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Encyclopedia > Social issues in the United States

Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. In American society, as in many countries in the Middle East and Africa, religion plays an important role regarding social issues. Many voters choose candidates based largely on moral values in relation to these issues. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Moral values are things held to be right or wrong or desirable or undesirable. ...


Social issues in the United States include the following:

Contents

Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... This box:      Look up ageism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, good judgement and wisdom. ... For mercy killings not performed on humans, see Animal euthanasia. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Creationism is a religious belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (often the Abrahamic God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam), whose existence is presupposed. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Same-sex marriage is marriage between individuals who are of the same legal or biological sex. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gun politics. ... The phrase Gun politics refers to the views of different people within a particular country as to what degree of control (increased gun rights vs. ... Health insurance is a form of group insurance, where individuals pay premiums or taxes in order to help protect themselves from high or unexpected healthcare expenses. ... Bag lady redirects here. ... Justice is a concept involving the fair and moral treatment of all persons, especially in law. ... The legal drinking age is a limit assigned by governments to restrict the access of children and youth to alcoholic beverages. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Prison cell A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Fundamentalism is a movement to maintain strict adherence to founding principles. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ...

Specific social issues in the United States

Educational system

The U.S. educational system is compulsory for the first 9 to 12 years of education, depending on the state. While most students graduate between 17 and 18 years of age, many states allow for the student to voluntarily remove themselves from enrollment, or "drop out" without earning a diploma. Educational oversight Secretary Deputy Secretary U.S. Department of Education Margaret Spellings Raymond Simon National education budget $1. ...


Although some funding comes from the federal government,which is a fucking place to be in, public education is almost entirely funded and controlled individually by state and local governments and school districts. Within a state, primary control of the educational system rests with the state, which delegates authority to local authorities. Although the Department of Education wields some authority, most powers concerning schooling remain with the states. This article describes the government of the United States. ... The Lyndon Baines Johnson Department of Education Building[1]) , ED headquarters in Washington, DC A construction project to repair and update the building facade at the Department of Education Headquarters building in 2002 resulted in the installation of structures at all of the entrances to protect employees and visitors from...


The funding and condition of the school system in each municipality is largely determined by the school district or local government. In affluent communities,which give especially those with many school-age children, the educational system tends to be more heavily funded on a per-student basis and tends to be more effective. Communities that are less affluent or have a lower proportion of families with children generally spend less money per child. Statistical information generated by the No Child Left Behind Act, and similar acts at a state level, demonstrate the general correlation between money spent per child and academic success. President Bush signing the bipartisan No Child Left Behind Act at Hamilton H.S. in Hamilton, Ohio. ...


State governments since the 1990s have grappled with these issues of educational equity. In some states, most prominently New Jersey, courts have ordered dramatically increased funding in lower income areas. In other states, legislatures have acted on their own initiative to somewhat equalize the funding available.


According to State Rep. Mark B. Cohen of Philadelphia, who has advocated for greater educational funding for low and moderate income communities in Pennsylvania, "The key issue is how the schools are funded. The more reliance on local property taxes, the greater the inequality of resources for education. The higher the percentage of resources coming from federal and state governments, the more equal the funding can be. Pennsylvania disproportionately gives its statewide resources to the districts that need it most, but the far greater contributions of the more affluent communities still give their students an enormous public funding advantage coupled with their advantage in private resources." A state legislature is the legislative body of the first-level political subdivision in a federal system, and as a generic term is used primarily to refer to a legislative body in one of the 50 states in the United States of America. ... For other uses, see Mark Cohen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Access to health insurance

Main article: Health care in the United States

The United States does not have universal health care or a system of socialized medicine, although programs such as Medicare and Medicaid provide basic health insurance to elderly, disabled, and poorer residents. For most Americans, health insurance is provided as an employee benefit, while unemployed, part-time, and self-employed workers must pay for their own insurance. As of 2001, 41.2 million people in the United States (14.6% of the US population) had no health insurance coverage. By 2004, this had risen to 45 million (15.6%). The U.S. Census Bureau attributed the drop primarily to the loss of mployer-provided plans due to the economic downturn and a continuation of rising costs.[1] Health care in the United States is provided by many separate legal entities. ... Universal health care is a situation in which all residents of a geographic or political region have access to most types of health care. ... Socialized medicine or state medicine or Universal Health Care is a term used in the United States to describe health care systems which operate by means of government regulation and subsidies derived from taxation. ... President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. ... Medicaid is the US health insurance program for individuals and families with low incomes and resources. ... Health insurance is a form of group insurance, where individuals pay premiums or taxes in order to help protect themselves from high or unexpected healthcare expenses. ... Employee benefits (also called fringe benefits, perquisites, or perks) are various non-wage compensations provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A recent Harvard University study found that medical bills are a leading cause of bankruptcy in the United States. The study found that many declaring bankruptcy were part of the middle class and were employed before they became ill, but had lost their health insurance by the time they declared bankruptcy.[2] In the U.S., people leaving a job can continue with their former employer's health insurance plan under the COBRA at a rate that is usually double the rate the employee paid while employed. When an employer-insured person loses a job due to illness and does not have sufficient resources to continue to pay for COBRA health insurance, they also lose their coverage. Harvard redirects here. ... The United States Constitution (Article 1, Section 8, Clause 4), authorizes Congress to enact uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens-of-thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985, or COBRA, is a law passed by the U.S. Congress that mandates an insurance program giving some employees the ability to continue health insurance coverage after leaving employment. ...


Efforts to provide universal health care in the 1960s and early 1990s floundered against widespread opposition by politicians who objected to government control of medicine and business groups which opposed further regulation of the healthcare and insurance industries. Despite a general consensus, codified in law, that emergency care must be provided even to the indigent, it is not universally accepted in the United States that the availability of broader health care should be considered a right and paid for by public funds.[3]. Universal health care is a situation in which all residents of a geographic or political region have access to most types of health care. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Health care or healthcare is one of the worlds largest and fastest growing professions. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ...


Illegal immigration

Illegal immigration in the United States has been a growing controversy in the United States in the last few years. Illegal immigrants, an estimated 20 million, have passed through American borders predominantly from Latin America. The debate over illegal immigration has sparked protests and rallies on both sides of the debate. President George Bush has approved a bill to build a border fence along the US-Mexico Border. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with United States immigration debate. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...

Crime and incarceration

The United States prison population is the highest of any country in the world, both in absolute and relative numbers. A substantial percentage of those behind bars are drug offenders, which is due to the "war on drugs", a policy for targeting and sentencing those engaged in selling and using recreational drugs. Incarceration of convicted criminals with long sentences was particularly popular politically in the 1990s, leading to the passage in many states of strict minimum sentencing guidelines and three strikes laws, which require incarceration for life after three felony convictions, including a number of drug crimes. This article or section should be merged with Prisons in the United States The prison population of the United States is in a constant state of flux, increasing or decreasing based on a number of factors, including the number of arrests, length of prison sentences, parole, legislation to determine what... These lollipops, above, were found to contain heroin when inspected by the US Drug Enforcement Administration In jurisdictions where legislation restricts or prohibits the sale of certain popular drugs, it is common for an illegal drugs trade to develop. ... Massive mark-ups for drugs, areas/drugs/index. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Minimum sentencing guidelines, often also called mandatory minimums, vary across the United States and the world. ... Three strikes laws are statutes enacted by state governments in the United States which require the state courts to hand down a mandatory and extended period of incarceration to persons who have been convicted of a serious criminal offense on three or more separate occasions. ... For the record label, see Felony Records The term felony is a term used in common law systems for very serious crimes, whereas misdemeanors are considered to be less serious offenses. ...


Sexuality

Controversies regarding the sexual revolution have become important in American politics and legislation, focusing especially on issues concerning abortion and homosexuality. For the Macy Gray song, see Sexual Revolution (song). ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


References

See also

The percentage of households and individuals over the age of 25 with incomes exceeding $100,000 in the US.[1][2] Affluence in the United States refers to an individuals or households state of being in an economically favorable position in contrast to a given reference group. ... This article discusses the culture of the United States; for customs and way of life, see Culture of the United States. ... American cultural icons, apple pie, baseball, and the American flag. ... This graph shows the educational attainment since 1947. ... Health care in the United States is provided by many separate legal entities. ... Holidays of the United States vary with local observance. ... For information on the income of individuals, see Personal income in the United States. ... Single family homes such as this are indicative of the American middle class. ... The human rights record of the United States of America has featured an avowed commitment to the protection of specific personal political, religious and other freedoms. ... This graph shows the household income of the given percentiles from 1967 to 2003, in 2003 dollars. ... Labor unions in the United States today function as legally recognized representatives of workers in numerous industries, but are strongest among public sector employees such as teachers and police. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens-of-thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... This article adopts the US Department of Transportation definition of passenger vehicle The United States is home to the largest passenger vehicle market of any country,[1] which is a consequence of the fact that it has the largest Gross Domestic Product of any country in the world. ... For information on household income please see Household income in the United States Personal income for the populatio age 25 or older. ... Political Compass. ... Percent below each countrys official poverty line, according to the CIA factbook. ... Racism in the United States has been a major issue in America since the colonial era. ... A monument to the working and supporting classes along Market Street in the heart of San Franciscos Financial District, home to tens of thousands of professional and managerial middle class workers each day. ... The standard of living in the United States is one of the highest in the world by almost any measure. ... Wealth in the United States is commonly measured in terms of net worth which is the sum of all assets, including home equity minus all liabilities. ...

Further reading

  • Douglas S. Massey, Categorically Unequal: The American Stratification System, Russell Sage Foundation Publications 2007, ISBN 0871545853

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