FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Social network

A social network is a social structure made of nodes (which are generally individuals or organizations) that are tied by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as values, visions, idea, financial exchange, friends, kinship, dislike, conflict, trade, web links, sexual relations, disease transmission (epidemiology), or airline routes. A social network service focuses on the building and verifying of online social networks for communities of people who share interests and activities, or who are interested in exploring the interests and activities of others, and which necessitates the use of software. ... MySpace is a social networking website offering an interactive, user-submitted network of friends, personal profiles, blogs, groups, photos, music, and videos. ... A virtual community, e-community or online community is a group of people that primarily interact via some form tim of mechanism such as letters, telephone, email or Usenet rather than face to face. ... See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... Value is a term that expresses the concept of worth in general, and it is thought to be connected to reasons for certain practices, policies or actions. ... Vision can refer to: Visual perception is one of the senses. ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute... FINANCIAL is the weekly English-language newspaper with offices in Tbilisi, Georgia and Kiev, Ukraine. ... For other uses, see Friendship (disambiguation). ... Kinship is the most basic principle of organizing individuals into social groups, roles, and categories. ... For other uses, see Conflict (disambiguation) In political terms, conflict refers to an ongoing state of hostility between two or more groups of people. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... Look up web in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse) and/or to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. ... Disease transmission is the way that an infectious disease or pathogen is passed on or communicated from one individual to another in a population of humans, or in groups of other animals. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... An Airbus A380 of Emirates Airline An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight. ...


Social network analysis views social relationships in terms of nodes and ties. Nodes are the individual actors within the networks, and ties are the relationships between the actors. There can be many kinds of ties between the nodes. Research in a number of academic fields has shown that social networks operate on many levels, from families up to the level of nations, and play a critical role in determining the way problems are solved, organizations are run, and the degree to which individuals succeed in achieving their goals.


In its simplest form, a social network is a map of all of the relevant ties between the nodes being studied. The network can also be used to determine the social capital of individual actors. These concepts are often displayed in a social network diagram, where nodes are the points and ties are the lines. Social capital is a core concept in business, economics, organizational behaviour, political science, and sociology, defined as the advantage created by a persons location in a structure of relationships. ...

An example of a social network diagram
An example of a social network diagram

Contents

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Social network analysis

Social network analysis (related to network theory) has emerged as a key technique in modern sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, geography, social psychology, communication studies, information science, organizational studies, economics, and biology as well as a popular topic of speculation and study. Network theory or diktyology is a branch of applied mathematics and physics, with the same general subject matter as graph theory. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. ... The scope of social psychological research. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Ancient Library of Alexandria, an early form of information storage and retrieval. ... Organizational studies, organizational behaviour, and organizational theory are related terms for the academic study of organizations, examining them using the methods of economics, sociology, political science, anthropology, and psychology. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ...


People have used the social network metaphor for over a century to connote complex sets of relationships between members of social systems at all scales, from interpersonal to international. Yet not until J. A. Barnes in 1954 did social scientists start using the term systematically to denote patterns of ties that cut across the concepts traditionally used by the public and social scientists: bounded groups (e.g., tribes, families) and social categories (e.g., gender, ethnicity). Scholars such as S.D. Berkowitz, Stephen Borgatti, Ronald Burt, Linton Freeman, Mark Granovetter, Nicholas Mullins, Anatol Rapoport, Stanley Wasserman, Barry Wellman and Harrison White expanded the use of social networks. The term group can refer to several concepts: In music, a group is another term for band or other musical ensemble. ... For Wikipedias categorization projects, see Wikipedia:Categorization. ... -1... Mark Granovetter is a sociologist who gave some of the most influential theories in modern sociology, since the 1970s. ... Anatol Rapoport (born May 22, 1911) is a Russian-born American Jewish, mathematical psychologist. ... Barry Wellman directs NetLab as a professor of Sociology at the University of Toronto. ... Harrison C. White is Professor of sociology at Columbia University. ...


Social network analysis has now moved from being a suggestive metaphor to an analytic approach to a paradigm, with its own theoretical statements, methods and research tribes. Analysts reason from whole to part; from structure to relation to individual; from behavior to attitude. They either study whole networks, all of the ties containing specified relations in a defined population, or personal networks, the ties that specified people have, such as their "personal communities".


Several analytic tendencies distinguish social network analysis:

There is no assumption that groups are the building blocks of society: the approach is open to studying less-bounded social systems, from nonlocal communities to links among Web sites.
Rather than treating individuals (persons, organizations, states) as discrete units of analysis, it focuses on how the structure of ties affects individuals and their relationships.
By contrast with analyses that assume that socialization into norms determines behavior, network analysis looks to see the extent to which the structure and composition of ties affect norms.

The shape of a social network helps determine a network's usefulness to its individuals. Smaller, tighter networks can be less useful to their members than networks with lots of loose connections (weak ties) to individuals outside the main network. More open networks, with many weak ties and social connections, are more likely to introduce new ideas and opportunities to their members than closed networks with many redundant ties. In other words, a group of friends who only do things with each other already share the same knowledge and opportunities. A group of individuals with connections to other social worlds is likely to have access to a wider range of information. It is better for individual success to have connections to a variety of networks rather than many connections within a single network. Similarly, individuals can exercise influence or act as brokers within their social networks by bridging two networks that are not directly linked (called filling structural holes). Community is a set of people (or agents in a more abstract sense) with some shared element. ... Look up web in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Weak tie is a term suggested by Mark Granovetter in The strength of weak ties (The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. ...


The power of social network analysis stems from its difference from traditional social scientific studies, which assume that it is the attributes of individual actors -- whether they are friendly or unfriendly, smart or dumb, etc. -- that matter. Social network analysis produces an alternate view, where the attributes of individuals are less important than their relationships and ties with other actors within the network. This approach has turned out to be useful for explaining many real-world phenomena, but leaves less room for individual agency, the ability for individuals to influence their success, because so much of it rests within the structure of their network.


Social networks have also been used to examine how organizations interact with each other, characterizing the many informal connections that link executives together, as well as associations and connections between individual employees at different organizations. For example, power within organizations often comes more from the degree to which an individual within a network is at the center of many relationships than actual job title. Social networks also play a key role in hiring, in business success, and in job performance. Networks provide ways for companies to gather information, deter competition, and collude in setting prices or policies. Look up collusion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


History of social network analysis

A summary of the progress of social networks and social network analysis has been written by Linton Freeman. His 2004 book, The Development of Social Network Analysis[1] is especially useful for developments until the 1980s.


Precursors of social networks in the late 1800s include Émile Durkheim and Ferdinand Tönnies. Tönnies argued that social groups can exist as personal and direct social ties that either link individuals who share values and belief (gemeinschaft) or impersonal, formal and instrumental social links (gesellschaft). Durkheim gave a non-individualistic explanation of social facts arguing that social phenomena arise when interacting individuals constitute a reality that can no longer be accounted for in terms of the properties of individual actors. He distinguished between a traditional society – "mechanical solidarity" – which prevails if individual differences are minimized, and the modern society – "organic solidarity" – that develops out of cooperation between differentiated individuals with independent roles. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Émile Durkheim Émile Durkheim (IPA: ; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist whose contributions were instrumental in the formation of sociology and anthropology. ... Ferdinand Tönnies (July 26, 1855, near Oldenswort (Eiderstedt) - April 9, 1936, Kiel, Germany) was a German sociologist. ...


Georg Simmel, writing at the turn of the twentieth century, was the first scholar to think directly in social network terms. His essays pointed to the nature of network size on interaction and to the likelihood of interaction in ramified, loosely-knit networks rather than groups (Simmel, 1908/1971). Georg Simmel Georg Simmel (March 1, 1858 – September 28, 1918, Berlin, Germany) was one of the first generation of German sociologists. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


After a hiatus in the first decades of the twentieth century, three main traditions in social networks appeared. In the 1930s, J.L. Moreno pioneered the systematic recording and analysis of social interaction in small groups, especially classrooms and work groups (sociometry), while a Harvard group led by W. Lloyd Warner and Elton Mayo explored interpersonal relations at work. In 1940, A.R. Radcliffe-Brown's presidential address to British anthropologists urged the systematic study of networks.[2] However, it took about 15 years before this call was followed-up systematically. Sociometry is the science and art of measuring relationships developed by psychotherapist Jacob L. Moreno in his studies of the relationship between social configurations or structures and psychological well-being. ... Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... William Lloyd Warner (b. ... George Elton Mayo (born Adelaide, December 26, 1880; died September 7, 1949) was a psychologist and sociologist. ... ...


Social network analysis developed with the kinship studies of Elizabeth Bott in England in the 1950s and the 1950s-1960s urbanization studies of the University of Manchester group of anthropologists (centered around Max Gluckman and later J. Clyde Mitchell) investigating community networks in southern Africa, India and the United Kingdom. Concomittantly, British anthropologist S.F. Nadel codified a theory of social structure that was influential in later network analysis.[3] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Affiliations Russell Group, EUA, N8 Group, NWUA, Worldwide Universities Network (WUN) Website http://www. ... Max Gluckman, born 26 January 1911 in Johannesburg of Russian Jewish parents, died 1975, was a South African social anthropologist. ... James Clyde Mitchell (usually known as J. Clyde Mitchell) b. ... Siegfried Frederick Nadel (24 April 1903–14 January 1956), known as Fred Nadel, was an Austrian-born British anthropologist, specialising in African ethnology. ...


In the 1960s-1970s, a growing number of scholars worked to combine the different tracks and traditions. One large group was centered around Harrison White and his students at Harvard University: Ivan Chase, Bonnie Erickson, Harriet Friedmann, Mark Granovetter, Nancy Howell, Joel Levine, Nicholas Mullins, John Padgett, Michael Schwartz and Barry Wellman. White's group thought of themselves as rebelling against the reigning structural-functionalist orthodoxy of then-dominant Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons, leading them to devalue concerns with sybols, values, norms and culture. They also were opposed to the methodological individualism espoused by another Harvard sociologist, George Homans, which was endemic among the dominant survey researchers and positivists of the time. are among the former students of White who have developed social network analysis. [4] Harrison C. White is Professor of sociology at Columbia University. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Mark Granovetter is a sociologist who gave some of the most influential theories in modern sociology, since the 1970s. ... Barry Wellman directs NetLab as a professor of Sociology at the University of Toronto. ... Structural functionalism is a range of theoretical perspectives within anthropology and sociology that addresses the relationship of social activity to an overall social system. ... Talcott Parsons Talcott Edgar Frederick Parsons (December 13, 1902–May 8, 1979) was for many years the best-known sociologist in the United States, and indeed one of the best-known in the world. ... Methodological individualism is a philosophical orientation toward explaining broad society-wide developments as the accumulation of decisions by individuals. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Statistical surveys are used to collect quantitative information in the fields of marketing, political polling, and social science research. ... // Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. ...


White's was not the only group. Significant independent work was done by scholars elsewhere: University of California Irvine social scientists interested in mathematical applications, centered around Linton Freeman, including John Boyd, Susan Freeman, Kathryn Faust, A. Kimball Romney and Douglas White); quantitative analysts at the University of Chicago, including Joseph Galaskiewicz, Wendy Griswold, Edward Laumann, Peter Marsden, Martina Morris, and John Padgett; and communication scholars at Michigan State University, including Nan Lin and Everett Rogers. A substantively-oriented University of Toronto sociology group developed in the 1970s, centered on former students of Harrison White: S.D. Berkowitz, Harriet Friedmann, Nancy Leslie Howard, Nancy Howell, [[Lorne Tepperman and Barry Wellman, and also including noted modeler and game theorist Anatol Rapoport. [5] The University of California, Irvine is a public, coeducational university situated in suburban Irvine, California. ... A. Kimball Romney is one of the founders of cognitive anthropology. ... Douglas R. White is an American social anthropologist, sociologist, and social network researcher at the University of California, Irvine. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Michigan State University (MSU) is a co-educational public research university in East Lansing, Michigan USA. Founded in 1855, it was the pioneer land-grant institution and served as a model for future land-grant colleges in the United States under the 1862 Morrill Act. ... Nan Lin is a professor in Sociology at Duke University. ... Everett M. Rogers (1931 in Carroll, Iowa - Albuquerque, New Mexico, 21 October 2004), communications scholar, pioneer of diffusion of innovations theory, writer, and teacher. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Barry Wellman directs NetLab as a professor of Sociology at the University of Toronto. ... Game theory is often described as a branch of applied mathematics and economics that studies situations where multiple players make decisions in an attempt to maximize their returns. ... Anatol Rapoport (born May 22, 1911) is a Russian-born American Jewish, mathematical psychologist. ...


Applications

The evolution of social networks can sometimes be modeled by the use of agent based models, providing insight into the interplay between communication rules, rumor spreading and social structure. Here is an interactive model of rumour spreading, based on rumour spreading from model on Cmol.


Diffusion of innovations theory explores social networks and their role in influencing the spread of new ideas and practices. Change agents and opinion leaders often play major roles in spurring the adoption of innovations, although factors inherent to the innovations also play a role. The study of the diffusion of innovation is the study of how, why, and at what rate new ideas spread through cultures. ... A change agent is someone who engages either deliberately or whose behavior results in social, cultural or behavioral change. ... Opinion leadership is a concept that arose out of the theory of two-step flow of communication propounded by Paul Lazarsfeld and Elihu Katz. ...


Dunbar's number: The so-called rule of 150, asserts that the size of a genuine social network is limited to about 150 members. The rule arises from cross-cultural studies in sociology and especially anthropology of the maximum size of a village (in modern parlance most reasonably understood as an ecovillage). It is theorized in evolutionary psychology that the number may be some kind of limit of average human ability to recognize members and track emotional facts about all members of a group. However, it may be due to economics and the need to track "free riders", as it may be easier in larger groups to take advantage of the benefits of living in a community without contributing to those benefits. Dunbars number, which is 150, represents a theoretical maximum number of individuals with whom a set of people can maintain a social relationship, the kind of relationship that goes with knowing who each person is and how each person relates socially to every other person. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... Ecovillages are intended to be socially, economically and ecologically sustainable intentional communities. ... Evolutionary psychology (abbreviated EP) is a theoretical approach to psychology that attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, i. ... As Thought Process During the process of thinking, recognition occurs when some event, process, pattern, or object recurs. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... In economics and political science, free riders are actors who consume more than their fair share of a resource, or shoulder less than a fair share of the costs of its production. ...


Guanxi is a central concept in Chinese society that can be summarized as the use of personal influence. Guanxi can be studied from a social network approach.[6] Guanxi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: gūanxi ), describes the basic dynamic in personalised networks of influence. ...


The small world phenomenon is the hypothesis that the chain of social acquaintances required to connect one arbitrary person to another arbitrary person anywhere in the world is generally short. The concept gave rise to the famous phrase six degrees of separation after a 1967 small world experiment by psychologist Stanley Milgram. In Milgram's experiment, a sample of US individuals were asked to reach a particular target person by passing a message along a chain of acquaintances. The average length of successful chains turned out to be about five intermediaries or six separation steps (the majority of chains in that study actually failed to complete). Academic researchers continue to explore this phenomenon. Judith Kleinfeld has written an article[7] that points out the many problems with the original Milgram research. A recent electronic Small World experiment[8] at Columbia University showed that about five to seven degrees of separation are sufficient for connecting any two people through e-mail. The small world phenomenon (also known as the small world effect) is the hypothesis that everyone in the world can be reached through a short chain of social acquaintances. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Stanley Milgram Stanley Milgram (August 15, 1933 – December 20, 1984) was a psychologist at Yale University, Harvard University and the City University of New York. ...


The study of socio-technical systems is loosely linked to social network analysis, and looks at relations among individuals, institutions, objects and technologies. In organizational development, socio-technical systems (or STS) is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in workplaces. ...


Metrics (Measures) in social network analysis

Betweenness
Degree an individual lies between other individuals in the network; the extent to which a node is directly connected only to those other nodes that are not directly connected to each other; an intermediary; liaisons; bridges. Therefore, it's the number of people who a person is connected to indirectly through their direct links.
Closeness
The degree an individual is near all other individuals in a network (directly or indirectly). It reflects the ability to access information through the "grapevine" of network members. Thus, closeness is the inverse of the sum of the shortest distances between each individual and every other person in the network.
Centrality Degree
The count of the number of ties to other actors in the network. See also degree (graph theory).
Flow betweenness Centrality
The degree that a node contributes to sum of maximum flow between all pairs of nodes (not that node).
Centrality Eigenvector
Eigenvector centrality is a measure of the importance of a node in a network. It assigns relative scores to all nodes in the network based on the principle that connections to nodes having a high score contribute more to the score of the node in question.
Centralization
The difference between the n of links for each node divided by maximum possible sum of differences. A centralized network will have much of its links dispersed around one or a few nodes, while a decentralized network is one in which there is little variation between the n of links each node possesses
Clustering Coefficient
The clustering coefficient is a measure of the likelihood that two associates of a node are associates themselves. A higher clustering coefficient indicates a greater 'cliquishness'.
Cohesion
Refers to the degree to which actors are connected directly to each other by cohesive bonds. Groups are identified as ‘cliques’ if every actor is directly tied to every other actor, ‘social circles’ if there is less stringency of direct contact, which is imprecise, or as structurally cohesive blocks if precision is wanted.
Density
Individual-level density is the degree a respondent's ties know one another/ proportion of ties among an individual's nominees. Network or global-level density is the proportion of ties in a network relative to the total number possible (sparse versus dense networks).
Path Length
The distances between pairs of nodes in the network. Average path-length is the average of these distances between all pairs of nodes.
Radiality
Degree an individual’s network reaches out into the network and provides novel information and influence
Reach
The degree any member of a network can reach other members of the network.
Structural Cohesion
The minimum number of members who, if removed from a group, would disconnect the group.[9]
Structural Equivalence
Refers to the extent to which actors have a common set of linkages to other actors in the system. The actors don’t need to have any ties to each other to be structurally equivalent.
Structural Hole
Static holes that can be strategically filled by connecting one or more links to link together other points. Linked to ideas of social capital: if you link to two people who are not linked you can control their communication.

Betweenness is a centrality measure of a vertex within a graph. ... In graph theory, closeness is the shortest path between one vertex and another vertex. ... In graph theory, the degree (or valency) of a vertex is the number of edges incident to the vertex. ... Eigenvector centrality is a measure of the importance of a node in a network. ... This article just presents the basic definitions. ... In Graph theory, a digraph with weighted edges is called a network. ... Example clustering coefficient on an undirected graph for the shaded node i. ... This is page is a about the computer concept Cohesion, for the concept in chemistry see Cohesion (chemistry). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Structural cohesion is the sociological and graph theory conception [1][2] and measurement of cohesion for maximal social group or graphical boundaries where related elements cannot be disconnected except by removal of a certain minimal number of other nodes. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... In the application of statistics to advertising and media analysis, reach is defined as the size of the audience who listen to, read, view or otherwise access a particular work in a given time period. ... Social capital is a core concept in business, economics, organizational behaviour, political science, and sociology, defined as the advantage created by a persons location in a structure of relationships. ...

Professional association and journals

The International Network for Social Network Analysis is the professional association of social network analysis. Started in 1977 by Barry Wellman at the University of Toronto, it now has more than 1200 members and until recently was headed by William Richards (Simon Fraser University). The International Network for Social Network Analysis is the professional association of social network analysis. ... Barry Wellman directs NetLab as a professor of Sociology at the University of Toronto. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a public research university in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Simon Fraser University (SFU) is located on Burnaby Mountain in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada, part of the metropolitan area of Vancouver, British Columbia. ...


Netwiki is a scientific wiki devoted to network theory, which uses tools from subjects such as graph theory, statistical mechanics, and dynamical systems to study real-world networks in the social sciences, technology, biology, etc.[10] Network theory or diktyology is a branch of applied mathematics and physics, with the same general subject matter as graph theory. ...


There are several journals: Social Networks, Connections, and the Journal of Social Structure.


Network analytic software

Many social network tools for scholarly work are available online such as the long time standard UCINet [2], Pajek [3], ORA [4],or the "network" package in "R"). They are relatively easy to use to present graphical images of networks. Business oriented software is also available. Examples include InFlow[5], NetMiner [6]. An open source package for linux is Social Networks Visualizer or SocNetV [7]; a related package installer of SocNetV for Mac OS X [8] is available.
A systematic overview and comparison of a selection of software packages for social network analysis was provided by Huisman and Van Duijn (see references). A large list of software packages and libraries can be found under Computer Programs for Social Network Analysis.


See also

Actor-network theory, often abbreviated as ANT, is a distinctive approach to social theory and research which originated in the field of science studies. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The concept of a community of practice (often abbreviated as CoP) refers to the process of social learning that occurs when people who have a common interest in some subject or problem collaborate over an extended period to share ideas, find solutions, and build innovations. ... Dynamic Network Analysis (DNA) is an emergent scientific field that brings together traditional social network analysis (SNA), link analysis (LA) and multi-agent systems (MAS). ... Economic network or refereed network of independent individuals has the primary purpose of making a strong community in order to gain strength and perform as a significant player in relation to current market situation. ... FOAF is an initialism standing for Friend of a Friend used in some social sciences as a half-joking shorthand for the fact that much of the information on which people act comes from distant sources (as in It happened to a friend of a friend of mine) and cannot... Guanxi (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: gūanxi ), describes the basic dynamic in personalised networks of influence. ... The International Network for Social Network Analysis is the professional association of social network analysis. ... Knowledge Management (KM) comprises a range of practices used by organisations to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge for reuse, awareness and learning. ... Mathematical sociology is the usage of mathematics to construct social theories. ... Mobile social networking is social networking where one or more individuals of similar interests or commonalities, conversing and connecting with one another using the mobile phone. ... MoSoSo, or mobile social software, is software -- generally on a mobile phone or on a laptop computer -- that facilitates social encounters, or mobile social networking by associating geographical location and time with ones own social network. ... — Kimchi. ... Network analysis is the analysis of networks through network theory (or more generally graph theory). ... // Network of Practice Building on the work on communities of practice by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger in the early 1990s, John Seely-Brown and Paul Duguid (2000) developed the concept of networks of practice (often abbreviated as NoPs). ... A sexual network is a social network that is defined by the sexual relationships within a set of individuals. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The small world phenomenon (also known as the small world effect) is the hypothesis that everyone in the world can be reached through a short chain of social acquaintances. ... The generative model of feedback networks [1], [2] studied by White, Kejžar, Tsallis, Farmer, and White, or social-circles network model, defines a class of random graphs generated by simple processes that are common to edge formation and feedback loops in social circles. ... This article deals with the philosophical and political concept of the social contract, and not with juridical contract theory. ... Social Networking Potential (SNP) is a numeric coefficient, derived through algorithms to represent both the size of an individuals social network and their ability to influence that network. ... A social network service is social software specifically focused on the building and verifying of social networks for whatever purpose. ... The social safety net is a term used to describe a collection of services provided by the state (such as welfare, universal healthcare, homeless shelters, and perhaps various subsidized services such as transit), which prevent any individual from falling into poverty beyond a certain level. ... The Social Web refers to an open global distributed data sharing network similar to todays World Wide Web, except instead of linking documents, the Social Web will link people, organizations, and concepts. ... In organizational development, socio-technical systems (or STS) is an approach to complex organizational work design that recognizes the interaction between people and technology in workplaces. ... Value networks (value webs), are the human and technical resources in a business that work together to form relationships and add value to a product or service. ... A virtual community, e-community or online community is a group of people that primarily interact via some form tim of mechanism such as letters, telephone, email or Usenet rather than face to face. ... A Virtual Organization is an organization existing as a corporate, not-for-profit, educational, or otherwise productive entity that does not have a central geographical location and exists solely through telecommunication tools. ...

References

Print
  • Barnes, J. A. "Class and Committees in a Norwegian Island Parish", Human Relations 7:39-58
  • Berkowitz, S. D. 1982. An Introduction to Structural Analysis: The Network Approach to Social Research. Toronto: Butterworth.
  • Brandes, Ulrik, and Thomas Erlebach (Eds.). 2005. Network Analysis: Methodological Foundations Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
  • Breiger, Ronald L. 2004. "The Analysis of Social Networks." Pp. 505-526 in Handbook of Data Analysis, edited by Melissa Hardy and Alan Bryman. London: Sage Publications. Excerpts in pdf format
  • Burt, Ronald S. (1992). Structural Holes: The Structure of Competition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Carrington, Peter J., John Scott and Stanley Wasserman (Eds.). 2005. Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Christakis, Nicholas and James H. Fowler "The Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network Over 32 Years," New England Journal of Medicine 357 (4): 370-379 (26 July 2007)
  • Doreian, Patrick, Vladimir Batagelj, and Anuska Ferligoj. (2005). Generalized Blockmodeling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Freeman, Linton C. (2004) The Development of Social Network Analysis: A Study in the Sociology of Science. Vancouver: Empirical Press.
  • Hill, R. and Dunbar, R. 2002. "Social Network Size in Humans." Human Nature, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 53-72.Google
  • Jackson, Matthew O. (2003). "A Strategic Model of Social and Economic Networks". Journal of Economic Theory 71: 44-74.  pdf
  • Huisman, M. and Van Duijn, M. A. J. (2005). Software for Social Network Analysis. In P J. Carrington, J. Scott, & S. Wasserman (Editors), Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis (pp. 270-316). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Krebs, Valdis (2006) Social Network Analysis, A Brief Introduction. (Includes a list of recent SNA applications Web Reference.)
  • Lin, Nan, Ronald S. Burt and Karen Cook, eds. (2001). Social Capital: Theory and Research. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
  • Mullins, Nicholas. 1973. Theories and Theory Groups in Contemporary American Sociology. New York: Harper and Row.
  • Müller-Prothmann, Tobias (2006): Leveraging Knowledge Communication for Innovation. Framework, Methods and Applications of Social Network Analysis in Research and Development, Frankfurt a. M. et al.: Peter Lang, ISBN 0-8204-9889-0.
  • Manski, Charles F. (2000). "Economic Analysis of Social Interactions". Journal of Economic Perspectives 14: 115-36.  [9] via JSTOR
  • Moody, James, and Douglas R. White (2003). "Structural Cohesion and Embeddedness: A Hierarchical Concept of Social Groups." American Sociological Review 68(1):103-127. [10]
  • Newman, Mark (2003). "The Structure and Function of Complex Networks". SIAM Review 56: 167-256.  pdf
  • Nohria, Nitin and Robert Eccles (1992). Networks in Organizations. second ed. Boston: Harvard Business Press.
  • Nooy, Wouter d., A. Mrvar and Vladimir Batagelj. (2005). Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Scott, John. (2000). Social Network Analysis: A Handbook. 2nd Ed. Newberry Park, CA: Sage.
  • Tilly, Charles. (2005). Identities, Boundaries, and Social Ties. Boulder, CO: Paradigm press.
  • Valente, Thomas. (1995). Network Models of the Diffusion of Innovation. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
  • Wasserman, Stanley, & Faust, Katherine. (1994). Social Networks Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Watkins, Susan Cott. (2003). "Social Networks." Pp. 909-910 in Encyclopedia of Population. rev. ed. Edited by Paul Demeny and Geoffrey McNicoll. New York: Macmillan Reference.
  • Watts, Duncan. (2003). Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks between Order and Randomness. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Watts, Duncan. (2004). Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age. W. W. Norton & Company.
  • Wellman, Barry (1999). Networks in the Global Village. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Wellman, Barry. 2001. "Physical Place and Cyber-Place: Changing Portals and the Rise of Networked Individualism." International Journal for Urban and Regional Research 25 (2): 227-52.
  • Wellman, Barry and Berkowitz, S.D. (1988). Social Structures: A Network Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Weng, M. (2007). A Multimedia Social-Networking Community for Mobile Devices Interactive Telecommunications Program, Tisch School of the Arts/ New York University
  • White, Harrison, Scott Boorman and Ronald Breiger. 1976. "Social Structure from Multiple Networks: I Blockmodels of Roles and Positions." American Journal of Sociology 81: 730-80.
Internet
  1. ^ Vancouver: Empirical Press
  2. ^ A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, "On Social Structure," Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute: 70 (1940): 1-12.
  3. ^ [Nadel, SF. 1957. The Theory of Social Structure. London: Cohen and West.
  4. ^ Mark Granovetter, "Introduction for the French Reader," Sociologica 2 (2007): 1-8; Wellman, Barry. 1988. "Structural Analysis: From Method and Metaphor to Theory and Substance." Pp. 19-61 in Social Structures: A Network Approach, edited by Barry Wellman and S.D. Berkowitz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  5. ^ Mark Granovetter, "Introduction for the French Reader," Sociologica 2 (2007): 1-8; Wellman, Barry. 1988. "Structural Analysis: From Method and Metaphor to Theory and Substance." Pp. 19-61 in Social Structures: A Network Approach, edited by Barry Wellman and S.D. Berkowitz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (see also Scott, 2000 and Freeman, 2004).
  6. ^ Barry Wellman, Wenhong Chen and Dong Weizhen. “Networking Guanxi." Pp. 221-41 in Social Connections in China: Institutions, Culture and the Changing Nature of Guanxi, edited by Thomas Gold, Douglas Guthrie and David Wank. Cambridge University Press, 2002.
  7. ^ Could It Be A Big World After All?: Judith Kleinfeld article.
  8. ^ Electronic Small World Experiment: Columbia.edu website.
  9. ^ Moody, James, and Douglas R. White (2003). "Structural Cohesion and Embeddedness: A Hierarchical Concept of Social Groups." American Sociological Review 68(1):103-127. [1]
  10. ^ Netwiki: accessed through The University of North Carolina website.

James H. Fowler (born 1970) is an American political scientist who specializes in social networks, cooperation, and political participation. ... JSTOR®, begun in 1995, is an online system for archiving academic journals. ... Judith Kleinfeld is professor of Psychology at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and head of the Northern Studies department. ... Alma Mater Columbia University in the City of New York is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... The University of North Carolina is a sixteen-university system which comprises all public four-year universities in North Carolina, United States. ...

External links

  • The International Network for Social Network Analysis (INSNA) - professional society of social network analysts, with more than 1,000 members
  • Organizational Network Mapping - SNA applied in business organizations
  • Virtual Center for Supernetworks
  • VisualComplexity.com - a visual exploration on mapping complicated and complex networks
  • Dynamic Centrality in Social Networks
  • Center for Computational Analysis of Social and Organizational Systems (CASOS) at Carnegie Mellon
  • NetLab at the University of Toronto, studies the intersection of social, communication, information and computing networks
  • Social Life of Routers - social network analysis applied to computer systems
  • FAS.research - network visualizations produced using social network analysis

  Results from FactBites:
 
Social network - Simple English Wikipedia (609 words)
A community social network is the a pattern of relationships among a set of people and/or organizations in a community.
Social networks are vulnerable to them, since the circumstances where help is required, like disasters, occur by surprise.
A mosque, church or temple is almost always a center of a social network, and often that network has a name and an identity of its own that is not that of the religious organization.
Social network - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1820 words)
Social network theory in the social sciences began with the urbanization studies of the "Manchester School" (centered around Max Gluckman), done mainly in Zambia during the 1960s.
Social networking began to be seen as a vital component of internet strategy at around the same time: in March 2005 Yahoo launched Yahoo 360, their entry into the field, and in July 2005 News Corporation bought MySpace.
Eigenvector centrality is a measure of the importance of a node in a network.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m