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Encyclopedia > Soap
Look up soap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Soap is a surfactant used in conjunction with water for washing and cleaning that is available in solid bars and in the form of a viscous liquid. Look up soap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Surfactants, also known as tensides, are wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading, and lower the interfacial tension between two liquids. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Cleanliness is the absence of dirt, including dust, stains and a bad smell. ... One half of a bronze mold for casting a socketed spear head dated to the period 1400-1000 BC. There are no known parallels for this mold. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ...

A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. This type of soap is typically found inside hotels.
A collection of decorative soaps used for human hygiene purposes. This type of soap is typically found inside hotels.

Chemically, soap is a salt of a fatty acid. Traditionally, soap is made by the reaction between a fat and a strong alkali such as lye (sodium hydroxide), potash (potassium hydroxide), or soda ash (sodium carbonate). Historically, the alkali was leached from hardwood ashes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1491 KB) Summary A collection of decorative soaps, commonly found in places such as hotel bathrooms. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1491 KB) Summary A collection of decorative soaps, commonly found in places such as hotel bathrooms. ... This article is about lodging. ... This article is about the term salt as referred to in chemistry. ... Not to be confused with fats. ... For other uses, see Chemical reaction (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3). ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... Sodium carbonate or soda ash, Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Alkaline redirects here. ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood For the record label, see Hardwood Records. ...


The chemical reaction that yields soap is known as saponification. In the saponification of a fat to form soap the alkali and water hydrolyze the fat thus converting it into free glycerol/glycerin and soap (fatty acid salt).[1] Occasionally, saponification can occur naturally: an underground mass tomb in Sicily has corpses whose bodies are slowly becoming saponified.[2] Saponification of a lipid with potassium hydroxide. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... Glycerin, also well known as glycerine and glycerol, and less commonly as 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. ... Not to be confused with fats. ...


Many cleaning agents today are technically not soaps, but detergents, which are less expensive and easier to manufacture. Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ...


In some countries, it’s compulsory to indicate the Total Fatty Matter (TFM) content of soap that is sold to consumers, as a percentage. Usually it averages around 70%.

Contents

How soap works

a diagram of the function of soap

Soaps are useful for cleaning because soap molecules attach readily to both nonpolar molecules (such as grease or oil) and polar molecules (such as water). Although grease will normally adhere to skin or clothing, the soap molecules can attach to it as a "handle" and make it easier to rinse away. Applied to a soiled surface, soapy water effectively holds particles in suspension so the whole of it can be rinsed off with clean water. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... In chemistry, a nonpolar compound is one that does not have concentrations of positive or negative electric charge. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... A commonly-used example of a polar compound is water (H2O). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


(fatty end)  :CH3-(CH2)n-CO2- +Na: (water soluble end)


The hydrocarbon ("fatty") portion dissolves dirt and oils, while the ionic end makes it soluble in water. Therefore, it allows water to remove normally-insoluble matter by emulsification. An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible substances. ...


Soap making

Handmade soaps sold at a shop in Hyères, France
Handmade soaps sold at a shop in Hyères, France

The most common soap making process today is the cold process method, where fats such as rendered lard react with lye. Some soapers also practice other processes, such as the historical hot process, and make special soaps such as clear or transparent soap, which must be made with ethanol or isopropyl alcohol.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2378 KB) Copyright © 2006 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soap Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 2378 KB) Copyright © 2006 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Soap Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... A square in Hyeres. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... A soaper is a person who makes soap. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. ...


Soap makers sometimes use the melt and pour process, where a premade soap base is melted and poured in individual molds. While some people think that this is not really soap making, the Hand Crafted Soap Makers Guild does recognize this as a legitimate form of soap crafting. Melt and pour is a process often used by amateur soapmakers. ...


Handmade soap differs from industrial soap in that whole oils containing intact triglycerides are used and glycerin is a desirable byproduct. Industrial detergent manufacturers commonly use fatty acids, which are detached from the gylcerol heads found in triglycerides. Without the glycerol heads, the detached fatty acids do not yield glycerin as a byproduct.[4] Triglyceride (blue: fatty acid; red: glycerol backbone) Triglycerides are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids. ... Glycerin, also well known as glycerine and glycerol, and less commonly as 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet-tasting viscous liquid. ...


Lye

Reacting fat with lye (sodium hydroxide) will produce a hard bar soap. Reacting fat with potassium hydroxide will produce a soap that is either soft or liquid. Historically, the alkalis used were sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and sodium carbonate leached from hardwood ashes.[5] Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ...


Fat

Handicraft made Marseille soap
Handicraft made Marseille soap

Soap is made from either vegetable or animal fats. Sodium tallowate, a fatty acid sometimes used to make soaps, is derived from tallow, which is rendered from cattle or sheep tissue. Soap can also be made of vegetable oils, such as palm oil, olive oil, or coconut oil. If soap is made from pure olive oil it may be called Castile soap or Marseille soap. Castile is also sometimes applied to soaps with a mix of oils, but a high percentage of olive oil. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 676 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1082 × 960 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 676 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1082 × 960 pixel, file size: 1. ... A 300g block of Savon de Marseille Marseille soap or Savon de Marseille is a traditional soap made from vegetable oils that has been made around Marseille, France for about 700 years, the first recorded soapmaker in the area in about 1370. ... Sodium tallowate or hydrogenated tallow is made from sodium hydroxide, water, and animal tallow See also sodium cocoate. ... In the kitchen, rendering can mean clarifying butter into ghee, suet into tallow and bacon fat into lard. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling. ... For the Popeye cartoon character, see Olive Oyl. ... Coconut oil, also known as coconut butter, is a tropical oil extracted from copra (the dried inner flesh of coconuts) with many applications. ... Castile soap is a name used in English-speaking countries for soap made exclusively from vegetable oil, as opposed to animal fat. ... A 300g block of Savon de Marseille Marseille soap or Savon de Marseille is a traditional soap made from vegetable oils that has been made around Marseille, France for about 700 years, the first recorded soapmaker in the area in about 1370. ...


An array of oils and butters are used in the process such as olive oil, coconut oil, palm oil, cocoa butter, hemp oil and shea butter to provide different qualities. For example, olive oil provides mildness in soap; coconut oil provides lots of lather; while coconut and palm oils provide hardness. Most common, is a combination of coconut, palm, and olive oils. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Karite redirects here. ...


Process

Cold process soap making is done without heating the soap batter, while hot process soap making requires that the soap batter be heated. Both processes are further described after the general soap making process description.


General soap making process

Soap making requires the use of saponification charts[6] to determine the correct lye/fat ratio. If excess unreacted lye remains in the soap[1], the resultant high pH can burn or irritate skin. For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ...


Conversely, a high proportion of excess fat will result in greasy sludge that will not form solid bars of soap, although some soap makers deliberately "superfat" their soap so that some oils will remain in the finished bars of soap. This can be done by either adding a small (5-10%) excess proportion of fats, or by discounting the formulated amount of lye to 90-95%.[7] Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ...


The lye is dissolved in water; as this is an exothermic process, the solution will spontaneously generate heat and may even boil. The oils are heated separately (to the point of liquefaction if they are solid at room temperature). Once fats and lye water have both cooled to 80-100°F (27-38°C), they are combined. This mixture of lye water and fats is stirred until "trace" occurs and the mixture becomes a soap batter.[7] There are varying levels of trace: a light trace implies a thinner soap batter and a heavy trace implies a thicker soap batter. Additives, such as essential oils, fragrance oils, botanicals, clays, colorants or other fragrance materials, are combined with the soap batter at different degrees of trace, depending upon the additive. With elapsed time and continued agitation the soap batter will continue to thicken. The cold process soap batter is then poured into molds, while hot process soap batter is poured into a double boiler or crockpot to sustain a high temperature. Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ... In thermodynamics, the word exothermic outside heating describes a process or reaction that releases energy usually in the form of heat, but it can also release energy in form of light (e. ... An essential oil is any concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants, which are called aromatic herbs or aromatic plants. ... Fragrance oils, also known as aroma oils, aromatic oils, and flavor oils, are blended synthetic aroma compounds or natural essential oils that are diluted with a carrier like propylene glycol, vegetable oil, or mineral oil. ...


Cold-process

Although cold-process soapmaking takes place at room temperature, the fats are first heated to ensure the liquification of the fats used. Then, when the lye water solution is added to the fats, it should be the same temperature of the melted oils and both are typically between 80-90°F. An external heat source is not necessary but the molded soap should be incubated by being wrapped in blankets or towels for 24 hours after being poured into the mold. Milk soaps are the exception and do not require insulation, which may cause the milk to sour. The soap will continue to exothermically give off heat for many hours after being molded. During this time, it is normal for the soap to go through a "gel phase" where the opaque soap will turn semi-transparent for several hours before turning opaque again. The soap may be removed from the mold after 24 hours but the saponification process takes several weeks to complete. In physics, melting is the process of heating a solid substance to a point (called the melting point) where it turns into a liquid. ...


Hot-process

Unlike cold processed soap, all hot processed soap experiences a "gel phase" as a result of being heated, such as in a double boiler or crockpot. Hot process soap may be used soon after being removed from the mold because the higher temperatures accelerate the saponifcation process and also drive off excess water.


Purification and finishing

The common process of purifying soap involves removal of sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide, and glycerol. These components are removed by boiling the crude soap curds in water and re-precipitating the soap with salt.[citation needed] Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... Boiling, a type of phase transition, is the rapid vaporization of a liquid, which typically occurs when a liquid is heated to its boiling point, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the pressure exerted on the liquid by the surrounding atmospheric pressure. ... Curd is a dairy product obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar and then draining off the liquid portion (called whey). ...


Most of the water is then removed from the soap. This was traditionally done on a chill roll which produced the soap flakes commonly used in the 1940s and 1950s. This process was superseded by spray dryers and then by vacuum dryers.[citation needed]


The dry soap (approximately 6-12% moisture) is then compacted into small pellets. These pellets are now ready for soap finishing, the process of converting raw soap pellets into a salable product, usually bars.[citation needed]


Soap pellets are combined with fragrances and other materials and blended to homogeneity in an amalgamator (mixer). The mass is then discharged from the mixer into a refiner which, by means of an auger, forces the soap through a fine wire screen. From the refiner the soap passes over a roller mill (French milling or hard milling) in a manner similar to calendering paper or plastic or to making chocolate liquor. The soap is then passed through one or more additional refiners to further plasticize the soap mass. Immediately before extrusion it passes through a vacuum chamber to remove any entrapped air. It is then extruded into a long log or blank, cut to convenient lengths, passed through a metal detector and then stamped into shape in refrigerated tools. The pressed bars are packaged in many ways.[citation needed] Study of a man using an auger, for The Seven Sorrows of the Virgin, Albrecht Dürer, ca 1496 An auger is a device for moving material or liquid by means of a rotating helical flighting. ... Calendering is a finishing process applied to textiles and paper. ... Chocolate liquor, also known as cocoa liquor and cocoa mass, is a smooth liquid form of chocolate. ...


Sand or pumice may be added to produce a scouring soap. This process is most common in creating soaps used for human hygiene. The scouring agents serve to remove dead skin cells from the surface being cleaned. This process is called exfoliation. Many newer materials are used for exfoliating soaps which are effective but do not have the sharp edges and poor size distribution of pumice.[citation needed] For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... Specimen of highly porous pumice from Teide volcano on Tenerife, Canary Islands. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


History

Early history

Soapnut Tree (Reeta / Sapindus tree)
Soapnut Tree (Reeta / Sapindus tree)

The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in Ancient Babylon.[8] A formula for soap consisting of water, alkali and cassia oil was written on a Babylonian clay tablet around 2200 BC. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1400, 487 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Sapindus ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1400, 487 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Sapindus ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Alkaline redirects here. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum, synonym ), also called Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree native to southern China and mainland Southeast Asia west to Myanmar. ...


The Ebers papyrus (Egypt, 1550 BC) indicates that ancient Egyptians bathed regularly and combined animal and vegetable oils with alkaline salts to create a soap-like substance. Egyptian documents mention that a soap-like substance was used in the preparation of wool for weaving. Ebers medical papyrus giving the treatment of cancer. ... The pyramids are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ...


Roman history

It had been reported that a factory producing soap-like substances was found in the ruins of Pompeii (AD 79). However, this has proven to be a misinterpretation of the survival of some soapy mineral substance,[citation needed] probably soapstone at the Fullonica where it was used for dressing recently cleansed textiles. Unfortunately this error has been repeated widely and can be found in otherwise reputable texts on soap history. The ancient Romans were generally ignorant of soap's detergent properties, and made use of the strigil to scrape dirt and sweat from the body. The word "soap" (Latin sapo) appears first in a European language in Pliny the Elder's Historia Naturalis, which discusses the manufacture of soap from tallow and ashes, but the only use he mentions for it is as a pomade for hair; he mentions rather disapprovingly that among the Gauls and Germans men are likelier to use it than women.[9] For other uses, see Pompeii (disambiguation). ... The lid of a pyrophyllite box. ... A strigil was a small, curved, metal tool used in ancient Greece to scrape dirt and sweat from the body. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ... Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire...


A story encountered in some places claims that soap takes its name from a supposed "Mount Sapo" where ancient Romans sacrificed animals. Rain would send a mix of animal tallow and wood ash down the mountain and into the clay soil on the banks of the Tiber. Eventually, women noticed that it was easier to clean clothes with this "soap". The location of Mount Sapo is unknown, as is the source of the "ancient Roman legend" to which this tale is typically credited.[10] In fact, the Latin word sapo simply means "soap"; it was borrowed from a Celtic or Germanic language, and is cognate with Latin sebum, "tallow" [11], which appears in Pliny the Elder's account. Roman animal sacrifices usually burned only the bones and inedible entrails of the sacrificed animals; edible meat and fat from the sacrifices were taken by the humans rather than the gods. Animal sacrifices in the ancient world would not have included enough fat to make much soap. The legend about Mount Sapo is probably apocryphal. Mount Sapo is a fictional place, used to substantiate a mythologic rewriting of the history of soap, which is often claimed to explain the origins of the name. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... Tiber River in Rome. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ...


Muslim history

True soaps made from vegetable oils (such as olive oil), aromatic oils (such as thyme oil) and lye (as-Soda al-Kawia) were first produced by Muslim chemists in the medieval Islamic world.[12] The formula for soap used since then hasn't changed (Nabulsi soap). From the beginning of the 7th century, soap was produced in Nablus (West Bank), Kufa (Iraq) and Basra (Iraq). Soaps, as we know them today, are descendants of historical Arabian Soaps. Arabian Soap was perfumed and colored, some of the soaps were liquid and others were solid. They also had special soap for shaving. It was sold for 3 Dirhams (0.3 Dinars) a piece in 981 AD. The Persian chemist Al-Razi wrote a manuscript on recipes for true soap. A recently discovered manuscript from the 13th century details more recipes for soap making; e.g. take some sesame oil, a sprinkle of potash, alkali and some lime, mix them all together and boil. When cooked, they are poured into molds and left to set, leaving hard soap. For the Popeye cartoon character, see Olive Oyl. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... A five-dinar note featuring Saddam Hussein The word Dinar (in Arabic and Persian: دينار) traces its origin back to the Roman currency, the denarius (pl. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... For other uses, see Razi. ...


In semi-modern times soap was made by mixing animal fats with lye. Because of the caustic lye, this was a dangerous procedure (perhaps more dangerous than any present-day home activities) which could result in serious chemical burns or even blindness. Before commercially-produced lye (sodium hydroxide) was commonplace, lye (sodium hydroxide), potash (potassium hydroxide), and soda ash (sodium carbonate) were leached from the ashes of a hardwood fire for soap-making at home. Animal fats are fats obtained from animal sources, including: blubber cod liver oil lard (pork fat) tallow (beef fat) schmaltz (chicken fat) In human nutrition—as far as regions where heart disease is a more common cause of death than starvation are concerned—animal fats are often claimed to be... A chemical burn occurs when living tissue is exposed to an extremely reactive chemical substance such as a strong acid or base. ... This article is about the visual condition. ... Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3). ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... Sodium carbonate or soda ash, Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ...


Modern history

Castile soap was later produced in Europe from the 16th century. Castile soap is a name used in English-speaking countries for soap made exclusively from vegetable oil, as opposed to animal fat. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...

1922 magazine advertisement for Palmolive Soap
1922 magazine advertisement for Palmolive Soap

In modern times, the use of soap has become universal in industrialized nations due to a better understanding of the role of hygiene in reducing the population size of pathogenic microorganisms. Manufactured bar soaps first became available in the late nineteenth century, and advertising campaigns in Europe and the United States helped to increase popular awareness of the relationship between cleanliness and health. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1467x1901, 792 KB) Palmolive Soap advertisement appearing in American womens magazine, Ladies Home Journal, in 1922. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1467x1901, 792 KB) Palmolive Soap advertisement appearing in American womens magazine, Ladies Home Journal, in 1922. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... // Advert redirects here. ...


Soap has also been used to punish people for cursing or occasionally, for other infractions. This is done by forcibly placing soap into a person's mouth and, sometimes, forcing them to swallow it. It is commonly known as "washing one's mouth out with soap" or any of numerous variations of that phrase, or, more recently, "mouthsoaping". In cartoons, profanity is often depicted by substituting symbols for words, as a form of non-specific censorship. ... Washing out mouth with soap is a form of corporal punishment, usually for using vulgar language or lying. ...

Azul e Branco Soap - A bar of blue-white Offenbach soap
Azul e Branco Soap - A bar of blue-white Offenbach soap

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Commercial soap production

Until the Industrial Revolution, soap making was done on a small scale and the product was rough. Andrew Pears started making a high-quality, transparent soap in 1789 in London. With his grandson, Francis Pears, they opened a factory in Isleworth in 1862. William Gossage produced low-price good quality soap from the 1850s. Robert Spear Hudson began manufacturing a soap powder in 1837, initially by grinding the soap with a mortar and pestle. William Hesketh Lever and his brother, James, bought a small soap works in Warrington in 1885 and founded what is still one of the largest soap businesses, now called Unilever. These soap businesses were among the first to employ large scale advertising campaigns. A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Andrew Pears was farmers son from Cornwall, born in 1768, who invented the transparent soap. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... , Isleworth (IPA: ) is a suburb located in the London Borough of Hounslow alongside the River Thames in West London. ... Gossage is a family name of soapmakers and alkali manufacturers. ... Robert Spear Hudson (6 December 1812 - 1884) was a pharmacist who popularised dry soap powder. ... William Lever, 1st Viscount Leverhulme Lord Leverhulme is the most familiar name of William Hesketh Lever, (19 September 1851-7 May 1925), a British Industrialist who was created 1st Viscount Leverhulme. ... This article is about the Borough in the north-west of England. ... Unilever is a widely listed [2] [3] multi-national corporation, formed of Anglo-Dutch parentage, that owns many of the worlds consumer product brands in foods, beverages, cleaning agents and personal care products. ... // Advert redirects here. ...


In the United States, one of the first manufacturers of soap was the Armour and Company in Chicago in 1888. The soap was made from tallow, a by-product of the meat production process. In 1948, Armour soap became Dial soap, the first deodorant or antibacterial soap introduced in the USA. Armour and Company was an American slaughterhouse and meatpacking company founded in Chicago, Illinois in 1867 by the Armour brothers led by Philip Danforth Armour (1832–1901). ... The Dial Corporation is a maker of personal care products based in Scottsdale, Arizona. ... . ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
soap

. ... Castile soap is a name used in English-speaking countries for soap made exclusively from vegetable oil, as opposed to animal fat. ... A 300g block of Savon de Marseille Marseille soap or Savon de Marseille is a traditional soap made from vegetable oils that has been made around Marseille, France for about 700 years, the first recorded soapmaker in the area in about 1370. ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... Glycerin Soaps are soaps that contain glycerin, a natural part of fat or oil. ... Rebatching, or hand milling, is a soapmaking technique used by hobbyists and artisan soapmakers. ... Saponins are the glycosides of 27 carbon atom steroids, or 30 carbon atom triterpenes. ... Shikakai is a popular traditional powder shampoo used in India. ... Binomial name Saponaria officinalis L. Soapwort (Saponaria officinalis) is a vespertine flower, and a common perennial plant from the carnation family (Caryophyllaceae). ... Species See text Sapindus is a genus of about five to twelve species of shrubs and small trees in the Sapindaceae, native to warm temperate to tropical regions in both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. ... A soaper is a person who makes soap. ... Unsaponifiables are components of an oil, fat, wax, etc. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Natural Soap Directory - Saponification Process
  2. ^ Life Beyond Death (Quest for the Unknown). Reader's Digest Publishers, 1992.
  3. ^ Failor, Catherine (2000).
  4. ^ Soap Trivia
  5. ^ Certified Lye
  6. ^ Certified Lye - Saponification Chart
  7. ^ a b Natural Soap Directory
  8. ^ Willcox, Michael (2000). "Soap", in Hilda Butler: Poucher's Perfumes, Cosmetics and Soaps, 10th edition, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 453. “The earliest recorded evidence of the production of soap-like materials dates back to around 2800 BC in Ancient Babylon.” 
  9. ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural History, [1]
  10. ^ algebralab
  11. ^ EtymOnline
  12. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Technology Transfer in the Chemical Industries.

Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ... Ahmad Y. al Hassan (born 1925) Chevalier of the Legion d’Honneur: Historian of Islamic and Arabic science and technology. ...

References

  1. Failor, Catherine (2000). Making Transparent Soap: The Art of Crafting, Molding, Scenting, and Coloring. North Adams, MA: Storey Books, 64. ISBN 158017244X. 
  2. Garzena, Patrizia - Tadiello, Marina (2004). Soap Naturally - Ingredients, methods and recipes for natural handmade soap. Programmer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9756764-0-0.
  3. Glossary of Soap Terms (HTML). Natural Soap Council.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) 1.1 (8794 words)
SOAP uses the local, unqualified attribute "href" of type "uri-reference" to specify a reference to that value, in a manner conforming to the XML Specification [7], XML Schema Specification [11], and XML Linking Language Specification [9].
With the exception of the SOAP mustUnderstand attribute (see section 4.2.3) and the SOAP actor attribute (see section 4.2.2), it is generally permissible to have attributes and their values appear in XML instances or alternatively in schemas, with equal effect.
It is similar to the SOAP actor attribute (see section 4.2.2) but instead of indicating the destination of the header entry, it indicates the source of the fault.
FDA/CFSAN Cosmetics: Soap (1210 words)
Soap, as long as we can remember, has enjoyed an enviable respect in polite society and this could be at least a part of the reason why Congress placed soap above the law in enacting the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938.
For purposes of excluding ordinary soap from regulation as a cosmetic, FDA defines it as a product in which most of the nonvolatile matter consists of an alkali salt of fatty acids and whose detergent properties are due to these alkali-fatty acid compounds.
Soaps and synthetic detergent cleansing agents function in water in somewhat the same way; that is, they break down the resistance barrier between the water and the dirt, grime, oil, or other material, allowing it to be wetted and washed away.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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