socialist ones is to think of social democracy as moving left from capitalism and democratic socialism as moving right from Marxism: in other words, a mainstream leftist party in a state with a market economy and a mostly middle class voting base might be described as a social democratic party, while a party with a more radical agenda and an intellectual or working class voting base that has a history of involvement with further left movements might be described as a democratic socialist party[3]. However, this is not always the case. The British Labour Party charter identifies the party as a "democratic socialist party,"[4] even though the current and former leader, Gordon Brown[5] and Tony Blair[6], self-identify as social democrats. “Leftism” redirects here. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. ... The term far left refers to the relative position a person or group occupies within the political spectrum. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency...


The Socialist International (SI), a worldwide organization of social democratic and democratic socialist parties, defines social democracy as an ideal form of democracy that can solve the problems found in unregulated capitalism[citation needed]. The SI emphasizes the following principles: first, freedom—not only individual liberties, but also freedom from discrimination and freedom from dependence on either the owners of the means of production or the holders of abusive political power; second, equality and social justice—not only before the law but also economic and socio-cultural equality as well, and equal opportunities for all including those with physical, mental, or social disabilities; and, third, solidarity—unity and a sense of compassion for the victims of injustice and inequality. These ideals are described in further detail in the SI's Declaration of Principles[7]. The official symbol of Socialist International. ... Democratic socialism advocates socialism as a basis for the economy and democracy as a governing principle. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... This box:      Most broadly, discrimination is the discernment of qualities and rejection of subjects with undesirable qualities. ... Means of production (abbreviated MoP; German: Produktionsmittel), also called means of labour are the materials, tools and other instruments used by workers to make products. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ...


Social democratic parties originally included both democratic socialists and revolutionary socialists. Indeed, the split with the revolutionary socialists, including Rosa Luxemburg and Vladimir Lenin, was spectacularly hostile. After World War I and the Russian Revolution, many leading social democrats, including Eduard Bernstein, were explicitly non-revolutionary. Consequently, as the years passed, the Bolsheviks and other Marxist-Leninist parties ultimately adopted a strategy of publicly denouncing social democrats as "social fascists." Democratic socialism advocates socialism as a basis for the economy and democracy as a governing principle. ... Flag of the Revolutionary Socialists Revolutionary Socialism is a political ideology based on the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels advocating the revolutionary yet democratic liberation of the Proletariat. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... Lenin redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... During the late 1920s and early 30s, Communist Party leaders linked to the Communist International (such as Rajani Palme Dutt and Joseph Stalin) argued that capitalist society had entered a third period in which social fascism posed a threat. ...

Contents

History

Pre-war—social democracy and Marxism

Many parties in the second half of the 19th century described themselves as social democratic, such as the German Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein and the Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei (which merged to form the Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands), the British Social Democratic Federation and the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. In most cases these parties were avowedly revolutionary socialist which were not only seeking to introduce socialism, but also to introduce democracy in undemocratic countries. Most of these parties were to some degree influenced by the works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who were still actively working to influence European politics from London. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The General German Workers Association, in German Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein, ADAV) was founded on 23 May 1863 by Ferdinand Lassalle and existed under this name until 1875, when it combined with August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknechts SDAP to form the Socialist Workers Party of Germany, what is now the... The Social Democratic Workers Party of Germany, in German Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SDAP, was a German left-wing political party founded in 1869 in Eisenach, Germany by, among others, Wilhelm Liebknecht and August Bebel. ... SPD redirects here. ... This article is about the British political party. ... The Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party, or RSDLP (Росси́йская Социа́л-Демократи́ческая Рабо́чая Па́ртия = РСДРП), also known as the Russian Social-Democratic Workers Party and the Russian Social-Democratic Party, was a revolutionary socialist Russian political party formed in 1898 in Minsk to unite the various revolutionary organizations into one party. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The modern social democratic current came into being through a break within the socialist movement in the early 20th century, between two groups holding different views on the ideas of Karl Marx.[1] Many related movements, including pacifism, anarchism, and syndicalism, arose at the same time; these ideologies were often promulgated by individuals who split from the preexisting socialist movement, and held a variety of quite different objections to Marxism. The social democrats, who had created the largest socialist organizations of that era, did not reject Marxism (and in fact claimed to uphold it), but a number of key individuals wanted to reform Marx's arguments in order to promulgate a less hostile criticism of capitalism. They argued that socialism should be achieved through evolution of society rather than revolution. Such views were strongly opposed by the revolutionary socialists, who argued that any attempt to reform capitalism was doomed to fail, for the reformers would be gradually corrupted and eventually turn into capitalists themselves. Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Syndicalism refers to a set of ideas, movements, and tendencies which share the avowed aim of transforming capitalist society through action by the working class on the industrial front. ...

Part of the Politics series on
Socialism
Currents

Communism
Democratic socialism
Eco-socialism
Guild socialism
Libertarian socialism
Market socialism
Revolutionary socialism
Social democracy
Socialist market economy
Utopian socialism
For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Democratic socialism advocates socialism as a basis for the economy and democracy as a governing principle. ... Eco-socialism or Green socialism is an ideology fusing Green movement values with socialism. ... Guild socialism was a British political movement in the 1890s-1920s that wanted to give each local workplace sovereignity. ... Libertarian socialism is a group of political philosophies that aim to create a society without political, economic or social hierarchies - a society in which all violent or coercive institutions would be dissolved, and in their place every person would have free, equal access to tools of information and production, or... Market socialism is a term used to define a number of economic system(s) in which the means of production are owned either by the state or by the workers collectively, however unlike traditional socialism there is market that is directed and guided by socialist planners. ... Flag of the Revolutionary Socialists Revolutionary Socialism is a political ideology based on the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels advocating the revolutionary yet democratic liberation of the Proletariat. ... Market socialism is an attempt by a Soviet-style economy to introduce market elements into its economic system to improve economic growth. ... Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern Socialist thought. ...

Regional variants

African socialism
Arab socialism
Chinese socialism
Jewish socialism
Melanesian socialism
Zionist socialism
African socialism is a belief in sharing economic resources in a traditional African way, as distinct from classical socialism. ... Arab Socialism (ar. ... This article is about the term itself and its relationships. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגעמײַנער ײדישער אַרבעטער בונד אין ליטע פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד, from German: meaning federation or union) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party in several European countries... The concept of Melanesian socialism was first advocated by Father Walter Lini of the New Hebrides (now Vanuatu), who became the countrys first prime minister upon its independence from France and the United Kingdom in 1980. ... Labor Zionism (or Socialist Zionism, Labour Zionism) is the traditional left wing of the Zionist ideology and was historically oriented towards the Jewish workers movement. ...

Religious socialism

Buddhist socialism
Christian socialism
Islamic socialism
Religious socialism describes socialism that is inspired by religious values, such as Christian socialism or Islamic socialism. ... GP Malalasekara of Sri Lanka wrote about Buddhist socialism in an article published in , 1972. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian socialism generally refers to those... Islamic socialism is a term coined by various Muslim leaders to counter the demand at home for a more spiritual form of socialism. ...

Key issues

Criticisms of socialism
History of socialism
Socialist economics
Socialist state
Types of socialism
Criticisms of socialism range from disagreements over the efficiency of socialist economic and political models, to condemnation of states described by themselves or others as socialist. ... The history of socialism, sometimes termed modern socialism,[1] finds its origins in the French Revolution of 1789 and the changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution, although it has precedents in earlier movements and ideas. ... Socialist economics is a broad, and sometimes controversial, term. ... The term socialist state (or socialist republic, or workers state) can carry one of several different (but related) meanings: Strictly speaking, any real or hypothetical state organized along the principles of socialism may be called a socialist state. ... Since the 19th century, socialist ideas have developed and separated into many different types of socialism. ...

People and organizations

List of socialists
First International
Second International
Third International
Fourth International
Socialist International
WFDY
IUSY
The following is a list of self-identified socialists, divided by geographical location. ... The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. ... The phrase Second International has two meanings: For the international association of socialist parties of the late 19th century, see Second International (politics) and a successor organization, the Socialist International For one of the Merriam-Webster dictionaries of American English, see Websters New International Dictionary, Second Edition This is... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ... The official symbol of Socialist International. ... WFDY symbol The World Federation of Democratic Youth is a youth organization, recognized by the United Nations as an international youth non-governmental organization. ... The International Union of Socialist Youth (IUSY) encompasses socialist, social democratic and Labour Party youth organizations from more than 100 states of the world. ...

Related subjects

Anarchism
Class struggle
Democracy
Dictatorship of the proletariat
Egalitarianism
Equality of outcome
Internationalism
Marxism
Proletarian revolution
Socialism in one country
Trade union
Utilitarianism Anarchist redirects here. ... The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... A communist revolution is a social revolution inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, normally with socialism (public ownership over the means of production) as an intermediate stage. ... Socialism in One Country was a thesis put forward by Joseph Stalin in 1924 and further supported by Nikolai Bukharin. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ...

Politics Portal ·  v  d  e 

Despite their differences, the reformist and revolutionary branches of socialism remained united through the Second Internationale until the outbreak of World War I. A differing view on the legitimacy of the war proved to be the final straw for this tenuous union. The reformist socialists supported their respective national governments in the war, a fact that was seen by the revolutionary socialists as outright treason against the working class; in other words, the revolutionary socialists believed that this stance betrayed the principle that the workers of all nations should unite in overthrowing capitalism, and decried the fact that usually the lowest classes are the ones sent into the war to fight and die. Bitter arguments ensued within socialist parties, as for example between Eduard Bernstein, the leading reformist socialist, and Rosa Luxemburg, one of the leading revolutionary socialists within the SPD in Germany. Eventually, after the Russian Revolution of 1917, most of the world's socialist parties fractured. The reformist socialists kept the name "Social democrats", while many revolutionary socialists began calling themselves "communists", and soon formed the modern Communist movement. These communist parties soon formed an exclusive Third Internationale known globally as the Comintern. The Second International was an organization formed in 1889 (after several years of preparation) by socialist and labour parties who wished to work together for international socialism. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Eduard Bernstein Eduard Bernstein (January 6, 1850 - December 18, 1932) was a German social democratic theoretician and politician, member of the SPD, and founder of evolutionary socialism or reformism. ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including...


By the 1920s, the doctrinal differences between social democrats and communists of all factions (be they Orthodox Marxists, Bolsheviks or Mensheviks) had solidified. These differences only became more dramatic as the years passed. The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ...


Post war—social democracy and democratic socialism

Following the split between social democrats and communists, another split developed within social democracy, between those who still believed it was necessary to abolish capitalism (without revolution) and replace it with a socialist system through democratic parliamentary means, and those who believed that the capitalist system could be retained but needed dramatic reform, such as the nationalization of large businesses, the implementation of social programs (public education, universal healthcare, and the like) and the partial redistribution of wealth through the permanent establishment of a welfare state based on progressive taxation. Eventually, most social democratic parties have come to be dominated by the latter position and, in the post-World War II era, have abandoned any commitment to abolish capitalism. For instance, in 1959, the Social Democratic Party of Germany adopted the Godesberg Program which rejected class struggle and Marxism. While "social democrat" and "democratic socialist" continued to be used interchangeably, by the 1990s in the English-speaking world at least the two terms had generally come to signify respectively the latter and former positions. For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... A parliamentarian is a specialist in parliamentary procedure. ... Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act by which a nation takes possession of assets without requiring the owners consent, with or without payment of compensation. ... // Public spending on education in 2005 Public education is education mandated for or offered to the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ... Publicly funded medicine is a level of medical service that is paid wholly or in majority part by public funds (taxes or quasi-taxes). ... The Welfare State of the United Kingdom was prefigured in the William Beveridge Report in 1942, which identified five Giant Evils in society: squalor, ignorance, want, idleness and disease. ... A progressive tax, or graduated tax, is a tax that is larger as a percentage of income for those with larger incomes. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... SPD redirects here. ... We dont have an article called Godesberg Program Start this article Search for Godesberg Program in. ... The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ...


In Italy, the Italian Social Democratic Party was founded in 1947, and from 1948 on supported the idea of a "centrist alliance". Since the late 1980s, many other social democratic parties have adopted the "Third Way," either formally or in practice. Modern social democrats are generally in favor of a mixed economy, which is in many ways capitalistic, but explicitly defend governmental provision of certain social services. Many social democratic parties have shifted emphasis from their traditional goals of social justice to human rights and environmental issues. In this, they are facing an increasing challenge from Greens, who view ecology as fundamental to peace, require reform of money supply and promote safe trade measures to ensure ecological integrity. In Germany in particular, Greens, Social Democrats, and other left-wing parties have cooperated in so-called Red-Green Alliances. This is also not uncommon in Norway. The Italian Social Democratic Party (P.S.D.I., Partito Socialista Democratico Italiano) was founded in 1952 by the union of two parties: the Unitarian Socialist Party and the Workers Socialist Party. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Third way can refer to: The Third Way, an economic and political idea that positions itself between democratic socialism and laissez-faire capitalism, combining the ordoliberal social market with neo-liberalism. ... A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... Greens are people who support some or all of goals of a Green Party without necessarily working with or voting for that or any party. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... In macroeconomics, money supply (monetary aggregates, money stock) is the quantity of currency and money in bank accounts in the hands of the non-bank public available within the economy to purchase goods, services, and securities. ... Safe trade is a concept advocated by Greenpeace, some indigenous peoples (particularly those who feel threatened by the imposition of a monoculture) and by some elements of the anti-globalization movement. ... In politics, a red-green alliance is an alliance of red socialist or communist parties with green environmentalist parties. ...


The Third Way

In recent years, a number of social democratic parties and governments have moved away from some traditional elements of social democracy by supporting both the privatisation of certain state-controlled industries and services and the reduction of certain forms of regulation of the market. These changes have been perceived in the policies of Bob Hawke and Paul Keating in Australia, Tony Blair in the United Kingdom[6][8], Gerhard Schröder in Germany, Jens Stoltenberg in Norway, Göran Persson in Sweden, David Lange, Roger Douglas in New Zealand, Wim Kok in the Netherlands and Ricardo Lagos in Chile. In general, these apparent reversals in policy have encountered significant opposition among party members and core voters: many of the latter, indeed, have claimed that their leaders have betrayed their traditional principles.[8] In other cases, such as the Brazilian administration of Fernando Henrique Cardoso, the Brazilian Social Democracy Party won power by openly pursuing a centre-right coalition designed to keep the more left-wing Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula) of the Workers' Party out of power.[9] Lula ultimately won the next presidential election in 2002, only to promote a vision based largely on European social democratic economic policy.[2] Robert James Lee (Bob) Hawke, AC (born 9 December 1929) was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia after previously being an Australian trade union leader. ... For other persons named Paul Keating, see Paul Keating (disambiguation). ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ...   (born March 16, 1959) is a Norwegian economist, leader (since 2002) of the Norwegian Labour Party and the current Prime Minister of Norway. ... Hans Göran Persson ( ) (born January 20, 1949), was the thirty-first Prime Minister of Sweden (1996 – 2006). ... David Russell Lange (who pronounced his name long-ee IPA: lɔŋi) CH, ONZ (4 August 1942 — 13 August 2005), served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1984 to 1989. ... Sir Roger Douglas is a former New Zealand politician and senior Cabinet minister, best known for his leading role in the radical economic restructuring undertaken by the New Zealand Labour Party government in the 1980s. ... Willem Wim Kok ( ) (born September 29, 1938 in Bergambacht) is a Dutch politician. ... Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar (born March 2, 1938) is a lawyer, economist and social democrat politician, who served as president of Chile from 2000 to 2006 . ... Fernando Henrique Cardoso (born June 18, 1931) was the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil for two terms from January 1, 1995 to January 1, 2003. ... The Brazilian Social Democracy Party (Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira) is a political party in Brazil. ... The centre-right is a political term commonly used to describe or denote political parties or organizations (such as think tanks) that stretch from the centre to the right on the left-right spectrum, excluding far right stances. ... Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (pron. ... Categories: | | ...


"Modernising" social democrats counter that their Third Way ideals merely represent a necessary or pragmatic adaptation of social democracy to the realities of the modern world: "traditional" social democracy thrived during the prevailing international climate of the post-war Bretton Woods consensus which collapsed in the 1970s. It has, moreover, become difficult for political parties in the developed world to win elections on a distinctively left-wing platform now that electorates are increasingly "middle-class", aspirational and consumeristic. In Britain, where such an electorate rejected the Labour Party four times consecutively between 1979 and 1992, Tony Blair and his colleagues (known colloquially as New Labour) took the strategic decision to overtly disassociate themselves from the previous, strongly democratic socialist incarnations of their party. This challenge alienated many backbenchers, including some who advocated the less militant ideology of social democracy. Bill Clinton and Tony Blair, adherents of the Third Way The Third Way, or Radical center, is a centrist political philosophy of governance that embraces a mix of market and interventionist philosophies. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... New Labour is an alternative name of the British political Labour Party. ... A backbencher is a Member of Parliament or a legislature who does not hold governmental office and is not a Front Bench spokesperson in the Opposition. ...


The development of new social democratic policies in this environment is the subject of wide-ranging debate within the centre-left. A number of political think-tanks, such as Policy Network and Wiardi Beckman Stichting, have been active in facilitating and promoting this debate. In politics, the term centre-left is commonly used to describe and denote political parties or organisations that stretch from the centre to the left or are moderately left-wing, as opposed to extreme left wing beliefs such as communism. ... Policy Network is an international think tank based in London devoted to progressive centre-left policy reform. ... The Wiardi Beckman Stichting (The Wiardi Beckman Foundation) is a scientific institute linked to the left-wing Social Democratic Party PvdA. The foundation is named after Herman Bernard Wiardi Beckman, a member of the Upper House, who during the Second World War was summoned by Queen Wilhelmina to become a...


See also History of Socialism. The history of socialism, sometimes termed modern socialism,[1] finds its origins in the French Revolution of 1789 and the changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution, although it has precedents in earlier movements and ideas. ...


Views of social democrats today

In general, contemporary social democrats support[citation needed]:

A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ... Health care or healthcare is one of the worlds largest and fastest growing professions. ... Childcare is the act of caring for and supervising minor children. ... Capitalism generally refers to a combination of economic practices that became institutionalized in Europe between the 16th and 19th centuries, especially involving the right of individuals and groups of individuals acting as legal persons (or corporations) to buy and sell capital goods such as land, labor, and money (see finance... In economics, consumers are individuals or households that consume goods and services generated within the economy. ... For other uses, see Fair trade (disambiguation). ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... A progressive tax, or graduated tax, is a tax that is larger as a percentage of income for those with larger incomes. ... Environmental movement is a term often used for any social or political movement directed towards the preservation, restoration, or enhancement of the natural environment. ... Greens are people who support some or all of goals of a Green Party without necessarily working with or voting for that or any party. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Alternative energy is energy derived from sources that do not harm the environment or deplete the Earths natural resources. ... The term multiculturalism is used to describe the recognition of cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Social Progressivism is a political ideology oposite to Social conservatism. ... Same-sex marriage is marriage between individuals who are of the same legal or biological sex. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Social rights refer to what are usually positive rights, which ensure to all people a fair standard of treatment. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ...

Social democratic political parties

Democracy

This series is part of
the Politics and the
Forms of government series For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. ...




Politics Portal ·  v  d  e  The history of democracy traces back from its origins in ancient world to its re-emergence and rise from the 17th century to the present day. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of types of democracy. ... It has been suggested that Democracy (varieties) be merged into this article or section. ... Anticipatory democracy is a theory of civics relying on democratic decision making that takes into account predictions of future events that have some credibility with the electorate. ... Athenian democracy (sometimes called Direct democracy) developed in the Greek city-state of Athens. ... Consensus democracy is the application of consensus decision making to the process of legislation. ... Deliberative democracy, also sometimes called discursive democracy, is a term used by political theorists, e. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Demarchy is a term that describes a political system based on randomly selected groups of decision makers, also known as sortition. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Grassroots democracy is a tendency towards designing political processes where as much decision-making authority as practical is shifted to the organizations lowest geographic level of organization. ... Technically speaking, an illiberal democracy could be any democracy that is not a liberal democracy. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Non-partisan democracy (also no-party democracy) is a system of representative government or organization such that universal and periodic elections (by secret ballot) take place without reference to political parties or even the speeches, campaigns, nominations, or other apparatus commonly associated with democracy. ... Participatory democracy is a broadly inclusive term for many kinds of consultative decision making which require consultation on important decisions by those who will carry out the decision. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Republican democracy is a republic which has democracy. ... For the Soviet republics of the Soviet Union, see Republics of the Soviet Union. ...

Social democratic political parties are a feature of many democratic countries, and are found in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Europe, New Zealand and elsewhere. Over the course of the twentieth century, parties such as the British Labour Party, the German SPD and the Australian Labor Party have stood in elections on political platforms that included policies such as stronger labor laws, the nationalization of major industries, and a strong welfare state. Most European social democratic parties are members of the Party of European Socialists[10], which is one of the main political parties at the European level[11], and most social democratic parties are members of the Socialist International[12], which is the historical successor to the Second International. The United States and Japan are the only first world nations which do not possess a competitive social democratic or democratic socialist party. “Political Parties” redirects here. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... ALP redirects here. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Party of European Socialists (PES) is a European political party whose members are 33 social democratic, socialist and labour parties of the European Union member states as well as Norway. ... The official symbol of Socialist International. ... The Second International was an organization formed in 1889 (after several years of preparation) by socialist and labour parties who wished to work together for international socialism. ... The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were used to divide the nations of Earth into three broad categories. ...


During the latter part of the twentieth century, most social democratic parties distanced themselves from socialist economic policies (i.e. public ownership and a planned economy) and, in the opinion of many if not most democratic socialists, of socialism in general. Many modern social democrats have broadened their objectives to include aspects of environmentalism, feminism, racial equality and multiculturalism. For the psychology topic, see Environmental psychology. ... Feminists redirects here. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The term multiculturalism is used to describe the recognition of cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ...


Since the 1980s, a number of social democratic parties have adopted policies which support a relatively lightly regulated economy and emphasise equality of opportunity rather than equality of outcome as the benchmark for social justice. This trend, known as the Third Way, is controversial among some of the left, many of whom argue that Third Way parties (such as New Labour in the United Kingdom[8]) have embraced elements of liberal, neoliberal, and even conservative ideology, and have ceased to be social democratic let alone democratic socialist. New Labour, in particular, disagrees[13]. Equal opportunity is a descriptive term for an approach intended to give equal access to an environment or benefits, such as education, employment, health care, or social welfare to all, often with emphasis on members of various social groups which might have at some time suffered from discrimination. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The term neoliberalism is used to describe a political-economic philosophy that had major implications for government policies beginning in the 1970s – and increasingly prominent since 1980 – that de-emphasizes or rejects positive government intervention in the economy, focusing instead on achieving progress and even social justice by... Conservative may refer to: Conservatism, political philosophy A member of a Conservative Party Conservative extension, premise of deductive logic Conservativity theorem, mathematical proof of conservative extension Conservative Judaism britney spears Category: ...


See also List of social democratic parties. This is a list of parties in the world that consider themselves to be upholding the principles and values of social democracy. ...


Examples of social democracy

Hjalmar Branting was the first Social Democratic Prime Minister of Sweden

The prime example of social democracy is Sweden, which prospered considerably under the leadership of Olof Palme[14]. Sweden has produced a strong economy from sole proprietorships up through to multinationals (e.g., Saab, Ikea, and Ericsson), while maintaining one of the longest life expectancies in the world, low unemployment, inflation, infant mortality, national debt, and cost of living, all while registering sizable economic growth[15]. Image File history File links Hjalmar_Brantings_porträtt_av_Richard_Bergh. ... Image File history File links Hjalmar_Brantings_porträtt_av_Richard_Bergh. ... Hjalmar Branting (November 23, 1860 – February 24, 1925) was a Swedish statesman and the countrys chief Social Democratic leader. ... The Swedish Social Democratic Party, (Swedish: , Social Democratic Workers Party of Sweden), contests elections as Workers Party - Social Democrats (Arbetarepartiet-Socialdemokraterna), commonly referred to just as the Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterna); is the oldest and largest political party in Sweden. ... Sven Olof Joachim Palme ( ) (January 30, 1927 – March 1, 1986) was a Swedish politician. ... A sole proprietorship, or simply proprietorship, is a type of business entity which legally has no separate existence from its owner. ... A multinational corporation (MNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ... For the manufacturer of Saab cars, see Saab Automobile. ... Map of countries with IKEA stores. ... Ericsson () NASDAQ: ERIC. Founded in 1876, Ericsson is a leading provider of communications networks, related services and handset technology platforms. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the death of infants in the first year of life. ... Government debt (public debt, national debt) is money owed by government, at any level (central government, federal government, national government, municipal government, local government, regional government). ... A cost-of-living index measures differences in the price of goods and services over time. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ...


Others also point to Norway as an example of a social democratic nation[16], where the Norwegian Labour Party played a critical role in Norway's recent political history by making social democratic reforms after WWII. In Norway, progressive taxation was introduced and the public sector greatly increased in size. Recently, Norway's economy has experienced an acceleration in economic growth, aided, in part, by the exploitation of oil deposits. The Norwegian Labour Party (Det norske Arbeiderpartiet, DNA or Arbeiderpartiet, AP) is a social democratic political party in Norway. ... Source: Central Bureau of Statistics, Norway Although sensitive to global business cycles, the economy of Norway has shown robust growth since the start of the industrial era. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A progressive tax, or graduated tax, is a tax that is larger as a percentage of income for those with larger incomes. ...


Another prominent example is the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, which has been politically dominated by the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation and its successor the New Democratic Party since 1944. While in office the CCF and NDP have nationalized major industries, initiated wide ranging public works, and introduced generous social services such as universal health care (later implemented nationally in Canada), as well as the establishment of public automobile insurance. Today, however, while retaining its social democratic philosophy, the Saskatchewan NDP is no longer as far to the left as it once was, in comparison with the federal NDP. This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups as well as the League for Social Reconstruction. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ... The Saskatchewan New Democratic Party (NDP) is a social democratic political party in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... This article is about the Canadian political party. ...


To a lesser extent, the Canadian Province of Manitoba is viewed as social democratic, with nationalized businesses such as Manitoba Hydro. However the Manitoba NDP is also more moderate in comparison to the Federal NDP. Generally speaking, the provincial wings of the NDP that are major contenders for government (British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba & Nova Scotia) tend to be more in the modern Third Way mould of social democracy, as opposed to the federal party and smaller provincial wings that still follow the older style of democratic socialism (reminiscent of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation). Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797... Founded in 1961, Manitoba Hydro is the electric power and natural gas utility in the province of Manitoba, and is the 4th largest electrical utility in Canada. ... The New Democratic Party of Manitoba is a social democratic political party in Manitoba, Canada. ... The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) was a Canadian political party founded in 1932 in Calgary, Alberta, by a number of socialist, farm, co-operative and labour groups as well as the League for Social Reconstruction. ...


Criticism of social democracy

Social democracy has been criticized both from the right, by economic liberals and conservatives, and from the left, by socialists and communists[citation needed]. The majority of contemporary criticism comes from economic liberals, who advance the following arguments: Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam...

  • Social democratic systems limit individual rights, especially economic freedoms, to an "excessive" degree (this argument was put forward strongly by Friedrich von Hayek, who is believed to have influenced both Margaret Thatcher and the Chicago School of economic thought).
  • The regulations placed on the market by social democracy tend to limit economic efficiency and growth.
  • Social democratic programs sometimes entail large government outlays, which can result in sizeable budget deficits.
  • State provision of education, health care, childcare and other services limits individual choice. Even where private alternatives are available, liberals would argue that it still limits individuals choice, since it requires that an individual effectively pay twice for a service (to the state and the private provider).
  • It has been argued that social democracy tends to tax the working class more than the rich who can resort to tax evasion through sophisticated accounting, therefore impeding the efforts of the working class to build wealth.
  • It has also been argued that social democracy, by taxing wages, places the burden of the tax on the middle class, and not on the rich who live off of dividends and capital gains.

Social democrats reply [citation needed] that their policies in fact enhance individual rights by raising the standard of living of the great majority of the population, increasing social mobility, raising the power of workers and consumers in society, keeping production and, therefore, GDP higher, stabilizing economic conditions by providing economic security to individuals, and eliminating the threat of extreme poverty. Individual rights are also maintained, as in many places alternative private facilities are also available. It is also argued that, by restricting some economic rights, social democracy makes the market more fair. Social democrats also contend that the conservative administrations in the United States and Britain have been responsible for far larger budget deficits than any social democratic government. Individual rights represent the moral rights of individuals in society prior to government. ... Friedrich von Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an economist and social scientist of the Austrian School, noted for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against a rising tide of socialist and collectivist thought in the mid... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ... The Chicago School of Economics is a school of thought in economics; it refers to the style of economics practiced at and disseminated from the University of Chicago after 1946. ... Economic efficiency is a general term for the value assigned to a situation by some measure designed to capture the amount of waste or friction or other undesirable economic features present. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... A budget deficit occurs when an entity (often a government) spends more money than it takes in. ... This article contrasts tax evasion, tax avoidance, tax resistance and tax mitigation. ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... Conservative may refer to: Conservatism, political philosophy A member of a Conservative Party Conservative extension, premise of deductive logic Conservativity theorem, mathematical proof of conservative extension Conservative Judaism britney spears Category: ...


There is also criticism of social democracy from the political left. Many social democrats reject the label "socialist" and the goal of achieving Socialism. For their part, socialists regard social democracy as an obstacle to truly radical reform of society. They claim that social democrats can only operate within the constraints of the existing capitalist orientated economic system, limiting many social reforms, and buy into the capitalist system to such an extent that they eventually become indistinguishable from conservatives. Left-wing critics allege that some professed social democrats, such as Tony Blair (UK), Gerhard Schröder (Germany), and to a lesser extent Göran Persson (Sweden) have violated the principles of social justice and equity by implementing tax cuts, cuts in social spending, privatisation of elements of the welfare state and industrial deregulation. In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ... Hans Göran Persson ( ) (born January 20, 1949), was the thirty-first Prime Minister of Sweden (1996 – 2006). ...


The record and the future of social democracy

Many of the policies espoused by social democrats at the beginning of the twentieth century have since been put into practice by social democratic governments throughout the industrialised world. Large-scale nationalisations have taken place, the role of the state in providing free-to-user or subsidised health care and education has increased greatly.


With the election of Ronald Reagan in the United States and Margaret Thatcher in Britain, it was widely perceived that social democracy was on the retreat in the Western world. The resultant adoption of Third Way ideology by many social democrats, and the subsequent electoral success of Third way advocates Clinton and Blair, has proved divisive within the broader social democratic community. In Britain, for example, most of the nationalised industries were sold off in the 1980s and 1990s, and Tony Blair's Labour government, rather than reversing this process, continued it.[17] Inequalities of wealth have also risen in some countries under social democratic governments, including the United Kingdom under Blair.[18] Social Democrats have justified these policies by accepting the claims of many liberal economists that a rise in the gap between rich and poor does not necessarily indicate a lower standard of living for the working class of the country in question. Reagan redirects here. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and to date only woman to hold either post. ...


Many of the reforms made by social democrats in Europe, particularly the establishment of national health care services, have been embraced by liberals and conservatives: in Britain, both the Liberal Democrats[19] and all but the most hard line Thatcherites in the Conservative Party[20] campaign heavily in favor of the protection of the National Health Service established under the post-War Labour government of Clement Attlee.[21] Even in a country with no major social democratic party, such as the United States, there are regulatory programmes, such as public health and environmental protection, and welfare programmes, such as Medicare[22] and Medicaid[23], which remain in place during administrations of all political persuasions. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... “NHS” redirects here. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. ... Medicaid is the US health insurance program for individuals and families with low incomes and resources. ...


List of famous social democrats

Mário Covas Júnior (Santos, 21 April 1930 - São Paulo, 6 March 2001) was an important Brazilian politician. ... Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari (IPA: ) (born June 23, 1937 Viipuri, Finland) is a former President of Finland (1994–2000) and a UN diplomat and mediator, noted for his international peace work. ... Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín (born 13 March 1927) is an Argentine politician, who was the President of Argentina from 10 December 1983 to 9 July 1989. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... Pavel Borissovich Axelrod (1850-1928). ... Eduard Bernstein Eduard Bernstein (January 6, 1850 - December 18, 1932) was a German social democratic theoretician and politician, member of the SPD, and founder of evolutionary socialism or reformism. ... Date of birth June 21, 1939 Place of birth Aibonito, Puerto Rico Occupation Law Professor at the University of Puerto Ricos Law School President of the Puerto Rican Independence Party (PIP). ... Hermes Juan Binner is an Argentine medical doctor and politician, born on 5 June 1943 in Rafaela, province of Santa Fe. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Léon Blum Léon Blum (9 April 1872 - 30 March 1950), was the Prime Minister of France three times: from 1936 to 1937, for one month in 1938, and from December 1946 to January 1947. ... Rodrigo Borja Cevallos (born 19 June 1935) was President of Ecuador from 10 August 1988 to 10 August 1992. ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992), was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... Hjalmar Branting (November 23, 1860 – February 24, 1925) was a Swedish statesman and the countrys chief Social Democratic leader. ... Leonel Brizola. ... John Edward Ed Broadbent, PC, CC, Ph. ... Gro Harlem Brundtland [IPA: gro hÉ‘É­É›m brʉntlÉ‘nd] (born April 20, 1939) is a Norwegian politician, diplomat, and physician, and an international leader in sustainable development and public health. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... Fernando Henrique Cardoso (born June 18, 1931) was the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil for two terms from January 1, 1995 to January 1, 2003. ... Ingvar Carlsson (born 9 November 1934 in BorÃ¥s, Västra Götalands län, Sweden), is a Swedish politician, former Prime Minister of Sweden (Mar 1986–Oct 1991; Oct 1994–Mar 1996) and leader of the Social Democrat Party (Mar 1986–Mar 1996). ... For other persons named Helen Clark, see Helen Clark (disambiguation). ... M.J. Coldwell and David Lewis looking over some papers together Major James William Coldwell, PC, CC (December 2, 1888–August 25, 1974), usually known as M.J., was a Canadian socialist politician, and leader of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation party from 1942 to 1960. ... Dr. Gilberto Concepcion de Gracia (July 9, 1909 – March 16, 1968), born in the town of Vega Alta, Puerto Rico, was a lawyer, journalist, author, politician and independence activist. ... JUAN DALMAU (1973- ___) Born in July of 1973, Juan Manuel Dalmau Ramírez hails from Caguas, Puerto Rico, a medium-sized city, located approximately 15 Kilometers South of San Juan. ... Thomas Clement Douglas, PC, CC, SOM, MA, LL.D (hc) (October 20, 1904 – February 24, 1986) was a Scottish-born Baptist minister who became a prominent Canadian social democratic politician. ... Fedor Dan (1871-1949) was born in St Petersburg. ... Kemal DerviÅŸ is a Turkish economist and politician. ... Ruth Dreifuss (born January 9, 1940 in St. ... Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (May 28, 1925–November 5, 2006; pronounced ), was a Turkish politician, poet, writer and journalist. ... (June 13, 1901, Ransäter, Sweden - June 21, 1985, Huddinge, near Stockholm, Sweden) was a Swedish politician. ... Carlos Garaikoetxea Urriza (Born in Pamplona, June 2, 1938) is a former Basque politician that became the second elected Lehendakari (President of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country) after José Antonio Aguirre, who held that office in 1936-37. ...   (born on May 10, 1897 - September 19, 1987) was a Norwegian politician from the Labour Party of Norway. ... Image needed Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens (born January 18, 1938) is a British sociologist who is renowned for his theory of structuration and his holistic view of modern societies. ... Felipe González Márquez (March 5, 1942). ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Per Albin Hansson Per Albin Hansson (October 28, 1885–October 6, 1946), leader of the Swedish Social Democrats, was Prime Minister in four governments between 1932 and 1946, including the coalition government which was formed during World War II, and included all major parties except the communists. ... Robert James Lee (Bob) Hawke, AC (born 9 December 1929) was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia after previously being an Australian trade union leader. ... Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (September 8, 1864 - June 21, 1929) was a British liberal politician, one of the theorists of new liberalism. ... John A. Hobson, (1858–1940) was an English economist and imperial critic, widely popular as a lecturer and writer. ... Toomas Hendrik Ilves [IPA: toːmÉ‘s hendrik ilves] (born December 26, 1953) is the current President of Estonia. ... Erdal Inonu is a Turkish physicist and politician. ... Jean Jaurès. ... For other persons named Paul Keating, see Paul Keating (disambiguation). ... Friedrich Kellner in Kaisers army 1914 During the First World War Friedrich Kellner was a soldier in a Hessian infantry regiment fighting in the trenches in France, getting wounded for Kaiser and Fatherland. ... Norman Eric Kirk served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1972 until his sudden death in 1974 and led the New Zealand Labour Party from 1965 to 1972. ... Robert Kuttner is the co-founder and current editor-in-chief of The American Prospect, which was created in 1990 as an authoritative magazine of liberal ideas, according to its mission statement. ... Oskar Lafontaine (born September 16, 1943 in Saarlouis-Roden) is a left-wing German politician and a leading member of the Left Party. ... Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar (born March 2, 1938) is a lawyer, economist and social democrat politician, who served as president of Chile from 2000 to 2006 . ... Mark William Latham (born 28 February 1961), a former Australian politician, was leader of the Federal Parliamentary Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition from December 2003 to January 2005. ... John Gilbert Jack Layton, PC, MP, PhD (born July 18, 1950) is a social democratic Canadian politician and current leader of Canadas New Democratic Party (since 2003). ... Julius Leber (born 16 November 1891 in Biesheim, Alsace), died 5 January 1945 in Berlin) was a German politician and resistance fighter against the Nazi régime. ... René Lévesque (pronounced ) (August 24, 1922 – November 1, 1987) was a reporter, a minister of the government of Quebec, Canada, (1960 – 1966), the founder of the Parti Québécois political party, and 23rd Premier of Quebec (November 25, 1976 – October 3, 1985). ... David Lewis (born Losz),[1] CC, MA (June 23, or October 1909 -May 23, 1981)[1][2] was a Russian-born Canadian labour lawyer and social democratic politician. ... This article is about the Canadian politician and broadcaster. ... Trygve Halvdan Lie (July 16, 1896 – December 30, 1968) was a Norwegian politician. ... Wilhelm Liebknecht Wilhelm Liebknecht (March 29, 1826 - August 7, 1900) was a German social democrat, one of the founders of the SPD and father of Karl Liebknecht and Theodor Liebknecht. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Paavo Lipponen Paavo Tapio Lipponen (b. ... James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Julius Martov or L. Martov (Ма́ртов, real name Yuli Osipovich Zederbaum (Russian Ю́лий О́сипович Цедерба́ум)) (November 24, 1873 – April 4, 1923) was born in Constantinople in 1873. ... Sir Walter Nash, GCMG, CH (12 February 1882–4 June 1968) served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1957 to 1960 and was also highly influential in his role as Minister of Finance. ... Sven Olof Joachim Palme ( ) (January 30, 1927 – March 1, 1986) was a Swedish politician. ... Andreas Georgiou Papandreou, Ανδρέας Γ. Παπανδρέου (5 February 1919 – 23 June 1996) was a Greek economist, a socialist politician and a towering figure in Greek politics. ... Hans Göran Persson ( ) (born January 20, 1949), was the thirty-first Prime Minister of Sweden (1996 – 2006). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... G. V. Plekhanov Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (Георгий Валентинович Плеханов) (December 11, 1856 – May 30, 1918; Old Style: November 29, 1856 – May 17, 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician. ... Karl Paul Polanyi (October 21, 1886 - Pickering, Ontario April 23, 1964) was a Hungarian intellectual known for his opposition to traditional economic thought and his influential book The Great Transformation. ... Poul Nyrup Rasmussen Poul Nyrup Rasmussen (born June 15, 1943) was the Prime Minister of Denmark from January 25, 1993 to November 27, 2001. ... John Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American philosopher, a professor of political philosophy at Harvard University and author of A Theory of Justice (1971), Political Liberalism, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, and The Law of Peoples. ... Marie-Ségolène Royal (born 22 September 1953 in Dakar, Senegal, then a French colony), known as  , (IPA: ) is a French politician. ... Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957), is the leader of the federal Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition in the Australian Parliament. ... August Rei August Rei (22 March 1886 - 29 March 1963) was an Estonian politician. ... Manuel Antonio Rosales Guerrero (b. ... Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond, known as Alex Salmond (born 31 December 1954 ) (age 52)), has been nominated by the Scottish Parliament as First Minister of Scotland. ... Giuseppe Saragat (IPA [sa:ragat]) (September 19, 1898 - June 11, 1988) was an Italian politician who was the President of the Italian Republic from 1964 to 1971. ... Michael Joseph Savage (March 23, 1872 - March 27, 1940) was a New Zealand politician and the first Labour Prime Minister of New Zealand. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ... Max Shachtman (September 10, 1904 - November 4, 1972) was an American Marxist theorist. ... Thorvald Stauning (26 October 1873 - 3 May 1942) was the first Social Democrat Prime Minister of Denmark. ...   (born March 16, 1959) is a Norwegian economist, leader (since 2002) of the Norwegian Labour Party and the current Prime Minister of Norway. ... Norman Thomas Norman Mattoon Thomas (November 20, 1884 - December 19, 1968) was a leading American socialist, pacifist, and six-time presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America. ... José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (born August 4, 1960) is the Prime Minister of Spain. ... J.S. Woodsworth James Shaver Woodsworth (July 29, 1874 – March 21, 1942) was a pioneer in the Canadian social democratic movement. ... Vera Ivanovna Zasulich Vera Ivanovna Zasulich (July 27, 1849-May 8, 1919) (born August 8, New Style) was a Russian Marxist writer and revolutionary. ...

See also

{{wiktionary}

The history of socialism, sometimes termed modern socialism,[1] finds its origins in the French Revolution of 1789 and the changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution, although it has precedents in earlier movements and ideas. ... This is a list of parties in the world that consider themselves to be upholding the principles and values of social democracy. ...

Political theory

Democratic socialism advocates socialism as a basis for the economy and democracy as a governing principle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Dirigisme (from the French) (in English also dirigism although per the OED both spellings are used) is an economic term designating an economy where the government exerts strong directive influence. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... This article is about Progressivism. ... Neosocialism (also hyphenated as neo-socialism) is a term used to describe any one of a wide variety of left-wing political movements that are considered socialist and have developed recently. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Bill Clinton and Tony Blair, adherents of the Third Way The Third Way, or Radical center, is a centrist political philosophy of governance that embraces a mix of market and interventionist philosophies. ...

Social democracy as viewed by critics

Managerial State is a paleoconservative concept used in critiquing modern social democracy in Western countries. ... During the late 1920s and early 30s, Communist Party leaders linked to the Communist International (such as Rajani Palme Dutt and Joseph Stalin) argued that capitalist society had entered a third period in which social fascism posed a threat. ...

Social democracy in practice

Flexicurity (a portmanteau of flexibility and security) is a welfare state model with a pro-active labour market policy. ... The Scandinavian welfare model is often used as a general term for the way in which Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland and Iceland have chosen to organise and finance their social security systems, health services and education. ... The Social welfare in Sweden has the same structure as the social welfare of the other Scandinavian countries. ...

External links

  • Social Democratic Parties, a comprehensive list of social democratic parties

International advocacy websites

  • Socialdemocrat.org
  • Socialdemocracia.org (Spanish)

International organizations

  • The Party of European Socialists
  • The Socialist International
  • Policy Network, a social democratic think-tank

Social democratic literature online

  • Papers on the Future of Social Democracy in Canada
  • Understanding Social Democracy by Sheri Berman
  • Globalisation, National Differences and the Rethinking of Social Democracy and Global Social Democracy by Luke Martell
  • Beyond Ideology, The Social Welfare State by Jeffrey D. Sachs
  • Social Democracy in the unfinished global revolution by Martin Shaw

Criticism of social democracy

  • The Crisis of Social Democracy by Rosa Luxemburg

References

  1. ^ a b c d Berman, Sheri. Understanding Social Democracy. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  2. ^ a b BBC News: South America's leftward sweep, 2005
  3. ^ Edelstein, J. David: Social Democracy Versus Revolutionary Democratic Socialism, "The Alternative Orange" Vol. 2 No. 3 January 1993
  4. ^ Labour's Policies
  5. ^ a b c The Guardian:There's life in the Union yet
  6. ^ a b c BBC News: Blair tells socialists to modernise
  7. ^ The SI's Declaration of Principles
  8. ^ a b c BBC News: Sacrifices in the scramble for power
  9. ^ BBC News: Analysis: Brazil's new political map, 2002
  10. ^ PES Member Parties
  11. ^ EU facts: Party Politics in the EU
  12. ^ Members of the Socialist Internationale
  13. ^ Labour policies
  14. ^ Growth Competitiveness Index
  15. ^ US Department of State: Background Note: Sweden
  16. ^ The Encyclopedia of Contemporary Scandinavian Culture: Social Democracy
  17. ^ BBC News: Blair seeks to cool privatisation row Monday, 25 June, 2001
  18. ^ The Guardian: Rich-poor gap 'has widened under Blair' Monday August 2, 2004
  19. ^ Pro-NHS website sponsored by the British Liberal Democrats: SOS for the NHS
  20. ^ Speech by David Cameron, the British Conservative Party Leader, promoting the NHS
  21. ^ BBC News: Making Britain better
  22. ^ History of Medicare (United States)
  23. ^ Brief History of Medicare and Medicaid (United States)
  24. ^ Martti Ahtisaari: a New Kind of President for an Era of Change by Jaakko Iloniemi
  25. ^ Commission for Racial Equality: Clement Attlee Lecture: Trevor Phillips's speech, 21 April 2005
  26. ^ Eduard Bernstein Reference Archive
  27. ^ Rubén Berríos Martínez
  28. ^ UXL Newsmakers: Rodrigo Borja Cevallos
  29. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Willy Brandt
  30. ^ Hjalmar Branting: The Nobel Peace Prize 1921
  31. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia: Social Democracy
  32. ^ Fernando Henrique Cardoso: Harry Walker Lecturing Agency
  33. ^ Government of Sweden: Governments and Prime Ministers since 1900
  34. ^ BBC News: Profile of Helen Clark
  35. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia: Social Democracy
  36. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia: Social Democracy
  37. ^ Kemal Derviş: Curriculum Vitae
  38. ^ The Federal Authorities of the Swiss Confederation: Ruth Dreifuss
  39. ^ BBC News: Bulent Ecevit: Survivor finally falls
  40. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Tag Erlander
  41. ^ Anthony Giddens: Biography
  42. ^ Voice of America News: Gorbachev Says Russia Reversing Democratic Freedoms, US Acting Unilaterally
  43. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Per Albin Hansson
  44. ^ Eurasia Daily Monitor: Ilves wins Estonia's Presidency
  45. ^ History of the Social Democratic Populist Party (of Turkey)
  46. ^ Paul Keating: Australian Launch of the International Year for the World's Indigenous People
  47. ^ George Bush (41) Presidential Library and Museum: The Diary of Friedrich Kellner
  48. ^ Social Democracy in Neoliberal Times: The Left and Economic Policy Since 1980, Ch. 4, p.80
  49. ^ Everything for Sale: The Virtues and Limits of Markets.
  50. ^ Germany: What is Oskar Lafontaine up to?
  51. ^ New Democratic Party: Jack's Biography
  52. ^ Julius Leber: A Biography
  53. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia: Social Democracy
  54. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Wilhelm Liebknecht
  55. ^ Mandela is 'greatest political hero'
  56. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Olaf Palme
  57. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Andreas Papandreou
  58. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Göran Persson
  59. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition: Plekhanov, Georgi Valentinovich
  60. ^ Poul Nyrup Rasmussen
  61. ^ The Guardian: Is this the face of France's first Madame la Présidente?
  62. ^ The Monthly: Howard's Brutopia: What the Prime Minister doesn't want to talk about by Kevin Rudd
  63. ^ The President of the Republic of Estonia: August Rei
  64. ^ BBC News: Profile: Manuel Rosales
  65. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Giuseppe Saragat
  66. ^ Prime Ministers of New Zealand: Michael Joseph Savage
  67. ^ CNN: Gerhard Schröder: Upstart at the chancellor's gate, 2000
  68. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Throvald Stauning
  69. ^ Norway.org: Jagland steps down
  70. ^ José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero: President of the Government and Secretary General of the PSOE (Spanish Socialist Workers' Party)
  71. ^ CBC: A new brand of Canadian social democracy

  Results from FactBites:
 
Social democracy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2714 words)
Social democracy is a political ideology that emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism.
Modern social democracy emphasises a program of gradual legislative reform of the capitalist system in order to make it more equitable and humane, while the theoretical end goal of building a socialist society is either completely forgotten or redefined in a pro-capitalist way.
Social democrats usually retort by arguing that their policies are in fact enhancing individual rights, by raising the standard of living of the vast majority of the population and eliminating the threat of extreme poverty.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m