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Encyclopedia > Snowboarding
Snowboarder "dropping" a cornice.
Snowboarder "dropping" a cornice.
Snowboarder in a half-pipe
Snowboarder in a half-pipe
Snowboarder riding off cornice
Snowboarder riding off cornice
Snowboarding contributes greatly to the economies of ski resorts
Snowboarding contributes greatly to the economies of ski resorts

Snowboarding is a sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope on a snowboard attached to a participant's feet using a special boot set into a mounted binding. The development of snowboarding was inspired by surfing and skateboarding, and the sport shares superficial similarities with skiing. It was developed in the United States in the 1960s and the 1970s and became a Winter Olympic Sport in 1998. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Halfpipe A halfpipe is a structure used in gravity extreme sports such as snowboarding, skateboarding, freestyle BMX, or inline skating. ... Photo taken at Squaw Valley, CA in 1999 Cornice entry File links The following pages link to this file: Snowboarding Categories: GFDL images ... Photo taken at Squaw Valley, CA in 1999 Cornice entry File links The following pages link to this file: Snowboarding Categories: GFDL images ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... A snowboard with strap-in bindings A snowboard is a board ridden in snowboarding to descend a snow-covered slope. ... For other uses, see Surfing (disambiguation). ... Skateboarders Skateboarding is the act of riding on and performing tricks with a skateboard. ... Cross-country skiing (skating style) in Einsiedeln, Switzerland. ... An athlete carries the Olympic torch during the 2002 torch relay The Winter Olympic Games are a winter multi-sport event held every four years. ...

Contents

History

Freestyle snowboarding
Freestyle snowboarding

The first modern snowboard was arguably the Snurfer (a portmanteau of snow and surfer), originally designed by Sherman Poppen for his children in 1965 in Muskegon, Michigan. Poppen’s Snurfer started to be manufactured as a toy the following year. It was essentially a skateboard without wheels, steered by a hand-held rope, and lacked bindings, but had provisions to cause footwear to adhere. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Snowboard. ... For the bag, see portmanteau (suitcase). ...


During the 1970s and 1980s as snowboarding became more popular, pioneers such as Dimitrije Milovich, Jake Burton Carpenter (founder of Burton Snowboards from Londonderry, Vermont), Tom Sims (founder of Sims Snowboards) and Mike Olson (GNU Snowboards) came up with new designs for boards and mechanisms that had slowly developed into the snowboards and other related equipment that we know today. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Burton Snowboards is the worlds leading manufacturer[1] of snowboards with an estimated 30% to 35% marketshare. ...


Dimitrije Milovich, an east coast surfer, had the idea of sliding on cafeteria trays. From this he started developing his snowboard designs. In 1972, he started a company called the Winterstick, which was mentioned in 1975 by Newsweek magazine. The Winterstick was based on the design and feel of a surfboard, but worked the same way as skis.


In the spring of 1976 Welsh skateboarders Jon Roberts and Pete Matthews developed a Plywood deck with foot bindings for use on the Dry Ski Slope at the school camp, Ogmore-by-Sea, Wales. UK. Further development of the board was limited as Matthews suffered serious injury whilst boarding at Ogmore and access for the boarders was declined following the incident. The 'deck' was much shorter than current snow boards. Bevelled edges and a convex, polyurethane varnished bottom to the board, allowed quick downhill movement, but limited turning ability. Ogmore-by-Sea is a seaside village on the Heritiage Coastline of South Wales in the UK. Approximately 10km from Bridgend and lies in the Vale of Glamorgan. ... This article is about the country. ...


In 1979 the first ever World Snurfing Championship was held at Pando Ski Lodge near Grand Rapids, Michigan. Jake Burton Carpenter, came from Vermont to compete with a snowboard of his own manufacture. There were many protests from the competitors about Jake entering with a non-snurfer board. Paul Graves, the top snurfer at the time, and others, advocated that Jake be allowed to race. A modified division was created and won by Jake as the sole entrant. That race was considered the first competition for snowboards and is the birth of what has now become competitive snowboarding.[1][2] Grand Rapids redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Some say the first modern Extreme Snowboarder was Paul W. Primrose from San Jose California.[citation needed] In 1981 Paul and some friends developed the first modern day era snowboard using a Powell Peralta skateboard as a template.[citation needed] Paul was able to use some of his mother's kitchen hardware to develop the first step in, buckle binding. It has been said that Paul W. Primrose was the first Extreme Snowboarder of his time.[citation needed] Had Xgames been available in 1981, Paul would have won every event.[citation needed] Paul W. Primrose still boards to this day in the Southern California area...living in Temecula.[citation needed]


In 1982 the first National Snowboard race was held near Woodstock, Vermont at Suicide Six.[3]


In 1983, the first World Championship halfpipe competition was held at Soda Springs, California. Tom Sims, founder of Sims Snowboards, organized the event with the help of Mike Chantry a snowboard instructor at Soda Springs.[4] Halfpipe for snowboarding A halfpipe is a structure used in gravity extreme sports such as snowboarding, skateboarding, freestyle BMX and inline skating. ... Tom Sims is a pioneer and world champion of snowboarding, originally from Haddonfield, New Jersey. ...


Snowboarding's growing popularity is reflected in its recognition as an official sport: in 1985, the first World Cup was held in Zürs, Austria. The International Snowboard Association (ISA) was founded in 1994 to provide universal contest regulations. Today, high-profile snowboarding events like the Olympic Games, Winter X-Games, US Open, and other events are broadcast worldwide. Many alpine resorts have terrain parks. The sport has also had an impact in countries that are largely without snow, such as Australia. A terrain park is an outdoor area that contains jumps and half-pipes that allow snowboarders and skiers to do tricks. ...


Initially, ski areas adopted the sport at a much slower pace than the winter sports public. Indeed, for many years, there was animosity between skiers and snowboarders, which lead to an ongoing skier vs snowboarder feud.[5] Early snowboards were difficult to control and were banned from the slopes by park officials. In 1985, only seven percent of U.S. ski areas allowed snowboarding, with a similar proportion in Europe. As equipment and skills improved, gradually snowboarding became more accepted. In 1990, most major ski areas had separate slopes for snowboarders. Now, approximately 97% of all ski areas in North America and Europe allow snowboarding, and more than half have jumps, rails and half pipes.


On March 18, 2008 Taos Ski area officially welcomed the first snowboarders to their resort, after years of exclusion. Founder of Bonfire Snowboarding, Brad Steward, joined Transworld Snowboarding Editor in Chief Kurt Hoy, Java Fernandez, Ryan Thompson, Josh Sherman and a local advocate for the first legal turns.[6] is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Twenty percent of all visitors to U.S. ski resorts are snowboarders, and more than 3.5 million people have taken up snowboarding worldwide.


Styles

Since snowboarding's inception as an established winter sport, it has developed various styles, each with its own specialized equipment and technique. The most common styles today are: freeride, freestyle, and freecarve/race. These styles are used for both recreational and professional snowboarding. While each style is unique, there is overlap between them, often no discernible difference. See also List of snowboard tricks. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Snowboard tricks are aerials or maneuvers performed on snowboards for style or competitions. ...


Freeride

The freeride style is the most common and easily accessible style of snowboarding. It involves riding down any terrain available. Freeriding may include aerial tricks and jib tricks borrowed from freestyle, or deep carve turns more common in alpine snowboarding, utilizing whatever natural terrain the rider may encounter.


Freeriding equipment is usually a stiff boot with a directional twin snowboard. Since the freeride style may encounter many different types of snow conditions, from ice to deep powder, freeride snowboards are usually longer and have a stiffer overall flex.


Freestyle

In freestyle, the rider uses manmade terrain features such as rails, boxes, handrails, jumps, half pipes, quarter pipes and a myriad of other features. The intent of freestyle is to use these terrain features to perform a number of aerial or jib tricks.


The equipment used in freestyle is usually a soft boot with a twin tipped board, though freeride equipment is often used successfully. The most common binding stance used in freestyle is called "duck foot", in which the trailing foot has a negative degree of arc setup while the leading foot is in the positive range i.e. -9°/+12°. Freestyle riders who specialize in jibbing often use boards that are shorter than usual, with additional flex and filed down edges.


Freestyle also includes halfpipe tricks. A halfpipe (or "pipe") is a trench-like half of a tube made of snow. Tricks performed may be rotations such as a 360° (a full turn) in the air, or an off-axis spin like a "mctwist". Tricks can be modified while hitting different features. Some riders enjoy jibbing, which involves grinding a rail, a box, or even a tree trunk, or simply boarding on anything that is not snow.


Freecarve

Similar to skiing, this race and slalom focused style is still practiced, though infrequently. Sometimes called alpine snowboarding, or the 'euro-carve', freecarving takes place on hard packed snow or groomed runs and focuses on the ultimate carving turn, much like traditional skiing. Little or no jumping takes place in this discipline. Freecarve equipment is a ski-like hardshell boot and plate binding system with a true directional snowboard that is usually very stiff and narrow to facilitate fast and responsive turns. Alpine snowboarding BEN JENKINS RULES THE WORLD is a small niche of the sport of snowboarding. ...


Safety and precautions

Like other winter sports, snowboarding comes with a certain level of danger.[7] Protective gear is increasing in popularity. This is a natural progression in any high-velocity sport which has the possibility for injury. The progression of protective gear is also attributed to professional riders adopting protective gear, with Shaun White being a premier competitor advertising the use of helmets. Wearing protective gear is highly recommended to all participants, beginner or advanced, due to the dangerous nature of alpine sports. The body parts most often injured in snowboarding are the wrist and ankle.[8] The wrists, scaphoid fractures and Colles fractures of the wrist are relatively common, with around 100,000 wrist fractures worldwide among snowboarders each year,[9] tailbone, head, dependent on landing position could cause serious brain injury, and shoulders. Avalanches are a clear danger when on snowy mountain slopes.[10] It is best to learn the different kinds of avalanches, how to prevent causing one and how to react when one is going to happen. Also when going out onto the snow, all who practice an activity with increased chances of injury should have a basic First Aid knowledge and know how to deal with injuries that you may encounter in[11]. This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ...


The recommended protective safety gear includes wrist guards (as snowboarders often land on their hands and knees. Knee Ligament Injuries are number one in the list of Snowboarding and Skiing Injuries[12]. Get familiar with Medial Collateral Ligament Sprain (MCL Sprain) and , resulting in wrist breakage), padded/protected snowboard pants, and a helmet. Snowboarding boots should be well-fitted, with toes snug in the end of the boot to minimize movement. Goggles are crucial on bright days to prevent snow blindness and protect riders from temporary vision loss to eye damage from snow from impacts into terrain or obstacles. Often, snowboarders will sharpen their snowboards, and wax them prior to an upcoming season or event. Also, waxes such as Mojo wax are used to temporarily smooth out riding. Padding or "armor" is recommended on other body parts such as hips, knees, spine, and shoulders. Also, when snowboarding alone, precaution should be taken to avoid tree wells, a particularly dangerous area of loose snow that may form at the base of trees.


Films

Snowboarding films have become a main part of progression in the sport. Each season, many films are released, usually in Autumn. These are made by many snowboard specific video production companies as well as manufacturing companies that use these films as a form of advertisement. Snowboarding videos usually contain video footage of professional riders sponsored by companies. An example of commercial use of snowboarding films would be The White Album, a film by snowboarding legend and filmmaker Dave Seoane about Shaun White, that includes cameos by Tony Hawk and was sponsored by PlayStation, Mountain Dew and Burton Snowboards. Snowboarding films are also used as documentation of snowboarding and showcasing of current trends and styles of the sport. DVD cover of The White Album The White Album is a documentary starring skateboarding and snowboarding phenom, Shaun White. ... Image:ShaunWhiteHappy. ... This article is about the American skateboarder. ... For other uses, see PlayStation (disambiguation). ... Mountain Dew is a caffeinated, sweet, citrus-flavored soft drink produced by PepsiCo, Inc. ... Burton Snowboards, founded by Jake Burton Carpenter in 1977, is a snowboard manufacturer that has grown to become one of the leaders in its market. ...


Snowboarding films also offer professional snowboarders an opportunity to focus on a creative project as an alternative to traveling exclusively for competitions. An example of this is professional snowboarder David Benedek. His film company, Blank Paper Studios, produced the documentary 91 Words For Snow (2006) as well as a collection of short films, In Short (2007).


Snowboarding has also been the focus of numerous Hollywood feature films. An early Hollywood nod to snowboarding was in the James Bond film A View to a Kill — the opening sequence features Roger Moore as Bond eluding attackers with an improvised snowboard. ... A reel of film, which predates digital cinematography. ... A View to a Kill is a 1985 spy film. ...


Snowboarding has also been featured in the more recent film, First Descent (2005). This movie features snowboarders Shaun White, Hannah Teter, Shawn Farmer, Nick Perata and Terje Haakonsen. First Descent documents these snowboarders heliboarding into remote locations and doing big mountain riding. This film is also a documentary on the history of snowboarding, giving the history on the first snowboarders up to those of the present day.


Magazines

Snowboard magazines are integral in promoting the sport, although less so with the advent of the internet age. Photo incentives are written into many professional riders' sponsorship contracts giving professionals not only a publicity but a financial incentive to have a photo published in a magazine. Snowboard magazine staff travel with professional riders throughout the winter season and cover travel, contests, lifestyle, rider and company profiles, and product reviews. Snowboard magazines have recently made a push to expand their brands to the online market, and there has also been a growth in online-only publications, such as SnowSphere Magazine. See also Transworld Snowboarding Magazine. Transworld Snowboarding is a snowboarding video game for the Xbox video game console. ...


Competition

Slope Style

Competitors perform tricks while descending a course, moving around, over, across, or down terrain features. The course is full of obstacles including boxes, rails, jumps, jibs (includes anything the board or rider can slide across), and quarter pipes (a half side of a half pipe, although usually not as long or high).


Big Air

Big Air competitions are contests where riders perform tricks after launching off a man made jump built specifically for the event. Competitors perform tricks in the air, aiming to attain sizable height and distance, all while securing a clean landing. Many competitions also require the rider to do a trick to win the prize.


Half-pipe

The half-pipe is a semi-circular ditch or purpose built ramp (that is usually on a downward slope), between 12 and 24 feet (7.3 m) deep. Competitors perform tricks while going from one side to the other and while in the air above the sides of the pipe.


Boardercross

In Boardercross (also known as "Boarder X"), several riders (usually 4, but sometimes 6) race down a course similar to a motorcycle motocross track (with jumps, berms and other obstacles constructed out of snow on a downhill course). Competitions involve a series of heats, traditionally with the first 2 riders in each heat advancing to the next round. The overall winner is the rider that finishes first in the final round.


Rail Jam

A rail jam is a jib contest. Riders perform tricks on rails, boxes, pipes, wall rides, and several other creative features. Rail jams are done in a small area, usually with two or three choices of features for the rider to hit on a run. They are sometimes done in an urban setting, due to the relatively small amount of snow required. Scoring is done in the "jam" format, where every rider can take as many runs as time allows; prizes are typically awarded for best overall male and female, and best trick male and female.


Racing

The racing events are slalom, giant slalom, and super G. In slalom, boarders race downhill through sets of gates that force extremely tight turns, requiring plenty of technical skill as well as speed.


Giant slalom uses a much longer course with gates set further apart, resulting in even higher speeds. Super G is the fastest of all, with speeds of up to 45 mph (72 km/h).


Well Known Events

Some of the biggest snowboarding contests include: the Air & Style, U.S. Open, The Oakley Arctic Challenge, Shakedown, the West Coast Invitational, Vans Cup, X Games, The Honda Session in Vail, CO and the Chevrolet U.S. Snowboarding Grand Prix, Chevrolet Revolution Tour and Race to the Cup series. There are also many other smaller division competitions; some are listed in the USASA. The Air & Style is an European snowboard contest first held in Innsbruck, Austria in 1994 and now held annually. ... Shakedown may refer to: The Swedish-Swiss dance act made up of Mandrax and Seb K, best known for the hit At Night. Shakedown (Bob Seger song), a number-one single in 1987 by Bob Seger. ... For the computer game series named X, see X (computer game series). ... USASA is the United States Adult Soccer Association. ...


The Ticket to Ride (World Snowboard Tour) is the largest culmination of independent freestyle events acting under one common Tour Flag. Officially recognized as the TTR World Snowboard Tour or simply ‘The TTR’, this culmination of Independent Freestyle Snowboard events has grown substantially over the last four years. Now in its sixth year, the TTR has a 10-month competition season including snowboarding events over four geographical zones. The Tour includes events like the TTR SIX(6)STAR Air & Style, The Arctic Challenge and the US Open of Snowboarding. Founded by Terje HÃ¥konsen and industry innovators in 2002, the Ticket To Ride (TTR) World Snowboard Tour is a non-profit, rider-driven organisation that aims to represent the progression of snowboarding. ... Twin/Tone Records was a record label based out of Minneapolis, Minnesota that operated from 1977 until 1994 and helped several local groups receive national attention. ... The Air & Style is an European snowboard contest first held in Innsbruck, Austria in 1994 and now held annually. ...


Language

The language of snowboarders is a collision of two opposite styles. The general tone of the language is a laid-back style, while the verbs and adjectives project a much more aggressive tone. Shred, stomp, mob, and crank are combined with adjectives such as sick, tight, and gnarly[13]


Attitudes

Snowboarders want to project a laid-back style. This is most easily seen in their creation of the word "steezy", a combination of style and ease. The unofficial definition of the word being: having style with ease[14].


Subculture

The snowboarding way of life came about to rebel the more sophisticated way of skiing, and skiers did not easily accept this new culture on their slopes. The two cultures contrasted each other in several ways including how they spoke, acted, and their entire style of clothing. Snowboarders embraced the punk and hip-hop look into their style. It was a crossover between the urban and suburban styles onto snow, which made an easy transition from surfing and skateboarding culture over to snowboarding culture.[15]


The stereotypes of snowboarding have been known to be "lazy", "grungy", "punk", "stoners", "troublemakers", and numerous others, many of which are associated with skateboarding and surfing. However, these stereotypes may soon be considered "out of style". Snowboarding has become a sport that encompasses a very diverse crowd and fanbase, so much so that it's hard to stereotype the entire community. Reasons for these dying stereotypes include how mainstream it has become, with the shock factor of snowboarding's quick take off on the slopes wearing off. Skiers and snowboarders are becoming used to each other, showing more respect to each other on the mountain. "The typical stereotype of the sport is changing as the demographics change".[16]


References

  1. ^ Grand Rapids Press (Grand Rapids, Michigan): B1–B2, January 15, 2008, <http://grpress.com> 
  2. ^ "main page". Pando website. Retrieved on 2008-01-16.
  3. ^ "Snowboard History". the beginning of Snowboarding. Retrieved on 2008-01-17.
  4. ^ "Transworld Snowboarding". A Complete History of the Snowboard Halfpipe.
  5. ^ Skiers vs Snowboaders: The Dying Feud, SnowSphere.com
  6. ^ Transworld Snowboarding.com
  7. ^ Snowboarding Safety & Guidelines @ ABC-of-Snowboarding
  8. ^ Snowboarding Injuries - Snowboarder's Ankle @ ABC-of-Snowboarding
  9. ^ Snowboarding Injuries - Wrist Fractures @ ABC-of-Snowboarding
  10. ^ Snowboarding Safety - Avalanche Awareness @ ABC-of-Snowboarding
  11. ^ Ski Safety - First Aid for Snowboarding & Skiing @ ABC-of-Snowboarding
  12. ^ Snowboarding Injuries - Knee Ligament Injuries @ ABC-of-Snowboarding
  13. ^ Urban Dictionary: steezy
  14. ^ Snowboarding Dictionary - Snowboarding Terms and Definitions @ ABC-of-Snowboarding
  15. ^ Heino, Rebecca (2000). "New Sports: What is So Punk about Snowboarding". Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 24, 176-199. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from EBSCOHost.
  16. ^ BYU NewsNet - Snowboarder stereotype squelched

is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Snowboarding
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Transworld Snowboarding.com (324 words)
Get airborne and get 'er done with Tim at Bear Mountain.
A pure snowboarding boot, the lashed continues to dominate all areas of the mountain.
This is the only boot that can please everyone all the time.
Snowboarding - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4907 words)
A snowboarder's equipment consists of a snowboard, snowboarding boots, bindings to attach their boots to the board, as well as snowboarding-specific winter clothing.
Alpine snowboarding is the practice of turning by carving the snowboard (such that the board turns by using the radius sidecut of the edge), as opposed to skidding the snowboard (where the board is traveling in a different direction than it is pointing).
When the snowboarder is ready to descend, the halves are mechanically secured together, and the bindings are repositioned for a snowboarding stance.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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