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Encyclopedia > Social liberalism
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Social liberalism, also called new liberalism[1][2] (as it was originally termed), radical liberalism,[3] modern liberalism,[4] or in North America and the United Kingdom simply liberalism, is a branch of liberalism which contends that society must protect liberty and opportunity for all citizens and that the state may have a role on this. For social liberals the lack of education, health or employment are seen as major a threat to freedom as state compulsion and coercion. Like other liberals, social liberals support free markets, private entrepreneurship and a small state. Social liberals also support civil rights, human rights and civil liberties, particularly in opposition to traditional values and beliefs. Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Modern liberalism in the United States is a form of liberalism that began in the United States in the last years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The liberal theory of economics is the theory of economics in classical liberalism developed in the Enlightenment, and believed to be first fully formulated by Adam Smith which advocates minimal interference by government in the economy. ... This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ... For the school of international relations, see Neoliberalism in international relations. ... This article is about political philosophy of Ordoliberalism. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Cultural liberalism is a form of liberalism which stresses the freedom of the individual from what Lord Acton called the tyrany of the majority, the right of the non-conformist to march to a different drummer. ... Contributions to liberal theory is a partial list of individual contributions on a worldwide scale. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... Individual rights represent the moral rights of individuals in society prior to government. ... For articles with similar names and topics, see Individual (disambiguation). ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... Liberal neutrality is the idea that the liberal state should not promote any particular conception of the good. This idea formed a cornerstone of John Rawls work and has been developed by many other liberal thinkers e. ... The philosophical concept of negative liberty refers to an individuals liberty from being subjected to the authority of others. ... Positive liberty refers to the opportunity and ability to act to fulfill ones own potential, as opposed to negative liberty, which refers to freedom from restraint. ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... A mixed economy is an economic system that incorporates aspects of more than one economic system. ... An open society is a concept originally developed by philosopher Henri Bergson. ... Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the belief that the legitimacy of the state is created by the will or consent of its people, who are the source of all political power. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... Contributions to liberal theory is a partial list of individual contributions on a worldwide scale. ... For other persons named John Locke, see John Locke (disambiguation). ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... Friedrich von Hayek Friedrich August von Hayek (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an economist and social scientist of the Austrian School, noted for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against a rising tide of socialist and collectivist thought in the mid... Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. ... John Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American philosopher, a professor of political philosophy at Harvard University and author of A Theory of Justice (1971), Political Liberalism, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, and The Law of Peoples. ... This article discusses liberalism as a major political current in specific regions and countries. ... In the entry Liberalism one can find a comprehensive discussion on liberalism. ... This article discusses the history and development of various notions of liberalism in the United States. ... Liberal International is a political international for international liberal parties. ... The International Federation of Liberal Youth (IFLRY) is an international liberal youth organization. ... The European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (founded in 1993) is a liberal party, mainly active in the European Union, composed of 49 national liberal and centrist parties from across Europe. ... ALDE logo The Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (French: Alliance des Démocrates et des Libéraux pour lEurope) is a Group in the European Parliament. ... European Liberal Youth (LYMEC - Liberal and Radical Youth Movement of the European Community) is an international organisation of Liberal youth movements - mostly the youth wings of members of the European Liberal, Democrat and Reform Party. ... The Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats is a regional organization of liberal and democratic political parties in Asia. ... The Africa Liberal Network is composed of 16 parties in Africa, from 14 different countries, and is an associated organisation of Liberal International, the political family to which Liberal Democratic parties belong. ... The Liberal Network for Latin America (Red Liberal de América Latina, RELIAL) is an international network founded in 2003 with the official launch taking place in Costa Rica November 2004. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ...


Social liberals, therefore, support a mixed economy of mainly private enterprise with some state provided, guaranteed or regulated public services. For example, some social liberals defend obligatory universal health insurance, with the state paying a basic health insurance to the most poor of the society. Like all liberals, social liberals believe in individual freedom as a central concept. In the process, they expect legitimate governments to provide a basic level of welfare or workfare, health and education, supported by taxation, intending to secure economic opportunities for all, enable the best use of the talents of the population, prevent revolution, or simply for the perceived public good and accept some restrictions in economic affairs, such as anti-trust laws to combat economic monopolies and regulatory bodies or minimum wage laws. Moreover, the accumulation of wealth by a small group is seen as the consolidation of power within a small faction of society and, therefore, seen as a threat to liberty.[5][6] Media:Example. ...


Social liberalism forms the core of the somewhat wider movement of left-liberalism, with which it is often (if not usually) conflated and has been a label used by progressive liberal parties in order to differentiate themselves from classical liberal parties, especially when there are two or more liberal parties in a country. For other uses, see Progressivism (disambiguation). ... This is a list about liberalism and political parties around the world. ... Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. ...

Contents

The birth of social liberalism

In Britain, in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, a group of thinkers known as the New Liberals made a case against laissez-faire classical liberalism and in favor of state intervention in social, economic and cultural life. The New Liberals, who included T.H. Green and L.T. Hobhouse, saw individual liberty, especially as positive liberty, as something to be achievable only under favorable social and economic circumstances. Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... &t:For the actor Thomas Hill see Thomas Hill. ... Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (September 8, 1864 - June 21, 1929) was a British liberal politician, one of the theorists of modern liberalism. ... Positive liberty refers to the opportunity and ability to act to fulfill ones own potential, as opposed to negative liberty, which refers to freedom from restraint. ...


The poverty, squalor and ignorance in which many people lived made it impossible in their view for freedom and individuality to flourish, and the New Liberals believed that these conditions could only be ameliorated through collective action coordinated by a strong welfare-oriented interventionist state.[7]


Social liberalism versus classical liberalism

Classical liberalism believes that the provision of negative freedom constitutes liberty and is therefore a strictly laissez-faire philosophy. Social liberalism however sees a role for the State in providing positive liberty for individuals.[6] They believe that lack of positive rights, such as economic opportunity, education, health-care, and so on can be considered to be threats to liberty.[2] Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... Within the philosophy of human rights, some philosophers and political scientists make a distinction between negative and positive rights. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Positive liberty refers to the opportunity and ability to act to fulfill ones own potential, as opposed to negative liberty, which refers to freedom from restraint. ...


Classical liberals such as Milton Friedman, Nozick, Mises, Hayek and others reject social liberalism as a true liberalism. For these authors government has no duty to intervene in society to aid the disadvantaged as this means taking wealth from others (as taxes). They also consider that interfering in the market is destroying freedom and doing this to make people free is self-contradictory.[8] Liberalism is a political current embracing several historical and present-day ideologies that claim defense of individual liberty as the purpose of government. ... Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. ... Robert Nozick (November 16, 1938 – January 23, 2002) was an American philosopher and Pellegrino University Professor at Harvard University. ... Ludwig von Mises Ludwig von Mises (September 29, 1881, Lwów - October 10, 1973) was a notable economist and a major influence on the modern Libertarian movement. ... Hayek may refer to: Friedrich Hayek Nicolas Hayek Salma Hayek Thaddaeus Hagecius ab Hayek Hayek Society This human name article is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that might otherwise share the same title, which is a persons or persons name. ...


Social liberalism versus conservative liberalism

One possible projection of the European political spectrum.[9]

Both share the concern with the freedom of the individual, but while social liberalism is appropriate for describing some liberal parties that are left-of-centre on economic issues and support a broad interpretation of democratic rights, Conservative liberalism emphasizes economic freedom and tends to be right of centre. For example, Conservative liberal parties, such as the Dutch People's Party for Freedom and Democracy and the German Free Democratic Party adopt an economically conservative agenda, advocating a minimal role for the state in the economy.[3] Some authors, like Merquior, also claim that conservative liberalism is based on the concept of negative liberty - ("where there is no law there is no transgression"), moral pluralism, progress, individualism, and accountable government, while social liberalism focuses both on the illegitimacy of a tyrannical government that uses prerogative power and on the social conditions that make such tyrannical government possible.[10] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (818x640, 5 KB) Summary Miguel Duarte, 2006, I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (818x640, 5 KB) Summary Miguel Duarte, 2006, I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Peoples Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) (Dutch: Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie) is a Dutch liberal political party. ... The Free Democratic Party (German: Freie Demokratische Partei; FDP) is a liberal political party in Germany. ...

Social liberalism versus neo-liberalism

Social liberalism (also known as New Liberalism) is very different from the ambiguous term neoliberalism, a name given to various proponents of the free markets and also to some conservative opponents of free markets, such as mercantilistic conservatives, in the late 20th century's global economy. Neoliberalism has been used to describe the liberal economic policies of Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher. As a body of thought, neoliberalism advocates positions contrary to many of those taken by social liberals, especially with regard to the former's commitments to free trade and dismantling of government "social" programs. For the school of international relations, see Neoliberalism in international relations. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... The liberal theory of economics is the theory of economics in classical liberalism developed in the Enlightenment, and believed to be first fully formulated by Adam Smith which advocates minimal interference by government in the economy. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ...


Social liberalism versus social democracy

The basic ideological difference between social liberalism and social democracy lies in the role of the State in relation to the individual. Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ...


Social liberals value liberty, rights and freedoms, and private property as fundamental to individual happiness, and regard democracy as an instrument to maintain a society where each individual enjoys the greatest amount of liberty possible (subject to the Harm Principle). Hence, democracy and parliamentarianism are mere political systems which legitimize themselves only through the amount of liberty they promote, and are not valued per se. While the State does have an important role in ensuring positive liberty, social liberals tend to trust that individuals are usually capable in deciding their own affairs, and generally do not need deliberate steering towards happiness. The harm principle is laid out in John Stuart Mills arguably most famous work, On Liberty. ...


Social democracy, on the other hand, has its roots in socialism, and (especially in democratic socialist forms) typically favours a more community-based view. While social democrats also value individual liberty, they do not believe that real liberty can be achieved for the majority without transforming the nature of the State itself. Having rejected the revolutionary approach of Marxism, and choosing to further their goals through the democratic process instead, social democrats nevertheless retain a strong skepticism for capitalism, which they believe needs to be regulated (or at least "managed") for the greater good. This focus on the greater good may, potentially, make social democrats more ready to step in and steer society in a direction that is deemed to be more equitable. Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


In practice, however, the differences between the two may be harder to perceive. This is especially the case nowadays as many social democratic parties have shifted towards the centre and adopted one version of Third Way politics or another.[11] Bill Clinton and Tony Blair, adherents of the Third Way The Third Way, or Radical center, is a centrist political philosophy of governance that embraces a mix of market and interventionist philosophies. ...


United States

Opinions of liberals in a 2005 Pew Research Center study.[12]

Modern liberalism in the United States is highly similar to the European definition of social liberalism. The agendas of European social liberals and modern American liberals tend to be almost identical, with both taking a distinctly left-of-center stance on social issues, whilst taking a more centrist stance on economic issues.[13] Since the ideological center of the United States lies further to the right than that of Western Europe, policies considered centrist, or even right-wing, in Europe may be considered left-of-center in the U.S. Universal single-payer health care, for example, is considered a largely centrist policy in Europe but distinctly center-left in the U.S. Social democrats and socialists may also be labeled as "liberal" in the U.S. but constitute only a small minority of the American left. Liberals in the U.S. constitute roughly 19% to 26% of the population and form circa 46% of the Democratic base.[14] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Modern American liberalism is a form of liberalism that began in America in the last years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. ... Political Compass. ... Modern liberalism in the United States is a form of liberalism that began in the United States in the last years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...


Like European social liberals, most modern American liberals advocate cultural pluralism, diplomacy over military action, stem-cell research, the legalization of same-sex marriage, secular government, stricter gun control and environmental protection laws as well as the preservation of abortion rights. Main articles: Pluralism and Multiculturalism Cultural pluralism exists when all groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... Recognized in some regions United States (MA, CA eff. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gun politics. ... Abortion in the United States is a highly-charged issue involving significant political and ethical debate. ...


However, there are also some relevant differences. For example, American liberals tend to be rather divided on free trade agreements and organizations such as NAFTA.[14], while the international social liberals are very strong supporters of free trade [15]. Also, while most liberals oppose increased military standing and the display of the Ten Commandments in public buildings, the Democratic party still has references to religion and God on its party documents [16][17], something that goes against the clearly anti-clerical stance of social liberal parties worldwide. We can also find differences regarding immigration and cultural diversity, which while deemed positive by social liberals worldwide, is handled in a different way by the American liberals with the so called positive discrimination, which would be considered anti-liberal by other social-liberal parties, as they would consider it to be an effective form of discrimination. This is list of free trade agreements and free trade areas between one or more countries and/or trade blocs. ... Nafta or NAFTA may refer to: an acronym for the North American Free Trade Agreement an acronym for the New Zealand Australia Free Trade Agreement the town/Tokyo of Nafta, Tunisia This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ...


Social liberalism in the U.S. is most commonly embraced by college-educated professionals who have shifted the focus of the Democratic Party.[18][18] American liberals are the most highly educated and among the most affluent ideological demographics. They differ greatly from the traditional working class wing of party.[19]


The key distinction between social liberalism in a European and American sense is mostly semantic. European social liberalism in the U.S. is simply referred to as liberalism. The term "social liberalism" is used as a synonym for social progressivism, an ideology that is often combined with social liberalism to form modern American liberalism. Social progressivism is the view that as time progresses, society should disgregard morality in place of political correctness. ...


Social liberal parties

Some parties which are arguably social liberal may include:

The Radical Civic Union (in Spanish, Unión Cívica Radical, UCR) is a political party in Argentina. ... The Australian Democrats is an Australian political party which was formed in 1977 through a merger of the Australia Party and the Liberal Movement after principals of those minor parties secured the commitment of former Liberal minister Don Chipp as a high-profile leader[1]. The new party was based... The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, is a Green Australian political party. ... The Social Liberals (German: Die Sozialliberalen, or SoL) is a minor social liberal political party in Austria. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberal parties | Belgian political parties-Flanders ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberal parties | Brazilian political parties ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... Politics of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: President: 1970 - 1989 - 1993 - 1999 - 2005 The Social Democrat Radical Party (Partido Radical Socialdemócrata) is a social democratic, left wing and liberal party in Chile. ... Politics of Colombia Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Colombian political parties | Liberal parties ... The Croatian Peoples Party _ Liberal Democrats (Croatian Hrvatska narodna stranka _ Liberalni Demokrati; HNS) a liberal party in Croatia. ... Det Radikale Venstre (literally: The Radical Left, but officially translated by the party as Danish Social Liberal Party), is a social liberal party in Denmark. ... The Centre Party of Estonia (Eesti Keskerakond) is a left of centre, centrist, social liberal party in Estonia. ... The Swedish Peoples Party (Swedish: ; Finnish: ) is a Swedish speaking minority and mainly liberal party in Finland. ... The Left Radical Party (French: or PRG) is a minor French centre-left, social-liberal party with moderate views, formed in 1972 by a split from the Radical, Republican and Radical-Socialists Party, once the dominant party of the French left. ... For other uses, see Modem (disambiguation). ... There are several parties called the Action Party or similar. ... Radicals of the Left (Radicali di Sinistra) is a minor green and social-liberal political party in Italy. ... The New Italian Socialist Party (Nuovo Partito Socialista Italiano, NPSI) is a small Italian party which professes a social-democratic ideology and claims to be the successor to the old Italian Socialist Party, which was disbanded after the judiciary tempest of the early 1990s (see Mani Pulite). ... The Democratic Party of Japan ) is a liberal party in Japan. ... The New Union (Social Liberals) (Lithuanian: Naujoji sÄ…junga (socialliberalai)), or NS, is a social liberal party in Lithuania. ... The Democratic Party is a liberal party in Luxembourg, led by Claude Meisch who took over from Lydie Polfer. ... The Social Liberal Party (Partidul Social Liberal) is a liberal political party in Moldova, led by Oleg Serebrian. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberal parties | Mozambican political parties ... Democrats 66 (in Dutch: Democraten 66, D66, official name: Politieke Partij Democraten 66) is a Dutch progressive-liberal and radical-democratic political party. ... Venstre (sometimes referred to as the Liberal Party of Norway in international context) is a liberal party in Norway, subscribing to social-liberalism. ... The Democratic Party () is a social liberal party in Poland, publicly announced on February 28 and formally established on May 9, 2005 as an enlargement of the Freedom Union (Unia WolnoÅ›ci), which it legally succeeds. ... The Liberal Social Movement (Movimento Liberal Social) is a political organisation willing to become a liberal party in Portugal. ... The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko (Russian: Российская демократическая партия Яблоко Rossiyskaya demokraticheskaya partiya Yabloko; (Russian: - Apple) is a Russian socially liberal party led by Grigory Alexeyevich Yavlinsky. ... The Liberal Democratic Party (Serbian: Либерално-демократска партија or Liberalno-demokratska partija) is a social liberal political party in Serbia. ... Liberal Democracy of Slovenia or LDS (Slovenian: Liberalna demokracija Slovenije) is the liberal and former ruling political party of Slovenia. ... Union, Progress and Democracy (Spanish: , UPD or officially UPyD) is a Spanish political party founded in 2007 by former PSOE member Rosa Díez. ... Sudan Liberal Party is a social Liberal Party in Sudan, founded in 2003 by young Sudanese activists. ... The Centre Party (Centerpartiet) is a political party in Sweden. ... The Liberal Party of Sweden (in Swedish: Folkpartiet liberalerna, abbreviated fp, meaning Peoples Party the Liberals) is a political party in Sweden. ... The Social-Liberal Party (French: Parti Social-Libéral) is an opposition liberal party in Tunisia. ... The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long...

Social liberal thinkers

Some notable social liberal thinkers are:

Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (26 February [O.S. 15 February 15] 1748) – June 6, 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... David Émile Durkheim (April 15, 1858 - November 15, 1917) is known as the founder of modern sociology. ... &t:For the actor Thomas Hill see Thomas Hill. ... Lujo Brentano (18 December 1844–9 September 1931) was an eminent German economist and social reformer. ... Bernard Bosanquet (July 14, 1848, Alnwick, Northumberland, England – February 8, 1923, London) was one of the chief philosophers in England who helped revive the idealism of G.W.F. Hegel. ... Pieter Willem Adriaan Cort van der Linden (1846 - 1935) was a Dutch political figure. ... John Atkinson Hobson, (1858–1940) was an English economist and imperial critic, widely popular as a lecturer and writer. ... John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. ... Friedrich Naumann Friedrich Naumann (March 25, 1860 – August 24, 1919) was a German politician and Protestant parish priest. ... Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (September 8, 1864 - June 21, 1929) was a British liberal politician, one of the theorists of modern liberalism. ... William Henry Beveridge, 1st Baron Beveridge (5 March 1879 – 16 March 1963) was a British economist and social reformer. ... Hans Kelsen Hans Kelsen (Prague, October 11, 1881 – April 19, 1973) was an Austrian -American jurist of Jewish descent. ... Keynes redirects here. ... Carlo Rosselli (b. ... Bertil Ohlin (pronounced ) (April 23, 1899 – August 3, 1979), was a Swedish economist and winner of the 1977 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics. ... For other persons named John Hicks, see John Hicks (disambiguation). ... Sir Isaiah Berlin, OM (June 6, 1909 – November 5, 1997) was a political philosopher and historian of ideas, regarded as one of the leading liberal thinkers of the twentieth century. ... Norberto Bobbio (October 18, 1909 – January 9, 2004) was an Italian philosopher of law and political sciences and an historian of political thought. ... Miguel Reale (1910 – 2006) was a Brazilian philosopher and politician. ... Name Pierre Elliott Trudeau Number Fifteenth First term April 20, 1968–June 4,1979 Second term March 3, 1980–June 30, 1984 Predecessor Lester Bowles Pearson Successors Joe Clark John Napier Turner Date of birth October 18, 1919 Place of birth Montreal, Quebec Date of death September 28, 2000 Spouse... John Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American philosopher, a professor of political philosophy at Harvard University and author of A Theory of Justice (1971), Political Liberalism, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, and The Law of Peoples. ... Don Chipp Donald Leslie Chipp (21 August 1925 – 28 August 2006) was an Australian politician, and founder of the Australian Democrats. ... Karl-Hermann Flach (Königsberg, 1929, Frankfurt, 1973) was a well known German journalist of the Frankfurter Rundschau. ... Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 - June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher. ... Lord Russell Conrad Sebastian Robert Russell, 5th Earl Russell (15 April 1937–14 October 2004) was a British historian and politician. ... Ronald Dworkin (born 1931) is an American legal philosopher, and currently professor of Jurisprudence at University College London and the New York University School of Law. ... Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Hon) (Bengali: Ômorto Kumar Shen) (born 3 November 1933), is an Indian economist, philosopher, and a winner of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences (Nobel Prize for Economics) in 1998, for his contributions to welfare economics for his work on famine, human development theory... José Guilherme Merquior (Rio de Janeiro 22 April 1941 - 1991) , was a Brazilian diplomat, academic, writer, literary critic and philosopher. ... Bruce Arnold Ackerman (born August 19, 1943) is a famous constitutional law scholar in the United States. ... Dirk Verhofstadt (born 1955) is a Belgian liberal (Rawlsian) theorist and brother of the Belgian prime minister Guy Verhofstadt. ...

Views of social liberals today

In general, contemporary social liberals support:

Health care or healthcare is one of the worlds largest and fastest growing professions. ... Childcare is the act of caring for and supervising minor children. ... Capitalism generally refers to a combination of economic practices that became institutionalized in Europe between the 16th and 19th centuries, especially involving the right of individuals and groups of individuals acting as legal persons (or corporations) to buy and sell capital goods such as land, labor, and money (see finance... In economics, consumers are individuals or households that consume goods and services generated within the economy. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... A tax is an involuntary fee paid by individuals or businesses to a state, or to functional equivalents of a state, including tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements. ... Environmental movement is a term often used for any social or political movement directed towards the preservation, restoration, or enhancement of the natural environment. ... “Greens” redirects here. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... Civic nationalism, or civil nationalism, is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from the active participation of its citizenry, from the degree to which it represents the will of the people. It is often seen as originating with Jean-Jacques Rousseau and especially the social... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... This article is about secularism. ... Social policy is the study of the welfare state, and the range of responses to social need. ... An early 20th century post card documents the problem of unwanted pregnancy. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Universal health care, or universal healthcare, is health care coverage which is extended to all citizens, and sometimes permanent residents, of a governmental region. ... Reproductive rights (also Procreative liberty) refers to human rights in areas of sexual reproduction, including the rights to reproduce (such as opposition to forced sterilization) as well as rights not to reproduce (such as support for access to birth control and abortion), the right to privacy, medical coverage, right to... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gun politics. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with public order crime. ... Whore redirects here. ... Decriminalization is the reduction or abolition of criminal penalties in relation to certain acts. ... For Decision making in groups, see Group decision making. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... Social rights are generally considered an obligation a society places upon itself and its citizens to ensure to all people some specified standard of living, without discrimination. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ...

Further reading on social liberalism

  • Hobhouse, L. T. (1994). Liberalism and Other Writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 0521437261. 
  • Merquior, J.G. (1991). Liberalism Old and New. Boston: Twayne Publishers. 0805786279. 

Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (September 8, 1864 - June 21, 1929) was a British liberal politician, one of the theorists of modern liberalism. ... José Guilherme Merquior (Rio de Janeiro 22 April 1941 - 1991) , was a Brazilian diplomat, academic, writer, literary critic and philosopher. ...

References

  1. ^ Not to be confused with neoliberalism, a very different concept which has a similar name[1]
  2. ^ a b Shaver, Sheila (July 1997). "Liberalism, Gender and Social Policy" (PDF). EconPapers. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Marks, Gary and Wilson, Carole (July 2000). "The Past in the Present: A Cleavage Theory of Party Response to European Integration" (PDF). British Journal of Political Science 30: 433-459. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Richardson, James L. (2001). Contending Liberalisms in World Politics: Ideology and Power. Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers. 155587939X. 
  5. ^ Hobhouse, L. T. (1994). Liberalism and Other Writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 0521437261. 
  6. ^ a b McGowan, J. (2007). American Liberalism: An Interpretation for Our Time. Chapel Hill, NC: North Carolina University Press.
  7. ^ The Routledge encyclopaedia of philosophy, p.599
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Adams, Ian (2001). Political Ideology Today (Politics Today). Manchester: Manchester University Press. 0719060206. 
  9. ^ Slom, Hans (2000). European Politics Into the Twenty-First Century: Integration and Division. Westport: Praeger. 0275968146. 
  10. ^ Merquior, J.G. (1991). Liberalism Old and New. Boston: Twayne Publishers. 0805786279. 
  11. ^ See, for example, "The overlap between social democracy and social liberalism".[2]
  12. ^ Pew Research Center, Spreadsheet, 2005 poll. Retrieved on 2007-07-13.
  13. ^ Judis, B. J. (11 July, 2003). The trouble with Howard Dean. Salon.com.. Retrieved on 2007-07-19.
  14. ^ a b Pew Research Center. (10 May, 2005). Beyond Red vs. Blue.. Retrieved on 2007-07-12.
  15. ^ a b Liberal International. The Liberal Agenda for the 21st Century.
  16. ^ Strong at Home, Respected in the World, Democratic Party, 2004, <http://www.democrats.org/pdfs/2004platform.pdf> 
  17. ^ The Charter & The Bylaws of the Democratic Party of the United States of America, Democratic Party, 2005, <http://a9.g.akamai.net/7/9/8082/v001/democratic1.download.akamai.com/8082/pdfs/20060119_charter.pdf> 
  18. ^ a b Judis, J. B. & Teixeira, R. (June 19, 2007). Back to the Future. The American Prospect.. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  19. ^ Pew Research Center. (10 May, 2005). Beyond Red vs. Blue.. Retrieved on 2007-07-12.
  20. ^ a b c d J. Kirchner, Emil (1988). Liberal parties in Western Europe. Avon: Cambridge University Press. 0-521-32394-0. 
  21. ^ a b c d e Cardoso Rosas, João (2008). Socialismo ou liberalismo social?. DiarioEconomico.com. Retrieved on 2008-05-21.
  22. ^ Seidman, S. (2004). Contested Knowledge: Social Theory Today. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
  23. ^ a b c James Hobson. Retrieved on 2008-05-19.
  24. ^ a b c d (1996) Liberalism in Modern Times: Essays in Honour of Jose G. Merquior. Budapest: Central European University Press. 185866053X. 
  25. ^ Fotopoulos, Takis (10 2004). "Why an Inclusive Democracy? The multidimensional crisis, globalisation and inclusive democracy". The International Journal of INCLUSIVE DEMOCRACY 1 (1). 

For the school of international relations, see Neoliberalism in international relations. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Takis Fotopoulos (born October 14, 1940) is a Greek political writer and former academic. ...

See also

American liberalism is a broad philosophy favoring liberty, and opposing restrictions on liberty, whether they come from established religion, from government regulation, or from the existing class structure. ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Liberalism - MSN Encarta (1035 words)
Liberalism refers to a broad array of related ideas and theories of government that consider individual liberty to be the most important political goal.
Liberalism and democracy are now usually thought to have common aims, but in the past many liberals considered democracy unhealthy because it encouraged mass participation in politics.
In postmedieval European culture liberalism was perhaps first expressed in humanism, which redirected thinking in the 15th century from the consideration of the divine order of the world and its reflections in the temporal social order to the conditions and potentialities of people on earth.
liberalism. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (806 words)
Often opposed to liberalism is the doctrine of conservatism, which, simply stated, supports the maintenance of the status quo.
Liberal thought was soon stating that the government should be responsible for providing the minimum conditions necessary for decent individual existence.
While such programs are also advocated by socialism, liberalism does not support the socialist goal of complete equality imposed by state control, and because it is still dedicated to the primacy of the individual, liberalism also strongly opposes communism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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