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Encyclopedia > Social insurance

For specific national programs, see Social Security (United States), National insurance (UK), Social Security (Sweden) Social Security in the United States is a social insurance program funded through a dedicated payroll tax. ... National insurance is a system of taxes, and related social security benefits, that has operated in the United Kingdom since its introduction in 1911, and wider extension by the government of Clement Attlee in 1946. ... Swedens long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 by the global economic downturn, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. ...


Social security refers to a variety of government programs providing for social welfare and social protection and the alleviation of poverty among senior citizens and the disabled. Social welfare can be taken to mean the welfare or well-being of a society. ... Poverty is the state of being without, often associated with need, hardship and lack of resources across a wide range of circumstance. ... Old age consists of ages nearing the average lifespan of human beings, and thus the end of the human life cycle. ... The term disability, as it is applied to humans, refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. ...


The term can be used to refer to

  • social insurance, where people receive benefits or services in recognition of contributions to an insurance scheme. These services typically include provision for retirement pensions, disability insurance, survivor benefits, medical care, and unemployment insurance.
  • income maintenance - mainly the distribution of cash in the event of interruption of employment, including retirement, disability and unemployment
  • services provided by administrations responsible for social security. In different countries this may include medical care, aspects of social work and even industrial relations.
  • More rarely, the term is also used to refer to basic security, a term roughly equivalent to access to basic necessities - things such as food, education and medical care.
Contents

2.1 Government pension expenses
A pension (also known as superannuation) is a retirement plan intended to provide a person with a secure income for life. ... Unemployment benefits are sums of money given to the unemployed by the government or a compulsory para-governmental insurance system. ... Medicine is a branch of health science concerned with restoring and maintaining health. ...

Basic security

Social security is identified in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (also UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, December 10, 1948), outlining basic human rights. ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...

"art. 22 — Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality."

The Wresinski report identifies lack of basic security as "the absence of one of more factors that enable individuals and families to assume basic responsibilities and to enjoy fundamental rights".


The concept, however, is much older than that. It was born in France during the Age of Enlightenment, and figures in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789: The term also more specifically refers to an intellectual movement, The Enlightenment, which is described as being the use of rationality to establish an authoritative ethics, aesthetics, and knowledge. ... Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, (French: La Déclaration des Droits de lHomme et du citoyen), is one of the fundamental documents of the French Revolution, defining a set of individual rights (and collective... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

"Art. 2 — The goal of any political association is the conservation of the natural and imprescriptible [i.e., inviolable] rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, safety and resistance against oppression."

Social insurance

The first state-run social insurance program paying retirement benefits was implemented in Germany in 1889 by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Bismarck sought to hold back the historical wave that was building in support of socialism across Europe at the time. His system was funded with payroll taxes paid by the employee and the employer, along with contributions from the government. It also included a disability benefit. Today such programs are common, though not universal, among developed countries. They often include features of the initial German system. 1889 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck-Schönhausen, Duke of Lauenburg (April 1, 1815 – July 30, 1898) was one of the most prominent European aristocrats and statesmen of the nineteenth century. ... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... In the United States, payroll tax is tax that pays for two social insurance systems: Medicare and Social Security. ... The term disability, as it is applied to humans, refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. ... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ...


The Beveridge report of 1942 offered the main alternative model. Beveridge attempted to make insurance the basis for a comprehensive, universal scheme covering all the main social needs.


Social security is seen as providing assistance to retired workers, often in the form of a superannuation system that provides a pension from a fund to which workers have contributed throughout their working lives. Workers may also contribute to some form of insurance scheme that provides income and assistance in the event of injury or illness for them and their families. While the scheme may be compulsory, the contributions or historic income often determine the level of support provided, once basic elegibility criteria such as age or inability to work are established. In most of the developed "first world" countries, social security also includes a system of publicly funded medicine. A pension (also known as superannuation) is a retirement plan intended to provide a person with a secure income for life. ... Publicly funded medicine is a level of medical service that is paid wholly or in majority part by public funds (taxes or quasi-taxes). ...


Government pension expenses

  • As a % of GDP during 2000 ([1] (http://www.ap2.se/ar/2003/eng/externskribentol/diagram/482x563_offentliga_utgifter.html)) ([2] (http://www.ap2.se/ar/2003/eng/index.html))
  • Italy 14%
  • France 12%
  • Germany 12%
  • Sweden 9%
  • Japan 8%
  • USA 4%
  • South Korea 2%
  • Hong Kong 2%

Income maintenance

Social security policy is usually applied through various programs designed to provide a population with income at times when they are unable to care for themselves. Income maintenance is based in a combination of five main types of program:

  • social insurance, considered above
  • means-tested benefits. This is financial assistance provided to those who have basic needs, such as food, clothing and housing, but are unable to afford those basic needs due to poverty or lack of income because of unemployment, sickness, disability, or caring for children. While assistance is often in the form of financial payments, those eligible for social welfare can usually access health and educational services free of charge. The amount of support is enough to cover basic needs and eligibility is often subject to a comprehensive and complex assessment of an applicant's social and financial situation.
  • non-contributory benefits. Several countries have special schemes, administered with no requirement for contributions and no means test, for people in certain categories of need - for example, veterans of armed forces, people with disabilities and very old people.
  • discretionary benefits. Some schemes are based on the discretion of an official, such as a social worker.
  • universal or categorical benefits, also known as demogrants. These are non-contributory benefits given for whole sections of the population without a test of means or need, such as family allowances or the Citizen's Pension in New Zealand.

Poverty is the state of being without, often associated with need, hardship and lack of resources across a wide range of circumstance. ...

See also

The United States Social Security Administration (SSA) manages the United States social insurance program, consisting of retirement, disability, and survivors benefits. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Social Security Trust Fund is the United States federal governments means of accounting for workers paid-in contributions that are in excess of current payments. ... United States Social Security Card Social Security is a social insurance program administered by the Social Security Administration under the authority of the United States federal government. ... A healthcare system is the organization by which health care is provided. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly-funded healthcare system of the United Kingdom. ... Publicly funded medicine is a level of medical service that is paid wholly or in majority part by public funds (taxes or quasi-taxes). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Social Insurance in Sweden - Other languages - F√∂rs√§kringskassan (209 words)
Social insurance is founded on the idea of people helping each other through a kind of social safety net, which is in place from birth to retirement.
Försäkringskassan’s (The Swedish Social Insurance Agency) role is to administer social insurance and to ensure that you get the benefits and allowances to which you are entitled.
As you can see, social insurance is a source of security for most people.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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