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Encyclopedia > Social welfare provision
"Social welfare" redirects here. For other uses see Welfare

A social welfare provision refers to any government program and which also seeks to provide a minimum level of income, service or other support for disadvantaged peoples such as the poor, elderly, disabled, students, unpaid workers such as mothers and other caregivers, and minority groups. Social welfare payments and services are typically provided free of charge or at a nominal fee, and are funded by the state, or by compulsory enrollment of the poor themselves. Examples of social welfare services include the following: Image File history File links Merge-arrows. ... This article is about financial assistance paid by government organizations. ... Welfare has several meanings: Welfare, the good fortune, health, happiness, prosperity, etc. ...

  • Compulsory superannuation savings programs.
  • Compulsory social insurance programs, often based on income, to pay for the social welfare service being provided. These are often incorporated into the taxation system and may be inseparable from income tax.
  • Pensions or other financial aid, including social security and tax relief, to those with low incomes or inability to meet basic living costs, especially those who are raising children, elderly, unemployed, injured, sick or disabled.
  • Free or low cost nursing, medical and hospital care for those who are sick, injured or unable to care for themselves. This may also include free antenatal and postnatal care. Services may be provided in the community or a medical facility.
  • Free or low cost public education for all children, and financial aid, sometimes as a scholarship or pension, sometimes in the form of a suspensory loan, to students attending academic institutions or undertaking vocational training.
  • The state may also fund or operate social work and community based organizations that provide services that benefit disadvantaged people in the community.
  • Welfare money paid to persons, from a government, who are in need of financial assistance but who are unable to work for pay.

Police, criminal courts, prisons, and other parts of the justice system are not generally considered part of the social welfare system, while child protection services are. There are close links between social welfare and justice systems as instruments of social control (see carrot and stick). Those involved in the social welfare system are generally treated much like those in the justice system. Assistance given to those in the justice system is more about allowing an individual to receive fair treatment rather than social welfare. While being involved in the justice system often excludes an individual from social welfare assistance, those exiting the justice system, such as released prisoners, and families of those involved in the justice system are often eligible for social welfare assistance because of increased needs and increased risk of recidivism if the assistance is not provided. In some countries, improvements in social welfare services have been justified by savings being made in the justice system, as well as personal healthcare and legal costs. A pension (also known as superannuation) is a retirement plan intended to provide a person with a secure income for life. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... // Public education is education mandated for the children of the general public by the government, whether national, regional, or local, provided by an institution of civil government, and paid for, in whole or in part, by taxes. ... Financial aid refers to funding intended to help students pay tuition or other costs, such as room and board, for education at a college, university, or private school. ... This article is about financial assistance paid by government organizations. ... Wage labour is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer in which the worker sells their labour under a contract (employment), and the employer buys it, often in a labour market. ... Criminal justice system flowchart Criminal justice refers to the system used by government to maintain social control, prevent crime, enforce laws, and administer justice. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of law that punishes criminals for committing offences against the state. ... Carrot and stick is a term (idiom) used to refer to the act of simultaneously rewarding good behaviour while punishing bad behaviour. ... This article is about recidivism in criminology and penology. ...


States or nations that provide comprehensive social welfare programs are often identified as having a welfare state. In such countries, access to social welfare services is often considered a basic and inalienable right to those in need. In many cases these are considered natural rights, and indeed that position is borne out by the UN Convention on Social and Economic Rights and other treaty documents. Accordingly, many people refer to welfare within a context of social justice, making an analogy to rights of fair treatment or restraint in criminal justice. The Welfare State of the United Kingdom was prefigured in the William Beveridge Report in 1942, which identified five Giant Evils in society: squalor, ignorance, want, idleness and disease. ... Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. ... United States criminal justice system flowchart. ...


See also

  • National Council of Welfare, Canada (2006). Welfare Incomes 2005 Report (Summer 2006). Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada. Retrieved on 2006-09-09.
  • "welfare". Encyclop√¶dia Britannica. (2006). Oxford: Encyclop√¶dia Britannica Inc.. 

 
 

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