The Socialist Education Movement (Simplified Chinese: 社会主义教育运动; Traditional Chinese: 社會主義教育運動; pinyin: Shèhuìzhǔyì Jiàoyù Yùndòng, abbreviated 社教运动 or 社教運動), also known as the Four Cleanups Movement (Simplified: 四清运动; Traditional: 四清運動; pinyin: Sìqīng Yùndòng) was the movement launched by Mao Zedong in 1963 in the People's Republic of China. Mao sought to remove what he believed to be "reactionary" elements within the bureaucracy of the Communist Party of China, saying that "governance is also a process of socialist education." The Movement, whose goal was to cleanse politics, economy, organization, and ideology, was to last until 1966.
The Socialist Education Movement (http://past.people.com.cn/GB/shizheng/252/5301/5302/20010612/487072.html), People's Daily website, in Simplified Chinese
Modern socialmovements became possible through education (the wider dissemination of literature), and increased mobility of labour due to the industrialisation and urbanisation of 19th century societies.
The freedom of expression, education and relative economic independence prelevant in the modern Western culture is responsible for the unprecedented number and scope of various contemporary socialmovements.
The labor movement and socialist movement of the late 19th century are seen as the prototypical socialmovements, leading to the formation of communist and social democratic parties and organisations.
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