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Encyclopedia > Social justice

Social justice refers to the concept of an unjust society that refers to more than just the administration of laws. It is based on the idea of a society which gives individuals and groups unfair treatment and an unjust share of the benefits of society. Different proponents of social justice have developed different interpretations of what constitutes unfair treatment and an unjust share. It can also mean distribution of advantages and disadvantages within a society or community. Economic justice is both a philosophical problem and an important issue in politics and economics such as binary economics. It can be argued that everyone wishes to live in a just society, but different political ideologies have different conceptions of what a 'just society' actually is. The term "social justice" itself tends to be used by those ideologies who believe that present day society is highly unjust - and these are usually left-wing ideologies, advocating a more extensive use of income redistribution, a more egalitarian society. The right-wing has its own conception of social justice, but generally believes that it is best achieved through the operation of a free market, and the promotion of philanthropy and charity. Both right and left tend to agree on the importance of rule of law, human rights, and some form of a welfare safety net (though the left supports this latter element to a greater extent (e.g. to provide for capable individuals in society) than the right). The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political philosophy is the study of fundamental questions about the state, government, politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... -1... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... Income redistribution, or the redistribution of wealth, is a political policy usually promoted by members of the political left, and opposed, or less strongly supported, by members of the political right. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Philanthropy is the act of donating money, goods, time, or effort to support a charitable cause, usually over an extended period of time and in regard to a defined objective. ... A charitable organization (also known as a charity) is a trust, company or unincorporated association established for charitable purposes only. ... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... ...


Social Justice features as an apolitical philosophical concept (insofar as any philosophical analysis of politics can be free from bias) in much of John Rawls' writing. It is fundamental to Catholic social teaching, and is one of the Four Pillars of the Green Party upheld by the worldwide green parties. Some of the tenets of social justice, sometimes renamed civil justice, have been adopted by those who lie on the left or center-left of the political spectrum (e.g. Socialists, Social Democrats, etc). Social justice is also a concept that some use to describe the movement towards a socially just world. In this context, social justice is based on the concepts of human rights and equality. Catholic social teaching comprises those aspects of Catholic doctrine which relate to matters dealing with the collective aspect of humanity. ... The worldwide green parties are committed to the following Four Pillars: Ecology (sometimes Ecological Wisdom or Ecological Sustainability) Social Justice (sometimes Social Equality and Economic Justice) Grassroots Democracy Non-Violence In German, they are known as Die Grünen: ökologisch, sozial, basisdemokratisch, gewaltfrei. ... Green parties around the world are formally organized political parties based on the principles of Green politics. ... Socialism is any economic system in which the means of production are owned and controlled collectively or a political philosophy advocating such a system. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Social equality is a social state of affairs in which certain different people have the same status in a certain respect, minimally at least in voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, and property rights. ...

Contents

Rawls

The political philosopher John Rawls (1921-2002) draws on the utilitarian insights of Bentham and Mill, the social contract ideas of Locke, and the categorical imperative ideas of Kant. His first statement of principle was made in A Theory of Justice (1971) where he proposed that, "Each person possesses an inviolability founded on justice that even the welfare of society as a whole cannot override. For this reason justice denies that the loss of freedom for some is made right by a greater good shared by others." (at p3). A deontological proposition that echoes Kant in framing the moral good of justice in absolutist terms. His views are definitively restated in Political Liberalism (1993), where society is seen, "as a fair system of co-operation over time, from one generation to the next." (at p14). John Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American philosopher, a professor of political philosophy at Harvard University and author of A Theory of Justice (1971), Political Liberalism, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, and The Law of Peoples. ... In moral philosophy, deontology is the view that morality either forbids or permits actions, which is done through moral norms. ... Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a Prussian philosopher, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... Moral absolutism is the belief that there are absolute standards against which moral questions can be judged, and that certain actions are right or wrong, devoid of the context of the act. ...


All societies have a basic structure of social, economic, and political institutions, both formal and informal. In testing how well these elements fit and work together, Rawls based a key test of legitimacy on the theories of social contract. To determine whether any particular system of collectively enforced social arrangements is legitimate, he argued that one must look for agreement by the people who are subject to it. Obviously, not every citizen can be asked to participate in a poll to determine his or her consent to every proposal in which some degree of coercion is involved, so we have to assume that all citizens are reasonable. Rawls constructed an argument for a two-stage process to determine a citizen's hypothetical agreement: The word legitimacy comes from the Latin word legitimare and it has two uses: Legitimacy (political science) is variously defined, but refers in general to the peoples acceptance of a law, ruling, or a regime itself as valid. ... This article deals with the philosophical and political concept of the social contract, and not with juridical contract theory. ... Legitimacy is the popular acceptance of a governing regime or law. ... ...

  • the citizen agrees to be represented by X for certain purposes; to that extent, X holds these powers as a trustee for the citizen;
  • X agrees that a use of enforcement in a particular social context is legitimate; the citizen, therefore, is bound by this decision because it is the function of the trustee to represent the citizen in this way.

This applies to one person representing a small group (e.g. to the organiser of a social event setting a dress code) as equally as it does to national governments which are the ultimate trustees, holding representative powers for the benefit of all citizens within their territorial boundaries, and if those governments fail to provide for the welfare of their citizens according to the principles of justice, they are not legitimate. To emphasise the general principle that justice should rise from the people and not be dictated by the law-making powers of governments, Rawls asserted that, "There is . . . a general presumption against imposing legal and other restrictions on conduct without sufficient reason. But this presumption creates no special priority for any particular liberty." (at pp291-292) This is support for an unranked set of liberties that reasonable citizens in all states should respect and uphold — to some extent, the list proposed by Rawls matches the normative human rights that have international recognition and direct enforcement in some nation states where the citizens need encouragement to act in a more objectively just way. The word trustee is a legal term that refers to a holder of property on behalf of a beneficiary. ... ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


The basic liberties according to Rawls

  • freedom of thought;
  • liberty of conscience as it affects social relationships on the grounds of religion, philosophy, and morality;
  • political liberties (e.g. representative democratic institutions, freedom of speech and the press, and freedom of assembly);
  • freedom of association;
  • freedoms necessary for the liberty and integrity of the person (viz: freedom from slavery, freedom of movement and a reasonable degree of freedom to choose one's occupation); and
  • rights and liberties covered by the rule of law.

Catholic social teaching

Catholic social teaching comprises those aspects of Catholic doctrine which relate to matters dealing with the collective aspect of humanity. A distinctive feature of Catholic social teaching is its concern for the poorest Catholic members of society. Two of the seven key areas[1] of Catholic social teaching are pertinent to social the justice: Catholic social teaching comprises those aspects of Catholic doctrine which relate to matters dealing with the collective aspect of humanity. ...

  • Life and dignity of the human person: The foundational principle of all Catholic Social Teaching is the sanctity of Catholic life and the inherent dignity of the Catholic. Catholic life must be valued infinitely above material possessions.
  • Preferential option for the poor and vulnerable: Jesus taught that on the Day of Judgement God will ask what each person did to help the poor and needy: "Amen, I say to you, whatever you did for one of these least brothers of mine, you did for me."[2] The Catholic church teaches that through words, prayers and deeds one must show solidarity with, and compassion for, the poor. When instituting public policy the "preferential option for the poor" should always be kept at the forefront. The moral test of any society is "how it treats its most vulnerable members. The poor have the most urgent moral claim on the conscience of the nation. People are called to look at public policy decisions in terms of how they affect the poor."[3]

Even before it was propounded in the Catholic social teachings, Social Justice appeared regularly in the history of the Catholic church: This article or section should be merged with End times and Last judgment The Last Judgement - Tympanum sculpture at the Abbey Church of Ste-Foy, Conques-en-Rouergue, France In Christian eschatology, the Last Judgement is the ethical-judicial trial, judgement, and punishment/reward of individual humans (assignment to heaven...

  • The term "social justice" was coined by the Jesuit Luigi Taparelli in the 1840s, based on the teachings of Thomas Aquinas. He wrote extensively in his journal Civiltà Cattolica, engaging both capitalist and socialist theories from a Catholic natural law viewpoint. His basic premise was that the rival economic theories, based on subjective Cartesian thinking, undermined the unity of society present in Thomistic metaphysics; neither the liberal capitalists nor the communists concerned themselves with public moral philosophy.
  • Pope Leo XIII, who studied under Taparelli, published in 1891 the encyclical, Rerum Novarum (On the Condition of the Working Classes), rejecting both socialism and capitalism, while defending labor unions and private property. He stated that society should be based on cooperation and not class conflict and competition. In this document, Leo set out the Catholic Church's response to the social instability and labor conflict that had arisen in the wake of industrialization and had led to the rise of socialism. The Pope taught that the role of the State is to promote social justice through the protection of rights, while the Church must speak out on social issues in order to teach correct social principles and ensure class harmony.
  • The encyclical Quadragesimo Anno (On Reconstruction of the Social Order, literally "in the fortieth year") of 1931 by Pope Pius XI, encourages a living wage, subsidiarity, and teaches that social justice is a personal virtue: society can be just only if individuals are just.
  • Pope Benedict XVI's encyclical Deus Caritas Est ("God is Love") of 2006 teaches that social justice is the central concern of politics, and not of the church, which has charity as its central social concern. The laity has the specific responsibility of pursuing social justice in civil society. The church's active role in social justice should be to inform the debate, using reason and natural law, and also by providing moral and spiritual formation for those involved in politics.
  • The official Catholic doctrine on social justice can be found in the book Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, published in 2004 and updated in 2006, by the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax.

The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Luigi Taparelli D’Azeglio (1793–1862) was an Italian Catholic scholar of the Society of Jesus who coined the term social justice. ... // First use of general anesthesia in an operation, by Crawford Long The first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844 from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.. First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi, Northland New Zealand. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... “Descartes” redirects here. ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest pontificate... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. ... Rerum Novarum (Translation: Of New Things) is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society. ... Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving gain, such as income, pride, amusement, or dominance. ... Quadragesimo Anno is an encyclical by Pope Pius XI, issued 15 May 1931, 40 years after Rerum Novarum (thus the name, Latin for the fortieth year). Written as a response to the Great Depression, it calls for the establishment of a social order based on the principle of subsidiarity. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Living wage refers to the minimum hourly wage necessary for a person to achieve a basic standard of living. ... Subsidiarity is the idea that matters should be handled by the smallest (or, the lowest) competent authority. ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... This article is becoming very long. ... For other uses, see Deus Caritas Est (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. ... The Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (Justitia et Pax) is a part of the Roman Curia dedicated to action-oriented studies for the international promotion of justice, peace, and human rights from the perspective of the Roman Catholic Church. ...

The Green Party

Social Justice is one of the Four Pillars of the Green Party. Social Justice (sometimes "Social and Global Equality and Economic Justice") reflects the general rejection of discrimination based on distinctions between class, gender, ethnicity, or culture. Green Parties are almost universally egalitarian in their outlook, seeing that great disparities in wealth or influence are caused by the perversion of or total lack of social institutions that prevent the strong from plundering the weak.[4] The worldwide green parties are committed to the following Four Pillars: Ecology (sometimes Ecological Wisdom or Ecological Sustainability) Social Justice (sometimes Social Equality and Economic Justice) Grassroots Democracy Non-Violence In German, they are known as Die Grünen: ökologisch, sozial, basisdemokratisch, gewaltfrei. ...


Several local branches of the worldwide green parties define social justice as the principle that all persons are entitled to "basic human needs", regardless of "superficial differences such as economic disparity, class, gender, race, ethnicity, citizenship, religion, age, sexual orientation, disability, or health". This includes "the eradication of poverty and illiteracy, the establishment of sound environmental policy, and equality of opportunity for healthy personal and social development." Green parties around the world are formally organized political parties based on the principles of Green politics. ...


Social Justice Movements

There are a number of movements[5][6] based on a "social justice [that] reflects the way in which human rights are manifested in the everyday lives of people at every level of society" [7]. These movements are working towards the realization of a world where all members of a society, regardless of background, have basic human rights and an equal opportunity to access the benefits of their society. American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. ... Equal opportunity is a descriptive term for an approach intended to provide a certain social environment in which people are not excluded from the activities of society, such as education, employment, or health care, on the basis of immutable traits. ...


Other uses

Social Justice was also the name of a periodical published by Father Coughlin in the 1930s and early 1940s.[citation needed] Coughlin's organization was known as the National Union for Social Justice and he frequently used the term social justice in his radio broadcasts. In 1935 Coughlin made a series of broadcasts in which he outlined what he termed "the Christian principles of social justice" as an alternative to both capitalism and communism. Coughlin's views, which centered around monetary reform, have had no notable influence on those using the phrase "social justice" today, many of whom consider Coughlin's views to have been anti-Semitic. Father Charles Edward Coughlin (October 25, 1891 - October 27, 1979) was a Roman Catholic priest from Royal Oak, Michigan, a priest from Shrine Catholic Church, and one of the first evangelists to preach to a widespread listening audience over the medium of radio during the Great Depression. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Father Charles Edward Coughlin (October 25, 1891 – October 27, 1979) was a Roman Catholic priest from Royal Oak, Michigan, a priest from Shrine of the Little Flower Catholic Church, and one of the first evangelists to preach to a widespread listening audience over the medium of radio during the... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Criticism

Criticism of the idea that there is an objective standard of social justice has come from several circles[citation needed]. First, there are moral relativists (such as the Sophists), who do not believe that there is any kind of objective standard for justice in general. Second, there are cynics (such as Niccolò Machiavelli) who believe that any ideal of social justice is ultimately a mere justification for the status quo. Third, there are libertarians who believe that social justice violates the non-aggression principle. Additionally, postmodernism has also developed its own critique of the concept of social justice. In philosophy, moral relativism is the position that moral or ethical propositions do not reflect objective and/or universal moral truths, but instead make claims relative to social, cultural, historical or personal circumstances. ... Sophism was originally a term for the techniques taught by a highly respected group of philosophy and rhetoric teachers in ancient Greece. ... This article is about the current understanding of the word cynicism. ... Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. ... This article is about the English rock band. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... The non-aggression principle (also called the non-aggression axiom, anticoercion principle, or zero aggression principle) is a deontological ethical stance associated with the libertarian movement. ... Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ...


The most complete rejection of the concept of social justice comes from the Friedrich Hayek of the Austrian School of economics: "The phrase 'social justice' is ... simply 'a semantic fraud from the same stable as People's Democracy'."[8] Friedrich August von Hayek, CH (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian-born British economist and political philosopher known for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ... The Austrian School, also known as the Vienna School or the Psychological School, is a school of economic thought that advocates adherence to strict methodological individualism. ...


Many other people accept some of the basic results of social justice, such as the idea that all human beings have a basic level of value but disagree with the elaborate conclusions that may or may not follow from this. (For example the statement by H.G. Wells above that all people are "equally entitled to the respect of their fellow-men.")


Finally, social justice may be unfeasible economically. Many water-poor countries have recognized a "basic right to have drinking water" and then provided that access accordingly. This often resulted in water sources being over used and then decimated.[9]


See also

For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... Black theology is a Christian theology of liberation. ... The Centre for Social Justice is a centre right British political thinktank set up by Ian Duncan Smith a former leader of the Conservative Party. ... Counselors for Social Justice (CSJ) is an association of counselors, counselor educators, graduate students, school and community leaders and other professionals who seek a fair distribution of common resources to all people, equitable access to power, knowledge, resources and services, equitable ability to participate and an end to oppression and... Equity is the concept or idea of fairness or justice in economics, particularly in terms of taxation and welfare economics. ... Elitism is a belief or attitude that an elite— a selected group of persons whose personal abilities, specialized training or other attributes place them at the top of any field (see below)— are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken most seriously, or who... The Global Greens Charter is a document that 800 delegates from the Green parties of 70 countries decided upon a first gathering of the Global Greens in Canberra, Australia in April 2001. ... Global justice is a concept in political philosophy denoting justice between societies or between individuals in different societies, as opposed to within a specific society. ... A grassroots political movement is one driven by the constituents of a community. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... Just in many usages, including economic ones, may express ethical acceptance of some possible social state(s) against which other possible social states are measured. ... In Christianity, liberation theology is a school of theology that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ... Look up Parity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Parity is a concept of equality of status or functional equivalence. ... This article is about Progressivism. ... Property redistribution is a term applied to various political policies involving taxation or expropriation of property from some in order to finance payments to others. ... The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. ... In sociology, social action refer to any action that takes into account actions and reactions of another individuals (real or imagined) and is modified based on those events. ... A cultural critic is a critic of a given culture, usually as a whole and typically on a radical basis; a social critic of a given society, but the overlap is large. ... Social engineering has several meanings: Social engineering (political science) Social engineering (computer security) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Social Injustice is a concept relating to the perceived unfairness or injustice of a society in its divisions of rewards and burdens. ... Teaching for social justice is an educational philosophy that proponents argue provides justice and equity for all learners in all educational settings. ... Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... A union organizer (sometimes spelled organiser) is one type of employee or elected official of a trade union. ...

External links

  • Anti-Capitalism and the Terrain of Social Justice by Sam Gindin
  • American Social Justice Party (new U.S. political movement)
  • Defining Social Justice by Michael Novak
  • Centre for Social Justice (UK)
  • Global Justice Movement net
  • The Global Green Charter
  • Facing History and Ourselves- Social Justice Organization
  • Human Nature: Justice versus Power Noam Chomsky debates with Michel Foucault
  • Social Justice in Context (pdf)
  • Social Justice Wiki
  • Social Justice Review
  • Social Justice: Voices from the South
  • Social Justice' Isn't Any Kind of Justice', Professor Antony Flew, London, Libertarian Alliance, 1993. A brief critique of the concept from a libertarian/free-market perspective
  • A Dangerous Obsession by Thomas Sowell
  • Institute for public policy research - Commission on Social Justice
  • The Struggle to Subdue Luck, by Anthony de Jasay, Foundation for Economic Freedom, Jan. 8th, 2007
  • The Foundation for Law, Justice and Society

The Libertarian Alliance (LA) is a British libertarian think-tank that promotes free-market economics and civil liberties. ... Thomas Sowell (born June 30, 1930), is an American economist, political writer, and commentator. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.usccb.org/sdwp/projects/socialteaching/excerpt.htm
  2. ^ Matthew 25:40.
  3. ^ Option for the Poor, Major themes from Catholic Social Teaching, Office for Social Justice, Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis.
  4. ^ http://www.greenparty.ca/en/about_us/green_values/social_justice
  5. ^ http://socialjustice.ccnmtl.columbia.edu/index.php/Main_Page
  6. ^ http://philebus.tamu.edu/~cmenzel/justice.html
  7. ^ Just Comment - Volume 3 Number 1, 2000
  8. ^ "The Fatal Conceit - The Errors of Socialism", 1988, University of Chicago Press, quoting Charles Curran.
  9. ^ See UNHD 2006 Report on Water Scarcity and Justice, available at http://hdr.undp.org/hdr2006/pdfs/report/HDR06-complete.pdf

The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ...

References

  • Atkinson, A.B. (1982). Social Justice and Public Policy. Contents & chapter previews.
  • Quigley, Carroll. (1961). The Evolution Of Civilizations: An Introduction to Historical Analysis. Second edition 1979. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Fund. ISBN 0-913966-56-8
  • Rawls, John. (1971). A Theory of Justice, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-88010-2
  • Rawls, John. (1993). Political Liberalism. New York: Columbia University Press (The John Dewey Essays in Philosophy, 4). ISBN 0-231-05248-0
  • For an analysis of justice for non-ruling communities, see: Gad Barzilai, Communities and Law: Politics and Cultures of Legal Identities. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • For perspectives from Christian-informed contexts, see Philomena Cullen, Bernard Hoose & Gerard Mannion (eds.), Catholic Social Justice: Theological and Practical Explorations, (T. &. T Clark/Continuum,2007)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Social Justice home (1616 words)
Over the years, we have published volumes on "globalization," on threats to global security, on violence in its many forms, on gender and ethnicity, on immigration, on civil and human rights, on social welfare and educational policy, on crime, policing, and the related punishing institutions, and on harms related to the environment.
Some address the power of art as a voice of dissent, as a tool for advancing social justice and democracy, as the core of a revolutionary strategy, and as a source of memory and future ways of knowing.
We face increased state and nationwide efforts to control learning and teaching under the guise of "standards" and "accountability." A growing number of educators and community activists are resisting this trend through innovative, progressive practices in classrooms at all levels and through organizing students, parents, and teachers to defend their educational rights.
Unitarian Universalist Church of Fort Myers - Social Justice (465 words)
Social Justice has long been a part of Unitarian Universalism.
Ours is a religion of this world and the Social Justice Committee is one of our congregations’ instruments for making the world a better place to live in.
The Social Justice Committee is open to any member or friend of the Unitarian Universalist Church of Fort Myers who wishes to become involved in matters of social, economic and environmental justice.
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