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Encyclopedia > Social Security Administration

The United States Social Security Administration (or SSA[1]) is an independent agency of the United States government established by a law currently codified at 42 U.S.C. § 901. The SSA manages the United States' social insurance program, consisting of retirement, disability, and survivors' benefits. To qualify for these benefits, most American workers pay Social Security taxes on their earnings; future benefits are based on the employees' contributions. Independent agencies of the United States government are those that exist outside of the departments of the executive branch. ... The United States Code (U.S.C.) is a compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal law of the United States. ... For specific national programs, see Social Security (United States), National insurance (UK), Social Security (Sweden) Social security refers to a variety of government programs providing for social welfare and social protection and the alleviation of poverty among senior citizens and the disabled. ... Retirement is the point where a person stops employment. ...


SSA is headquartered in Woodlawn, Maryland, just to the west of Baltimore, at what is known as Central Office. The administration includes 10 regional offices, 8 processing centers, approximately 1300 field offices, and 37 Teleservice Centers. In all, as of April 2006, over 65,000 employees were employed by SSA.[2] See Social Security (United States). Woodlawn is an unincorporated community and a census-designated place located in Baltimore County, Maryland. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,417 sq mi (32,160 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town[1][2] Motto: The Greatest City in America[3], Get in on it. ... Social Security, in the United States, refers to the Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ...

Contents

History

The SSA began existence as the Social Security Board (SSB)[citation needed], created as part of the New Deal program of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, by the Social Security Act of 1935, signed August 14, 1935.[3] The Board consisted of three presidentially appointed executives, and started with no budget, no staff, and no furniture. It obtained a temporary budget from the Federal Emergency Relief Administration headed by Harry Hopkins[citation needed]. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal For other uses of New Deal and The New Deal, see New Deal (disambiguation). ... FDR redirects here. ... Social Security, in the United States, refers to the Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) was the new name given by the Roosevelt Administration to the Emergency Relief Administration set up by Herbert Hoover in 1932. ... Harry Lloyd Hopkins Harry Lloyd Hopkins (August 17, 1890 – January 29, 1946) was one of Franklin Roosevelts closest advisors. ...


The first Social Security office opened in Austin, Texas, on October 14, 1936. Social Security taxes were collected first in January 1937, along with the first one-time, lump-sum payments.[4] The first person to receive a Social Security benefit was Ernest Ackerman, who was paid 17 cents in January 1937. This was a one-time, lump-sum pay-out, which was the only form of benefits paid during the start-up period January 1937 through December 1939. The first person to receive monthly retirement benefits was Ida Mae Fuller of Vermont.[citation needed] Nickname: Live Music Capital of the World Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Country United States State Texas County Travis County  - Mayor Will Wynn Area    - City 669. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In 1939, the Social Ses merged into a cabinet-level Federal Security Agency, which included the SSB, the U.S. Public Health Service, the Civilian Conservation Corps, and other agencies.[citation needed] In January 1940, the first regular ongoing monthly benefits were begun.[5] A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... The Federal Security Agency (FSA) was an independent agency of the United States government established in 1939 pursuant to the Reorganization Act of 1939 (P.L. 19, 76th Cong. ... The United States Public Health Service (PHS) was founded first by President John Adams as a loose network of hospitals to support the health of American seamen. ... Civilian Conservation Corps workers restoring the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. ...


In 1946, the SSB was renamed the Social Security Administration under President Harry S. Truman's Reorganization Plan. Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884–December 26, 1972) was the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953); as Vice President, he succeeded to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ...


In 1972, Cost of Living Adjustments (COLAs) were introduced into SSA programs to deal with the effects of inflation on fixed incomes. A cost-of-living index measures differences in the price of goods and services over time. ... Fixed income refers to any type of investment that yields a regular (fixed) payment. ...


In 1953, the Federal Security Agency was abolished and the SSA was placed under the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. HEW became the Department of Health and Human Services in 1980. In 1994, President Bill Clinton signed legislation returning the SSA to the status of an independent agency in the executive branch of government. See 42 U.S.C. § 901. The United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare (also known as HEW) was a cabinet level department of the United States government from 1953 until 1979. ... The United States Department of Health and Human Services, often abbreviated HHS, is a Cabinet department of the United States government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The United States Code (U.S.C.) is a compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal law of the United States. ...


Headquarters

The SSA is one of the few Federal agencies to have its headquarters outside of Washington, D.C. It was located in Baltimore initially due to the need for a building that was capable of holding the unprecedented amount of paper records that would be needed. Nothing suitable was available in Washington in 1936, so the Social Security Board selected the Candler Building on Baltimore's harbor as a temporary location. Soon after locating there, construction began on a permanent building for SSA in Washington that would meet their requirements for record storage capacity. However, by the time the new building was completed, World War II had started, and the building was commandeered by the War Department. By the time the war ended, it was judged too disruptive to relocate the agency to Washington. The Agency remained in the Candler Building until 1960, when it relocated to its newly built headquarters in Woodlawn. Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: Federal District District of Columbia  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack Evans... Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town[1][2] Motto: The Greatest City in America[3], Get in on it. ... Candler Building The Candler Building was the tallest building in Atlanta, Georgia when it was completed in 1906. ... The Inner Harbor of Baltimore, Maryland, in the United States, is an historic seaport, tourist attraction, and iconic landmark of the city. ... Combatants Allied Powers Axis Powers Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000,000 Civilian dead: 4,000,000 Total dead 12,000,000 World War II (abbreviated WWII), or the Second World War, was a worldwide conflict... Line drawing of the Department of Wars seal. ...


The road on which the headquarters is located, built especially for the SSA, is named Security Boulevard (Route 122) and has since become one of the major arteries connecting Baltimore with its western suburbs. Security Blvd. is also the name of SSA's exit from the nearby Baltimore Beltway (Interstate 695). A nearby shopping center has been named Security Square Mall, and Woodlawn is often referred to informally as "Security." Interstate 70, which runs for thousands of miles from Utah to Maryland, terminates in a Park and Ride lot that adjoins the SSA campus. Highways in Maryland Numbered highways State highways - Minor state highways Maryland Route 122, better known as Security Boulevard, is a six-lane highway that runs near the Social Security Administration complex located in Woodlawn in western Baltimore County, Maryland. ... Interstate 695 (abbreviated I-695) is a 51. ... For the traditional meaning of the word mall, see mall. ... Interstate 70 (abbreviated I-70) is a long interstate highway in the United States that runs from Interstate 15 about a mile from Cove Fort, Utah to a Park and Ride in Baltimore, Maryland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,417 sq mi (32,160 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... a park-and-ride bus in Oxford Park and ride terminals are public transport stations that allow commuters to drive short distances in their personal automobiles to catch a ride on a bus or railroad system (usually classified as light rail or the heavier commuter rail). ...


Coverage

The SSA's coverage under the Social Security program originally covered nearly all non-government workers in the continental U.S. and the territories of Alaska and Hawaii below the age of 65. All workers in commerce and industry were forced into the program, except railroad, state, city, schools and local government workers. Railroad workers were covered by the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB). Coverage for non-government workers was compulsory to nearly all. In 1939, the age restriction for entering Social Security was eliminated. The RRB and the SSA merged coverage in 1946. The state, city, schools and local government workers contributed to their own retirement programs which actually invested their contributions instead of immediately distributing them. This has resulted in these workers receiving much better retirements at often lower costs than social security receipients. To counter this over the years, social security coverage was made compulsory for nearly all of them and many of these workers (some could elect to stay out on grandfather clauses) had to join Social Security. Most now have a joint Social Security and a defined benefit plans at often significantly higher cost for the same benefits. [citation needed] Depending on usage, the term continental United States can refer to either: the 48 contiguous states plus the District of Columbia; or the 48 contiguous states plus the District of Columbia and Alaska. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Railroad Retirement Board (or RRB) was an agency of the United States government created in the 1930s which established a retirement benefit program for the countrys railroad workers. ...


Old Age, Survivors and Disability

The SSA administers the old age, survivors, and disability social insurance programs, which provide monthly benefits to retired or disabled workers, their spouses and children, and to the survivors of insured workers. In 2004, more than 47 million Americans received approximately $492 billion in Social Security benefits. The programs are financed by mandatory contributions which employers, employees, and self-insured persons pay. These revenues are placed into a special trust fund. The Social Security Trust Fund is the United States federal governments means of accounting for workers paid-in contributions that are in excess of current payments. ...


Supplementary Security Income (SSI)

SSA administers the SSI program, which is needs-based, for elderly, blind, or disabled persons. This program began in 1973. SSI recipients are paid out of the general revenue of the U.S. In addition, some states pay additional SSI funds. Approximately 7 million persons are covered by SSI.


Medicare

The administration of the Medicare program is a responsibility of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, but SSA district offices and program service centers are used for determining eligibility, processing premium payments, and for some public contact. President Johnson signing the Medicare amendment. ... It has been suggested that Health Care Financing Administration be merged into this article or section. ...


Automation

A few of the hundreds of keypunch operators SSA employed throughout the late 1930s and into the 1950s.
A few of the hundreds of keypunch operators SSA employed throughout the late 1930s and into the 1950s.

While the establishment of Social Security predated the invention of the modern digital computer, punch card data processing was a mature technology, and the Social Security system made extensive use of automated unit record equipment from the program's inception. This allowed the Social Security Administration to achieve a high level of efficiency. SSA expenses were a small fraction of benefits paid. Image File history File links Cardpunch operations at U.S. Social Security Administration Original caption: This is a picture of a few of the hundreds of cardpunch operators SSA employed throughout the late 1930s and into the 1950s to maintain Social Security records in the days before the advent of... Image File history File links Cardpunch operations at U.S. Social Security Administration Original caption: This is a picture of a few of the hundreds of cardpunch operators SSA employed throughout the late 1930s and into the 1950s to maintain Social Security records in the days before the advent of... Manual card punches (not keypunches) A key punch is a machine for manually entering data onto punch cards. ... A BlueGene supercomputer cabinet. ... Punched cards (or Hollerith cards, or IBM cards), are pieces of stiff paper that contain digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. ... Before the advent of electronic computers, data processing was performed using electromechanical devices called unit record equipment, electric accounting machines (EAM) or tabulating machines. ...


References

  1. ^ (SSA Pub. No 25-1556 p. 7)
  2. ^ (SSA Pub. No 25-1556 pp. 8-9)
  3. ^ (SSA Pub. No 25-1556 p. 15)
  4. ^ (SSA Pub. No 25-1556 p. 15)
  5. ^ (SSA Pub. No 25-1556 p. 15)

Sources

SSA Pub. No 25-1556. Teleservice Representative Basic Training Curriculum Introduction Unit 1 Lessons 01-08 Student. Social Security Administration. April 2006.


See also

Social Security, in the United States, refers to the Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program. ... Sample United States Social Security Card In the United States, a Social Security number (or SSN) is a 9 digit number issued to citizens, permanent residents, and temporary (working) residents under section 205(c)(2) of the Social Security Act, codified as . ... This article aims to describe the financial expenditure associated with the operations and processes of world governments of all levels. ... The Social Security Death Index is provided by the United States Department of Social Security. ... Commissioner Barnhart. ... Established in 1979, the National Organization of Social Security Claimants Representatives is an association of over 3,300 attorneys and paralegals who represent Social Security Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income claimants. ...

External links

  • Social Security Administration website
  • Social Security Disability Advocacy, Debate, and Professional News
  • The Office of Disability Adjudication and Review (ODAR) ODAR
  • Works by the Social Security Administration at Project Gutenberg
  • Social Security Administration Meeting Notices and Rule Changes from The Federal Register RSS Feed

Project Gutenberg logo Project Gutenberg (often abbreviated as PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works via book scanning. ...

Further reading

  • Social Security Disability Advocate's Handbook, by David Traver, James Publishing, 2006, ISBN 1-58012-033-4
  • Social Security Handbook, Germania Publishing, 2006.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Social Security Administration - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (947 words)
The United States Social Security Administration (or SSA) is an independent agency of the United States government established by a law currently codified at 42 U.S.C. The SSA manages the United States' social insurance program, consisting of retirement, disability, and survivors' benefits.
The SSA is headquartered in Woodlawn, Maryland, a suburb of Baltimore.
In 1953 the Federal Security Agency was abolished and the SSA was placed under the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
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