FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Social psychology (psychology)
Psychology
Portal · History
Areas · Wikiproject
RESEARCH Ψ

Abnormal
Biological
Cognitive
Developmental
Emotion
Evolutionary
Legal
Neuropsychology
Personality
Positive
Psychophysics
Social
Transpersonal Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Image File history File links Psi2. ... The history of psychology as a scholarly study of the mind and behavior dates, in Europe, back to the Late Middle Ages. ... Experimental psychology is an approach to psychology that treats it as one of the natural sciences, and therefore assumes that it is susceptible to the experimental method. ... Abnormal psychology is the scientific study of abnormal behavior in order to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning. ... Biological psychology, sometimes referred to as psychobiology or biopsychology, is a subfield of psychology. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Emotional redirects here. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Legal psychology involves the application of empirical psychological research to legal institutions and people who come into contact with the law. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... Positive psychology is a relatively young branch of psychology that studies the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. ... Psychophysics is the branch of cognitive psychology dealing with the relationship between physical stimuli and their perception. ... Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, the transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human mind. ...

APPLIED Ψ

Clinical
Educational
Forensic
Health
Industrial/Org
Sport The basic premise of applied psychology is the use of psychological principles and theories to overcome practical problems in other fields, such as business management, product design, ergonomics, nutrition, law and clinical medicine. ... The Greek letter Psi is often used as a symbol of psychology. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

LISTS

Publications
Topics
Therapies This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... link title Headline text --Cknuth7 16:35, 3 April 2006 (UTC) This page aims to list articles related to psychology. ... This is an alphabetical List of Psychotherapies. ...

view · talk

Social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others (Allport, 1985). By this definition, scientific refers to the empirical method of investigation. The terms thoughts, feelings, and behaviors include all of the psychological variables that are measurable in a human being. The statement that others may be imagined or implied suggests that we are prone to social influence even when no other people are present, such as when watching television, or following internalized cultural norms. Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gordon Willard Allport (November 11, 1897 - October 9, 1967) was an American psychologist. ... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Various meters Measurement is an observation that reduces an uncertainty expressed as a quantity. ... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ...


Social psychologists typically explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and immediate, social situations. In Kurt Lewin's (1951) famous heuristic, behavior can be viewed as a function of the person and the environment, B=f(P,E). In general, social psychologists have a preference for laboratory based, empirical findings. Their theories tend to be specific and focused, rather than global and general. For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... Situationism in psychology refers to an approach to personality that holds that people are more influenced by external, situational factors than by internal traits or motivations. ... Kurt Zadek Lewin (September 9, 1890 – February 12, 1947) was a German psychologist and one of the pioneers of social psychology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Social psychology is a highly empirical field. ...


Social psychology is an interdisciplinary domain that bridges the gap between psychology and sociology. During the years immediately following World War II, there was frequent collaboration between psychologists and sociologists (Sewell, 1989). However, the two disciplines have become increasingly specialized and isolated from each other in recent years, with sociologists focusing on "macro variables" (e.g. social structure) to a much greater extent. Nevertheless, sociological approaches to social psychology remain an important counterpart to psychological research in this area. Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Social Psychology is a subfield of sociology which looks at the social behavior of humans in terms of associations and relationships that they have. ...

Contents

History

Kurt Lewin, the "father of social psychology."

The discipline of social psychology began in the United States at the dawn of the 20th Century. The first published study in this area was an experiment by Norman Triplett (1898) on the phenomenon of social facilitation. During the 1930s, many Gestalt psychologists, particularly Kurt Lewin, fled to the United States from Nazi Germany. They were instrumental in developing the field as something separate from the behavioral and psychoanalytic schools that were dominant during that time, and social psychology has always maintained the legacy of their interests in perception and cognition. Attitudes and a variety of small group phenomena were the most commonly studied topics in this era. Image File history File linksMetadata Kurt_Lewin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kurt_Lewin. ... Kurt Zadek Lewin (September 9, 1890 – February 12, 1947) was a German psychologist and one of the pioneers of social psychology. ... In 1897, he published the first experiment on a social facilitation effect ... Social facilitation is a term within social psychology, traditionally seen to be the tendency for people to be aroused into better performance of simple tasks (or tasks at which we are expert) when under the eye of others rather than while they are alone. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Kurt Zadek Lewin (September 9, 1890 – February 12, 1947) was a German psychologist and one of the pioneers of social psychology. ... Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do—including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ...


During WWII, social psychologists studied persuasion and propaganda for the U.S. military. After the war, researchers became interested in a variety of social problems, including gender issues and racial prejudice. In the sixties, there was growing interest in a variety of new topics, such as cognitive dissonance, bystander intervention, and aggression. By the 1970s, however, social psychology in America had reached a crisis. There was heated debate over the ethics of laboratory experimentation, whether or not attitudes really predicted behavior, and how much science could be done in a cultural context (see Gergen, 1973). This was also the time when a radical situationist approach challenged the relevance of self and personality in psychology. Persuasion is a form of influence. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during the World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from during the Cultural Revolution. ... Cognitive dissonance is a psychological term which describes the uncomfortable tension that may result from having two conflicting thoughts at the same time, or from engaging in behavior that conflicts with ones beliefs. ... The bystander effect (also known as bystander apathy) is a psychological phenomenon where persons are less likely to intervene in an emergency situation when others are present than when they are alone. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Kenneth J. Gergen is a notable American psychologist and professor at Swarthmore College. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Situation ethics. ...


Social psychology reached maturity in both theory and method during the 1980s and 1990s. Careful ethical standards now regulate research, and greater pluralism and multicultural perspectives have emerged. Modern researchers are interested in a variety of phenomena, but attribution, social cognition, and the self-concept are perhaps the greatest areas of growth in recent years. Social psychologists have also maintained their applied interests, with contributions in health and environmental psychology, as well as the psychology of the legal system. Research ethics involves the application of fundamental ethical principles to a variety of topics involving scientific research. ... Pluralism is used, often in different ways, across a wide range of topics: In science, the concept often describes the view that several methods, theories or points of view are legitimate or plausible, see Scientific pluralism. ... Multiculturalism or cultural pluralism is a policy, ideal, or reality that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures in the world, especially as they relate to one another in immigrant receiving nations. ... Attribution is concept in social psychology. ... Social cognition is the name for both a branch of psychology that studies the cognitive processes involved in social interaction, and an umbrella term for the processes themselves. ... Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interplay between humans and their surroundings. ... Legal psychology involves the application of empirical psychological research to legal institutions and people who come into contact with the law. ...


Intrapersonal phenomena

Attitudes

The study of attitudes is a core topic in social psychology. Attitudes are involved in virtually every other area of the discipline, including conformity, interpersonal attraction, social perception, and prejudice. In social psychology, attitudes are defined as learned, global evaluations of a person, object, place, or issue that influence thought and action (Perloff, 2003). Put more simply, attitudes are basic expressions of approval or disapproval, favorability or unfavorability, or as Bem (1970) put it, likes and dislikes. Examples would include liking chocolate ice cream, being anti-abortion, or endorsing the values of a particular political party. Attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individuals like or dislike for an item. ... This article is about the psychological concept of conformity. ... In social psychology, interpersonal attraction (known as biological attraction in animals/insects) is the attraction between people which leads to friendships and romantic relationships. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... For with(out) prejudice in law, see Prejudice (law). ... Attitude is a hypothetical construct that represents an individuals like or dislike for an item. ...


Social psychologists have studied attitude formation, the structure of attitudes, attitude change, the function of attitudes, and the relationship between attitudes and behavior. Because people are influenced by the situation, general attitudes are not always good predictors of specific behavior. For a variety of reasons, a person may value the environment and not recycle a can on a particular day. Attitudes that are well remembered and central to our self-concept, however, are more likely to lead to behavior, and measures of general attitudes do predict patterns of behavior over time. A persons self image is the mental picture, generally of a kind that is quite resistant to change, that depicts not only details that are potentially available to objective investigation by others (height, weight, hair color, nature of external genitalia, I.Q. score, is this person double-jointed, etc. ...


Persuasion

The topic of persuasion has received a great deal of attention in recent years. Persuasion is an active method of influence that attempts to guide people toward the adoption of an attitude, idea, or behavior by rational or emotive means. Persuasion relies on "appeals" rather than strong pressure or coercion. Numerous variables have been found to influence the persuasion process, and these are normally presented in four major categories: who said what to whom and how. Persuasion is a form of influence. ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to involuntarily behave in a certain way (whether through action or inaction) by use of threats, intimidation or some other form of pressure or force. ...

  1. The Communicator, including credibility, expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness.
  2. The Message, including varying degrees of reason, emotion (such as fear), one-sided or two sided arguments, and other types of informational content.
  3. The Audience, including a variety of demographics, personality traits, and preferences.
  4. The Channel, including the printed word, radio, television, the internet, or face-to-face interactions.

Dual process theories of persuasion (such as the Elaboration Likelihood Model) maintain that the persuasive process is mediated by two separate "routes." Persuasion can be accomplished by either superficial aspects of the communication or the internal logic of the message. Whether someone is persuaded by a popular celebrity or factual arguments is largely determined by the ability and motivation of the audience. However, decades of research have demonstrated that deeply held attitudes are remarkably resistant to persuasion under normal circumstances. [citation needed] Communicator may mean: A practioner of the art of Communication Communicator (Star Trek), a portable communication device from the Star Trek fictional universe A suite of Internet applications by Netscape This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Credibility is the objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message. ... Expertise is the property of a person (that is, expert) or of a system which delivers a desired result such as pertinent information or skill. ... The personal state or quality of remaining true to ones commitments to others. ... When used with people, this term is often synonymous with sexual desirability, but can also simply mean whether or not someone is considered appealing to look at. ... Message in its most general meaning is an object of communication. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... Emotional redirects here. ... An audience is a group of people who participate in an experience or encounter a work of art, literature, theatre, music or academics in any medium. ... Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ... Preference (or taste) is a concept, used in the social sciences, particularly economics. ... Look up Channel on Wiktionary, the free dictionary In general, channel refers to the path between two endpoints. ... In psychology, a dual process theory provides an account of how a phenomenon can occur in two different ways. ... The Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion (ELM; proposed by Petty & Cacioppo, 1981, 1986) is a model of how attitudes are formed and changed (see also attitude change). ...

As in other forms of human perception, people often make social inferences that go beyond the information given.

Image File history File links The Dog Picture is familiar in vision circles as a demonstration of emergence in perception. ... Image File history File links The Dog Picture is familiar in vision circles as a demonstration of emergence in perception. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ...

Social cognition

Social cognition is a growing area of social psychology that studies how people perceive, think about, and remember information about others. One assumption in social cognition is that reality is too complex to easily discern, and so we see the world according to simplified schemas or images of reality. Schemas are generalized mental representations that organize knowledge and guide information processing. For example, one's schema for mice might include the expectation that they are small, and furry, and eat cheese. Social cognition is the name for both a branch of psychology that studies the cognitive processes involved in social interaction, and an umbrella term for the processes themselves. ... It has been suggested that Schemata theory be merged into this article or section. ... Mice may refer to: An abbreviation of Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions. ...


Schemas often operate automatically and unintentionally, and can lead to biases in perception and memory. Schematic expectations may lead us to see something that is not there. One experiment found that white american policemen are more likely to misperceive a weapon in the hands of a black man than a white man (Correll, et al., 2002). This type of schema is actually a stereotype, a generalized set of beliefs about a particular group of people. Stereotypes are often related to negative or preferential attitudes (prejudice) and behavior (discrimination). Schemas for types of events (e.g. going to McDonalds, doing laundry) are known as scripts. Automaticity is the the ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low level details required. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... In psychology, memory is an organisms ability to store, retain, and subsequently recall information. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For with(out) prejudice in law, see Prejudice (law). ... This article is about discrimination in the social science context. ...


Another major concept in social cognition is attribution. Attributions are the explanations we make for people's behavior, either our own behavior or the behavior of others. An attribution can be either internal or external. Internal or dispositional attributions assign causality to factors within the person, such as ability or personality. External or situational attributions assign causality to an outside factor, such as the weather. Numerous biases in the attribution process have been discovered: In copyright law, attribution is the requirement to acknowledge or credit the author of a work which is used or appears in another work. ...

  • Fundamental attribution error - the tendency to make dispositional attributions for behavior. The actor-observer effect is a refinement of this bias, the tendency to make dispositional attributions for other people's behavior and situational attributions for our own.
  • Just world effect- the tendency to blame victims (a dispositional attribution) for their suffering. This is believed to be motivated by people's anxiety that good people, including themselves, could be victimized in an unjust world.
  • Self-serving bias - the tendency to take credit for successes, and blame others for failure. Researchers have found that depressed individuals often lack this bias and actually have more realistic perceptions of reality.

Heuristics are cognitive short cuts. Instead of weighing all the evidence when making a decision, people rely on heuristics to save time and energy. The availability heuristic occurs when people estimate the probability of an outcome based on how easy that outcome is to imagine. As such, vivid or highly memorable possibilities will be perceived as more likely than those that are harder to picture or are difficult to understand, resulting in a corresponding cognitive bias. In attribution theory, the fundamental attribution error (also known as correspondence bias or overattribution effect and frequently confused with the actor-observer bias) is the tendency for people to over-emphasize dispositional, or personality-based, explanations for behaviors observed in others while under-emphasizing the role and power of situational... The just-world phenomenon, also called the just world effect or just world hypothesis, refers to the tendency for people to believe the world is just and so therefore people get what they deserve. ... A self-serving bias occurs when people are more likely to claim responsibility for successes than failures. ... Clinical depression (also called major depressive disorder, or unipolar depression when compared to bipolar disorder) is a state of intense sadness, melancholia or despair that has advanced to the point of being disruptive to an individuals social functioning and/or activities of daily living. ... For heuristics in computer science, see heuristic (computer science) Heuristic is the art and science of discovery and invention. ... The availability heuristic is a rule of thumb, heuristic, or cognitive bias, where people base their prediction of an outcome on the vividness and emotional impact rather than on actual probablity. ... Probability is the likelihood that something is the case or will happen. ...


There are a number of other biases that have been found by social cognition researchers. The hindsight bias is a false memory of having predicted events, or an exaggeration of actual predictions, after becoming aware of the outcome. The confirmation bias is a type of bias leading to the tendency to search for, or interpret information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions. Hindsight bias, sometimes called the I-knew-it-all-along effect, is the inclination to see events that have occurred as more predictable than they in fact were before they took place. ... For the novel, see False Memory (novel) It has been suggested that Synthetic memory be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Myside bias be merged into this article or section. ...


Self-concept

The fields of social psychology and personality have merged over the years, and social psychologists have developed an interest in a variety of self-related phenomena. In contrast with traditional personality theory, however, social psychologists place a greater emphasis on cognitions than on traits. Much research focuses on the self-concept, which is a person's understanding of his or her self. The self-concept can be divided into a cognitive component, known as the self-schema, and an evaluative component, the self-esteem. The need to maintain a healthy self-esteem is recognized as a central human motivation in the field of social psychology. Self-efficacy beliefs are an aspect of the self-schema. Self-efficacy refers to an individual's expectation that performance on some task will be effective and successful. Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies personality and individual differences. ... A persons self image is the mental picture, generally of a kind that is quite resistant to change, that depicts not only details that are potentially available to objective investigation by others (height, weight, hair color, nature of external genitalia, I.Q. score, is this person double-jointed, etc. ... In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth is a persons self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason and logic. ... It has been suggested that Base motive be merged into this article or section. ... Self efficacy is an individuals estimate or personal judgment of his or her own ability to succeed in reaching a specific goal, e. ...


People develop their self-concepts by a variety of means, including introspection, feedback from others, self-perception, and social comparison. By comparison to relevant others, people gain information about themselves, and they make inferences that are relevant to self-esteem. Social comparisons can be either upward or downward, that is, comparisons to people who are either higher in status or ability, or lower in status or ability. Downward comparisons are often made in order to elevate self-esteem. This article is about the psychological process of introspecting. ... Self-perception theory is an account of attitude change developed by psychologist Daryl Bem. ... Social comparison theory (Festinger 1954) is the idea that individuals learn about and assess themselves by comparison with other people. ...


Self-perception is a specialized form of attribution that involves making inferences about oneself after observing one's own behavior. Psychologists have found that too many extrinsic rewards (e.g. money) tend to reduce intrinsic motivation through the self-perception process. People's attention is directed to the reward and they lose interest in the task when the reward is no longer offered. This is an important exception to reinforcement theory. Self-perception theory is an account of attitude change developed by psychologist Daryl Bem. ... In operant conditioning, reinforcement is an increase in the strength of a response following the presentation of a stimulus contingent on that response. ...

Leon Festinger, student of Kurt Lewin and founder of cognitive dissonance theory.

Image File history File links Festinger. ... Image File history File links Festinger. ... Leon Festinger Leon Festinger (May 8, 1919 – February 11, 1989) was a social psychologist from New York City who became famous for his Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger, 1957). ...

Cognitive dissonance

Cognitive dissonance is a feeling of unpleasant arousal caused by noticing an inconsistency among one's cognitions (Festinger, 1957). Cognitive dissonance was originally developed as a theory of attitude change, but it is now considered to be a self theory by most social psychologists. Dissonance is strongest when a discrepancy has been noticed between one's self-concept and one's behavior, e.g. doing something that makes one ashamed. This can result in self-justification as the individual attempts to deal with the threat. Cognitive dissonance typically leads to a change in attitude, a change in behavior, a self-affirmation, or a rationalization of the behavior. Cognitive dissonance is a psychological term which describes the uncomfortable tension that may result from having two conflicting thoughts at the same time, or from engaging in behavior that conflicts with ones beliefs. ... Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake. ... It has been suggested that the section Shame campaign from the article Smear campaign be merged into this article or section. ... In psychology, rationalization is the process of constructing a logical justification for a decision, action or lack thereof that was originally arrived at through a different mental process. ...


An example of cognitive dissonance is smoking. Smoking cigarettes increases the risk of cancer, which is threatening to the self-concept of the individual who smokes. Most of us believe ourselves to be intelligent and rational, and the idea of doing something foolish and self-destructive causes dissonance. To reduce this uncomfortable tension, smokers tend to make excuses for themselves, such as "I'm going to die anyway, so it doesn't matter."


Interpersonal phenomena

Social influence

Social influence refers to the way people affect the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of others. Like the study of attitudes, it is a traditional, core topic in social psychology. In fact, research on social influence overlaps considerably with research on attitudes and persuasion. Social influence is also closely related to the study of group dynamics, as most of the principles of influence are strongest when they take place in social groups. Attitude may refer to: Aircraft attitude Attitude (magazine) Attitude, a song by American pop and jazz singer Suede Attitudes (band) Attitude Adjustment (Hardcore/Crossover/Thrash metal band) Attitude, song from Metallica on their album Reload. ... Persuasion is a form of influence. ...


Conformity is the most common and pervasive form of social influence. It is generally defined as the tendency to act or think like other members of a group. Group size, unanimity, cohesion, status, and prior commitment all help to determine the level of conformity in an individual. Conformity is usually viewed as a negative tendency in American culture, but a certain amount of conformity is not only necessary and normal, but probably essential for a community to function. This article is about the psychological concept of conformity. ... Unanimity is near complete agreement by everyone. ... Cohesion may mean: Cohesion (chemistry): the intermolecular attraction between like-molecules. ... Look up commitment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Which line matches the first line, A, B, or C? In the Asch conformity experiments, people frequently followed the majority judgment, even when the majority was wrong.

The two major motives in conformity are: 1) normative influence, the tendency to conform in order to gain social acceptance, and avoid social rejection or conflict, as in peer pressure; and 2) informational influence, which is based on the desire to obtain useful information through conformity, and thereby achieve a correct or appropriate result. Minority influence is the degree to which a smaller faction within the group influences the group during decision making. Note that this refers to a minority position on some issue, not an ethnic minority. Their influence is primarily informational and depends on consistent adherence to a position, degree of defection from the majority, and the status and self-confidence of the minority members. Reactance is a tendency to assert oneself by doing the opposite of what is expected. This phenomenon is also known as anticonformity and it appears to be more common in men than in women. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Asch conformity experiments, published in 1951, were a series of studies that starkly demonstrated the power of conformity in groups. ... Peer pressure comprises a set of group dynamics whereby a group in which one feels comfortable may override personal habits, individual moral inhibitions or idiosyncratic desires to impose a group norm of attitudes and/or behaviors. ... This article is about the concept of a minority. ... Reactance is an action in direct contradiction to rules and/or regulations that threaten or eliminate specific behavioral freedoms; it can occur when someone is heavily pressured to accept a certain view or attitude. ...


There are two other major areas of social influence research. Compliance refers to any change in behavior that is due to a request or suggestion from another person. The Foot-in-the-door technique is a compliance method in which the persuader requests a small favor and then follows up with a larger favor, e.g. asking for the time, and then asking for ten dollars. A related trick is the Bait and switch (Cialdini, 2000). The third major form of social influence is obedience. This is a change in behavior that is the result of a direct order or command from another person. Compliance can mean: Compliance (medicine), a patients (or doctors) adherence to a recommended course of treatment Compliance (physiology), a measure of stiffness in mechanical science and physiology Compliance (regulation), the act of adhering to, and demonstrating adherence to laws, regulations or policies, in management Category: ... Foot-in-the-door technique is a persuasion method. ... A bait and switch is a form of fraud in which the fraudster lures in customers by advertising a good at an unprofitably low price, then reveals to potential customers that the advertised good is not available but that a substitute good is. ... Look up Obedience in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A different kind of social influence is the self-fulfilling prophecy. This is a prediction that, in being made, actually causes itself to become true. For example, in the stock market, if it is widely believed that a crash is imminent, investors may lose confidence, sell most of their stock, and actually cause the crash. Likewise, people may expect hostility in others and actually induce this hosility by their own behavior. This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... A stock market is a market for the trading of company stock, and derivatives of same; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ... Black Monday (1987) on the Dow Jones Industrial Average A stock market crash is a sudden dramatic decline of stock prices across a significant cross-section of a stock market. ...


Group dynamics

A group is two or more people that interact, influence each other, and share a common identity. Groups have a number of emergent qualities that distinguish them from aggregates[disambiguation needed]: In sociology, a group is usually defined as a collection consisting of a number of people who share certain aspects, interact with one another, accept rights and obligations as members of the group and share a common identity. ... Look up Aggregate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • Norms - implicit rules and expectations for group members to follow, e.g. saying thank you, shaking hands.
  • Roles - implicit rules and expectations for specific members within the group, e.g. the oldest sibling, who may have additional responsibilities in the family.
  • Relations - patterns of liking within the group, and also differences in prestige or status, e.g. leaders, popular people.

Temporary groups and aggregates share few or none of these features, and do not qualify as true social groups. People waiting in line to get on a bus, for example, do not constitute a group. The word norm coming from the latin word norma which means angle measure or (lawlike) rule, has a number of meanings: A social or sociological norm; see norm (sociology). ... A function is part of an answer to a question about why some object or process occurred in a system that evolved or was designed with some goal. ... Italic text This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Social psychologists study interactions within groups, and between both groups and individuals.

Groups are important not only because they offer social support, resources, and a feeling of belonging, but because they supplement an individual's self-concept. To a large extent, we define ourselves by our group memberships. This natural tendency for people to identify themselves with a particular group and contrast themselves with other groups is known as social identity (Tajfel & Turner, 1986). Unfortunately, social identity can lead to feelings of "us and them." It is frequently associated with preferential treatment toward the ingroup, and prejudice and discrimination against outgroups. Image File history File links Soc-psy_diagram. ... Image File history File links Soc-psy_diagram. ... In sociology, a group is usually defined as a collection consisting of a number of people who share certain aspects, interact with one another, accept rights and obligations as members of the group and share a common identity. ... Social Identity Theory is a theory formed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner to understand the psychological basis of intergroup discrimination. ...


Groups often moderate and improve decision making, and are frequently relied upon for these benefits, such as committees and juries. A number of group biases, however, can interfere with effective decision making. For example, group polarization, formerly known as the risky shift, occurs when people polarize their views in a more extreme direction after group discussion. Even worse is the phenomenon of groupthink. This is a collective thinking defect that is characterized by a premature consensus. Groupthink is caused by a variety of factors, including isolation and a highly directive leader. Janis (1972) offered the 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion as a historical case of groupthink. Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... Group polarization effects have been demonstrated to exaggerate the inclinations of group members after a discussion. ... Groupthink is a type of thought exhibited by group members who try to minimize conflict and reach consensus without critically testing, analyzing, and evaluating ideas. ... Combatants Cubans trained by Soviet advisers Cuban exiles trained by the United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 51,000 1,500 Casualties various estimates; over 1,600 dead (Triay p. ...


Groups also affect performance and productivity. Social facilitation, for example, is a tendency to work harder and faster in the presence of others. Social facilitation increases the likelihood of the dominant response, which tends to improve performance on simple tasks and reduce it on complex tasks. In contrast, social loafing is the tendency of individuals to slack when working in a group. Social loafing is common when the task is considered unimportant and individual contributions are not easy to see. Social facilitation is a term within social psychology, traditionally seen to be the tendency for people to be aroused into better performance of simple tasks (or tasks at which we are expert) when under the eye of others rather than while they are alone. ... In the social psychology of groups, social loafing is the phenomenon that persons make less effort to achieve a goal when they work in a group than when they work alone. ... Slacking in the park The term slacker was commonly used in the United States in World War I and World War II to describe men who were avoiding the military draft. ...


Social psychologists study a variety of group related, or collective phenomena such as the behavior of crowds. An important concept in this area is deindividuation, a reduced state of self-awareness that can be caused by feelings of anonymity. Deindividuation is associated with uninhibited and sometimes dangerous behavior. It is common in crowds and mobs, but it can also be caused by a disguise, a uniform, alcohol, dark environments, or online anonymity. A throng of people returning from a show of fireworks spill in to the street stopping traffic at the intersection of Fulton Street and Gold Street in Lower Manhattan. ... Deindividuation refers to the phenomenon of relinquishing ones sense of identity. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Self-consciousness. ...


Relations with others

Social psychologists are interested in the question of why people sometimes act in a prosocial way (helping, liking, or loving others), but at other times act in an antisocial way (hostility, aggression, or prejudice against others). Pro-social behavior is behavior intended to benefit others or society as a whole. ... In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ...


Aggression can be defined as any behavior that is intended to harm another human being. Hostile aggression is accompanied by strong emotions, particularly anger. Harming the other person is the goal. Instrumental aggression is only a means to an end. Harming the person is used to obtain some other goal, such as money. Research indicates that there are many causes of aggression, including biological factors like testosterone and environmental factors, such as social learning. Immediate situational factors such as frustration are also important in triggering an aggressive response. In psychology and other social and behavioral sciences, aggression refers to behavior that is intended to cause harm or pain. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... Observational learning or social learning refers to learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and replicating behaviour observed in others. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Although violence is a fact of life, people are also capable of helping each other, even complete strangers in emergencies. Research indicates that altruism occurs when a person feels empathy for another individual, even in the absence of other motives (Batson, 1998). However, according to the bystander effect, the probability of receiving help in an emergency situation drops as the number of bystanders increases. This is due to conformity effects and a diffusion of responsibility (Latane, 1981). For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... The bystander effect (also known as bystander apathy) is a psychological phenomenon where persons are less likely to intervene in an emergency situation when others are present than when they are alone. ...

Image File history File links Hatfield. ... Image File history File links Hatfield. ... Elaine Hatfield Elaine Catherine Hatfield is Professor of Psychology at the University of Hawai‘i. ... In social psychology, interpersonal attraction (known as biological attraction in animals/insects) is the attraction between people which leads to friendships and romantic relationships. ...

Interpersonal attraction

Another major area in the study of people's relations to each other is interpersonal attraction. This refers to all of the forces that lead people to like each other, establish relationships, and in some cases, fall in love. Several general principles have been discovered by researchers in this area: In social psychology, interpersonal attraction (known as biological attraction in animals/insects) is the attraction between people which leads to friendships and romantic relationships. ...

  • Proximity - physical proximity increases attraction, as opposed to long distance relationships which are more at risk.
  • Familiarity - mere exposure to others increases attraction, even when the exposure is not consciously realized.
  • Similarity - the more similar two people are in attitudes, background, and other traits, the more probable it is that they will like each other. Contrary to popular opinion, opposites do not usually attract.

Physical attractiveness is an important element of romantic relationships, particularly in the early stages which are characterized by high levels of passion. Later on, similarity becomes more important and the type of love people experience shifts from passionate to companionate. Robert Sternberg (1986) has suggested that there are actually three components to love: intimacy, passion, and commitment. Social distance describes the distance between different groups of society and is opposed to locational distance. ... The mere exposure effect is a psychological artifact well known to advertisers: people express undue liking for things merely because they are familiar with them. ... In social psychology, similarity refers to how closely attitudes, values, interests and personality match between people. ... Features such as a symmetrical face, full lips, and low waist-hip ratio, are commonly considered physically attractive because they are thought to indicate physical health and high fertility to a potential mate. ... Limerence, as posited by psychologist Dorothy Tennov, is an involuntary cognitive and emotional state in which a person feels an intense romantic desire for another person (the limerent object). ... Robert J. Sternberg (8 December 1949-) is the Dean of Arts and Sciences at Tufts University and is the former IBM Professor of Psychology and Education at Yale University. ...


According to social exchange theory, relationships are based on rational choice and cost-benefit analysis. If one partner's costs begin to outweigh his or her benefits, that person may leave the relationship, especially if there are good alternatives available. With time, long term relationships tend to become communal rather than simply based on exchange. Social exchange theory is a social psychological perspective that explains social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between parties. ...


Interpersonal perception

Interpersonal perception examines the beliefs that interacting people have about each other. This area differs from social cognition and person perception by being interpersonal rather than intrapersonal. By requiring at least two real people to interact, research in this area examines unique phenomena such as:

  • accuracy - the correctness of A's beliefs about B
  • self-other agreement - whether A's beliefs about B matches B's beliefs about himself
  • similarity - whether A's and B's beliefs match
  • projection/assumed similarity - whether A's beliefs about B match A's beliefs about herself
  • reciprocity - the similarity of A's and B's beliefs about each other
  • meta-accuracy - whether A knows how others see her
  • assumed projection - whether A thinks others see her as she sees them

These variables cannot be assessed in studies that ask people to form beliefs about fictitious targets. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Although interest in this area has grown rapidly with the publication of Malcolm Gladwell's 2005 book Blink and Nalini Ambady's "thin-slices" research (Ambady & Rosenthal, 1992), the discipline is still very young, having only been formally defined by David Kenny in 1994. The sparsity of research, in particular on the accuracy of first-impressions, means that social psychologists know a lot about what people think about others, but far less about whether they are right. Malcolm Gladwell Malcolm Gladwell (born September 1, 1963) is a United Kingdom-born, Canadian-raised journalist now based in New York City who has been a staff writer for The New Yorker since 1996. ... Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking is a 2005 book by Malcolm Gladwell in which he explores the power of the trained mind to make split second decisions, the ability to think without thinking, or in other words using instinct. ...


Many attribute this to a criticism that Cronbach wrote in 1955 about how impression accuracy was calculated, which resulted in a 30-year hiatus in research. During that time, psychologists focused on consensus (whether A and B agree in their beliefs about C) rather than accuracy, although Kenny (1994) has argued that consensus is neither necessary nor sufficient for accuracy. Lee J. Cronbach (1916 - 2001) was an American educational psychologist who made significant contributions to psychological testing and measurement. ...


Today, the use of correlations instead of discrepancy scores to measure accuracy (Funder, 1995) and the development of the Big-5 model of personality have overcome Cronbach's criticisms and led to a wave of fascinating new research . People more accurately perceive Extraversion and Conscientiousness in strangers than they do the other personality domains (Watson, 1989). A 5-second interaction tells you as much as 15 minutes on these domains (Ambady & Rosenthal, 1992), and video tells you more than audio alone (Borkenau & Liebler, 1992). Positive linear correlations between 1000 pairs of numbers. ... In psychology, the Big Five personality traits are five broad factors or dimensions of personality discovered through empirical research (Goldberg, 1993). ... The terms Introvert and Extrovert (originally spelled Extravert by Carl Jung, who invented the terms) are referred to as attitudes and show how a person orients and receives their energy. ... Conscientiousness is the trait of being painstaking and careful, or the quality of being in accord with the dictates of ones conscience. ...


Surprisingly, viewing peoples' personal websites or "online profiles" (as on MySpace, Facebook, or a dating website) can make you as knowledgeable about their Conscientiousness and Open-Mindedness as their long-term friends (Vazire & Gosling, 2004). The question of whether social-networking sites lead to accurate first-impressions has inspired Sam Gosling of the University of Texas at Austin and David Evans of Classmates.com to launch an ambitious project to measure the accuracy of first-impressions worldwide (see YouJustGetMe.com). MySpace is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music, and videos. ... Facebook headquarters in Palo Alto Facebook is a social networking website which was launched on February 4, 2004. ... Conscientiousness is the trait of being painstaking and careful, or the quality of being in accord with the dictates of ones conscience. ... Openness to experience is a capacity within oneself to apprehend, absorb, and appreciate the world in its multitude of aspects and dimension. ... Classmates. ...


Research

Methods

Social psychology is an empirical science that attempts to answer a variety of questions about human behavior by testing hypotheses, both in the laboratory and in the field. Careful attention to sampling, research design, and statistical analysis is important, and results are published in peer reviewed journals such as The Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ... A graph of a normal bell curve showing statistics used in educational assessment and comparing various grading methods. ...

  • Experimental methods involve the researcher altering a variable in the environment and measuring the effect on another variable. An example would be allowing two groups of children to play violent or nonviolent videogames, and then observing their subsequent level of aggression during free-play period. A valid experiment is controlled and uses random assignment.
  • Correlational methods examine the statistical association between two naturally occurring variables. For example, one could correlate the amount of violent television children watch at home with the number of violent incidents the children participate in at school. Note that this study would not prove that violent TV causes aggression in children. It's quite possible that aggressive children choose to watch more violent TV.
  • Observational methods are purely descriptive and include naturalistic observation, "contrived" observation, participant observation, and archival analysis. These are less common in social psychology but are sometimes used when first investigating a phenomenon. An example would be to unobtrusively observe children on a playground (with a videocamera, perhaps) and record the number and types of aggressive actions displayed.

Whenever possible, social psychologists rely on controlled experimentation. Controlled experiments require the manipulation of one or more independent variables in order to examine the effect on a dependent variable. Experiments are useful in social psychology because they are high in internal validity, meaning that they are free from the influence of confounding or extraneous variables, and so are more likely to accurately indicate a causal relationship. However, the small samples used in controlled experiments are typically low in external validity, or the degree to which the results can be generalized the larger population. There is usually a trade-off between experimental control (internal validity) and being able to generalize to the population (external validity). In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex-+-periri, of (or from) trying), is a set of actions concerning phenomena. ... In experimental design, the random placement of participants in experimental versus control groups in order to insure that all groups are matched at the outset of the experiment. ... Positive linear correlations between 1000 pairs of numbers. ... Observation is an activity of a sapient or sentient living being (e. ... Naturalistic observation is a method of observation, commonly used by psychologists and social/behavioral scientists, that involves observing subjects in their natural habitats. ... In an experimental design, the independent variable (argument of a function, also called a predictor variable) is the variable that is manipulated or selected by the experimenter to determine its relationship to an observed phenomenon (the dependent variable). ... In experimental design, a dependent variable (also known as response variable, responding variable or regressand) is a factor whose values in different treatment conditions are compared. ... Internal validity is a term pertaining to scientific research that signifies the extent to which the conditions within a research design were conducive to drawing the conclusions the researcher was interested in drawing. ... A lurking variable (confounding factor or variable, or simply a confound or confounder) is a hidden variable in a statistical or research model that affects the variables in question but is not known or acknowledged, and thus (potentially) distorts the resulting data. ... External validity is a term used in scientific research. ... Internal validity is a term pertaining to scientific research that signifies the extent to which the conditions within a research design were conducive to drawing the conclusions the researcher was interested in drawing. ... External validity is a term used in scientific research. ...


Because it is usually impossible to test everyone, research tends to be conducted on a sample of persons from the wider population. Social psychologists frequently use survey research when they are interested in results that are high in external validity. Surveys use various forms of random sampling to obtain a sample of respondents that are representative of a population. This type of research is usually descriptive or correlational because there is no experimental control over variables. However, new statistical methods like structural equation modeling are being used to test for potential causal relationships in this type of data. A sample is that part of a population which is actually observed. ... Statistical surveys are used to collect quantitative information about items in a population. ... Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially for the purposes of statistical inference. ... Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a statistical technique for building and testing statistical models, which are sometimes called causal models. ...


Regardless of which method is used, it is important to evaluate the research hypothesis in light of the results, either confirming or rejecting the original prediction. Social psychologists use statistics and probability testing to judge their results, which define a significant finding as less than 5% likely to be due to chance. Replications are important, to ensure that the result is valid and not due to chance, or some feature of a particular sample. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Prisoners doing pushups during the Stanford prison experiment.

This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... The Stanford prison experiment was a psychological study of the human response to captivity, in particular to the real world circumstances of prison life and the effects of imposed social roles on behavior. ...

Ethics

The goal of social psychology is to understand cognition and behavior as they naturally occur in a social context, but the very act of observing people can influence and alter their behavior. For this reason, many social psychology experiments utilize deception to conceal or distort certain aspects of the study. Deception may include false cover stories, false participants (known as confederates or stooges), false feedback given to the participants, and so on. This article or section includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


The practice of deception has been challenged by some psychologists who maintain that deception under any circumstances is unethical, and that other research strategies (e.g. role-playing) should be used instead. Unfortunately, research has shown that role-playing studies do not produce the same results as deception studies and this has cast doubt on their validity. In addition to deception, experimenters have at times put people into potentially uncomfortable or embarrassing situations (e.g. the Milgram Experiment, Stanford prison experiment), and this has also been criticized for ethical reasons. In role-playing, participants adopt characters, or parts, that have personalities, motivations, and backgrounds different from their own. ... The experimenter (V) orders the subject (L) to give what the subject believes are painful electric shocks to another subject (S), who is actually an actor. ... The Stanford prison experiment was a psychological study of the human response to captivity, in particular to the real world circumstances of prison life and the effects of imposed social roles on behavior. ...


To protect the rights and well-being of research participants, and at the same time discover meaningful results and insights into human behavior, virtually all social psychology research must pass an ethical review process. At most colleges and universities, this is conducted by an ethics committee or institutional review board. This group examines the proposed research to make sure that no harm is done to the participants, and that the benefits of the study outweigh any possible risks or discomforts to people taking part in the study. Ethics (via Latin from the Ancient Greek moral philosophy, from the adjective of Ä“thos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group. ... An institutional review board/independent ethics committee (IRB/IEC) is an appropriately constituted group that has been formally designated to review and monitor biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects. ...


Furthermore, a process of informed consent is often used to make sure that volunteers know what will happen in the experiment and understand that they are allowed to quit the experiment at any time. A debriefing is typically done at the conclusion of the experiment in order to reveal any deceptions used and generally make sure that the participants are unharmed by the procedures. Today, most research in social psychology involves no more risk of harm than can be expected from routine psychological testing or normal daily activities. Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action. ... A debriefing or psychological debriefing is a one-time, semi-structured conversation with an individual who has just experienced a stressful or traumatic event. ...


Famous experiments

Well known experiments and studies that have influenced social psychology include:

  • The Asch conformity experiments from the 1950s, a series of studies that starkly demonstrated the power of conformity on people's estimation of the length of lines (Asch, 1955). On over a third of the trials, participants conformed to the majority, even though the majority judgment was clearly wrong. Seventy-five percent of the participants conformed at least once during the experiment.
  • Muzafer Sherif's (1954) Robbers' Cave Experiment, which divided boys into two competing groups to explore how much hostility and aggression would emerge. Also known as realistic group conflict theory, because the intergroup conflict was induced through competition over resources.
  • Leon Festinger's cognitive dissonance experiment, in which subjects were asked to perform a boring task. They were divided into 2 groups and given two different pay scales. At the end of the study, participants who were paid $1 to say that they enjoyed the task and another group of participants were paid $20 to say the same lie. The first group ($1) would later believe that they like the task better than the second group ($20). People justified the lie by changing their previously unfavorable attitudes about the task (Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959).
  • The Milgram experiment, which studied how far people would go to obey an authority figure. Following the events of the Holocaust in World War II, the experiment showed that normal American citizens were capable of following orders to the point of causing extreme suffering in an innocent human being (Milgram, 1975).
  • Albert Bandura's Bobo doll experiment, which demonstrated how aggression is learned by imitation (Bandura, et al., 1961). This was one of the first studies in a long line of research showing how exposure to media violence leads to aggressive behavior in the observers.
  • The Stanford prison experiment, by Philip Zimbardo, where a simulated exercise between student prisoners and guards showed how far people would follow an adopted role. This was an important demonstration of the power of the immediate social situation, and its capacity to overwhelm normal personality traits (Haney, Banks, & Zimbardo, 1973).

The Asch conformity experiments, published in 1951, were a series of studies that starkly demonstrated the power of conformity in groups. ... This article is about the psychological concept of conformity. ... Muzafer Sherif (born July 29, 1906, in Odemis, Izmir, Turkey – died October 16, 1988, in Fairbanks, Alaska) was one of the founders of social psychology. ... Leon Festinger Leon Festinger (May 8, 1919 – February 11, 1989) was a social psychologist from New York City who became famous for his Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Festinger, 1957). ... The experimenter (V) orders the subject (L) to give what the subject believes are painful electric shocks to another subject (S), who is actually an actor. ... Authority- is a very talented rocknroll band out of Columbia, S.C. This power rock trio has its roots in rock, funk, hardcore, and a dash of hip hop. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Albert Bandura (born December 4, 1925 in Mundare, Canada) is a Ukrainian-Canadian psychologist most famous for his work on social learning theory (or Social Cognitivism) and self efficacy. ... The Bobo doll experiment was conducted by Albert Bandura in 1961 and studied patterns of behaviour associated with aggression. ... Imitation is an advanced animal behaviour whereby an individual observes anothers behaviour and replicates it itself. ... The Stanford prison experiment was a psychological study of the human response to captivity, in particular to the real world circumstances of prison life and the effects of imposed social roles on behavior. ... Philip G. Zimbardo (born March 23, 1933) is an American psychologist, best known for his Stanford prison experiment and bestselling introductions to psychology. ...

Primary sources of social psychology research

General Social Psychology Journals

The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (often referred to as JPSP) is a monthly psychology journal of the American Psychological Association. ... Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin is a journal published by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP). ... Personality and Social Psychology Review is a journal published by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP). ... The Journal of Experimental Social Psychology is a scientific journal published by the Society of Experimental Social Psychology (SESP). ... British Journal of Social Psychology is a journal published by the British Psychological Society (BPS). ...

See also

This is a list of important publications in psychology, organized by field. ... Cognitive bias is distortion in the way humans perceive reality (see also cognitive distortion). ... The following is a list of academics, both past and present, who are widely renowned for their groundbreaking contributions to the field of social psychology. ... Social psychology is a highly empirical field. ... Social Psychology is a subfield of sociology which looks at the social behavior of humans in terms of associations and relationships that they have. ...

References

  • Allport, G. W. (1985). The historical background of social psychology. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology. New York: McGraw Hill.
  • Ambady, N., & Rosenthal, R. (1992). Thin slices of expressive behavior as predictors of interpersonal consequences: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 256-274.
  • Asch, S. E. (1955). Opinions and social pressure. Scientific American, pp. 31-35.
  • Bandura, A., Ross, D. & Ross, S. A. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575-582.
  • Batson, C. D. (1998). Altruism and prosocial behavior. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey, (Eds.),The handbook of social psychology. New York: McGraw Hill.
  • Bem, D. (1970). Beliefs, attitudes, and human affairs. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
  • Borkenau, P., & Liebler, A. (1992). Trait inferences: Sources of validity at zero acquaintance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 645-647.
  • Cialdini, R. B. (2000). Influence: Science and practice. Allyn and Bacon.
  • Correll, J., Park, B., Judd, C. M., & Wittenbrink, B. (2002). The police officer's dilemma: Using ethnicity to disambiguate potentially threatening individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1314-1329.
  • Cronbach, L. J. (1955). Processes affecting scores on "understanding of others" and "assumed similarity." Psychological Bulletin, 52, 177-193.
  • Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • Festinger, L. & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-211.
  • Funder, D.C. (1995). On the accuracy of personality judgment: A realistic approach. Psychological Review, 102, 652-670.
  • Gladwell M. (2005). Blink: the power of thinking without thinking. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.
  • Gergen, K. J. (1973). Social psychology as history. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 26, 309-320.
  • Haney, C., Banks, W.C. & Zimbardo, P.G. (1973). Interpersonal dynamics in a simulated prison. International Journal of Criminology and Penology, 1, 69-97.
  • Janis, I. L. (1972). Victims of groupthink. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Kenny, D.A. (1994). Interpersonal perception: A social relations analysis. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Latane, B. (1981). The psychology of social impact. American Psychologist, 36, 343-356.
  • Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in social science: Selected theoretical papers. D. Cartwright (Ed.). New York: Harper & Row.
  • Mesoudi, A. (2007). Using the methods of experimental social psychology to study cultural evolution. Journal of Social, Evolutionary & Cultural Psychology, 1(2), 35-58.
  • Milgram, S. (1975). Obedience to authority. Harper and Bros.
  • Sewell, W. H. (1989). Some reflections on the golden age of interdisciplinary social psychology. Annual Review of Sociology. Vol. 15.
  • Schaller, M., Simpson, J.A., & Kenrick, D.T. (2006). Evolution and Social Psychology (Frontiers of Social Psychology). Psychology Press: New York ISBN-10: 1841694177
  • Sherif, M. (1954). Experiments in group conflict. Scientific American, 195, 54-58.
  • Sternberg, R. J. (1986) A triangular theory of love. Psychological Review, 93, 119-135.
  • Perloff, R. M. (2003). The dynamics of persuasion. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Tajfel, H. & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.
  • Triplett, N. (1898). The dynamogenic factors in pacemaking and competition. American Journal of Psychology. 9, 507-533.
  • Vazier, S. & Gosling, S.D. (2004). e-Perceptions: Personality impressions based on personal websites. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 123-132.
  • Watson, D. (1989). Strangers' ratings of the five robust personality factors: Evidence of a surprising convergence with self-report. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 120-128.

External links


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m