FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Snorri Sturluson
A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947.
A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947.

Snorri Sturluson[1] (1178September 23, 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet and politician. He was twice lawspeaker at the Icelandic parliament, the Althing. He was the author of the Prose Edda or Younger Edda, which consists of Gylfaginning ("the fooling of Gylfi"), a narrative of Norse mythology, the Skáldskaparmál, a book of poetic language, and the Háttatal, a list of verse forms. He was also the author of the Heimskringla, a history of the Norwegian kings that begins with legendary material in Ynglinga saga and moves through to early medieval Scandinavian history. For stylistic and methodological reasons, Snorri is often taken to be the author of Egils saga. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (799x790, 297 KB) Summary photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran aka Carptrash 00:30, 18 April 2006 (UTC) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (799x790, 297 KB) Summary photo by Einar Einarsson Kvaran aka Carptrash 00:30, 18 April 2006 (UTC) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the... Gustav Vigeland (April 11, 1869 – March 12, 1943) was a Norwegian sculptor. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 18 - Five Canterbury monks see what was possibly the Giordano Bruno crater being formed The Sung Document written detailing the discovery of Mu-Lan-Pi (suggested by some to be California) by Muslim sailors The Chronicle of Gervase of Canterbury written The Leaning Tower of Pisa begins to... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... A Lawspeaker (Old Swedish: laghmaþer or laghman, Norwegian: lagmand, Icelandic: lög(sögu)maðr) was a unique Scandinavian legal office. ... The Alþing, commonly Anglicized as Althing (Modern Icelandic Alþingi; Old Norse Alþing) is the national parliament: literally, the all-thing of Iceland. ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... External links Original text English text Categories: Mythology stubs | Medieval literature | Sagas of Iceland | Norse mythology | Nordic folklore ... Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... The second part of the Younger Edda of Snorri Sturluson the Skáldskaparmál or language of poetry is effectively a dialogue between the Norse god of the sea, Ægir and Bragi, the god of poetry, in which both Norse mythology and discourse on the nature of poetry are intertwined. ... The Háttatal is the third section of the Younger Edda set down by the Icelandic poet and historian Snorri Sturluson. ... Heimskringla is the Old Norse name of a collection of sagas recorded in Iceland around 1225 by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson (1179-1242). ... The Ynglinga saga was originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet Snorri Sturluson about 1225. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe which includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Egill Skallagrímsson in a 17th century manuscript of Egils Saga Egils saga is an epic Icelandic saga possibly by Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241 A.D.), who may have written the account between the years 1220 and 1240 A.D. It is an important representative of the sagas and has...


As a historian and mythographer, Snorri is remarkable for proposing the theory (in the Prose Edda) that mythological gods begin as human war leaders and kings whose funeral sites develop cults (see euhemerism). As people call upon the dead war leader as they go to battle, or the dead king as they face tribal hardship, they begin to venerate the figure. Eventually, the king or warrior is remembered only as a god. He also proposed that as tribes defeat others, they explain their victory by proposing that their own gods were in battle with the gods of the others. A mythographer, according to a strict dictionary definition, is a compiler of myths. ... Euhemerus (flourished around 316 BCE) was a Greek mythographer at the court of Cassander, the king of Macedonia. ...

Contents

Life

Early biography

Snorri Sturluson was born into the wealthy and powerful Sturlungar family of the Icelandic Commonwealth, a sovereign nation, about 1178. His parents were Sturla Þórðarson[2] of Hvamm and Guðný Böðvarsdóttir.[3] He had two older brothers, Þórðr Sturluson (the oldest) and Sighvatr Sturluson. The Sturlungs (Icelandic: Sturlungar) were a powerful family clan in medieval mid-13th century Iceland, in the time of the Icelandic Commonwealth. ... The Icelandic Commonwealth or the Icelandic Free State (Icelandic: Þjóðveldisöld) was the state existing in Iceland between the establishment of the Althing in 930 and the pledge of fealty to the Norwegian king in 1262. ...


By a quirk of circumstance he was raised from the age of three (or two) by Jón Loftsson, a relative of the Norwegian royal family, in Oddi, Iceland. As Sturla was trying to settle a lawsuit with Father Páll Sölvason, the latter's wife lunged suddenly at him with a knife, intending, she said, to make him like his hero Odin (one-eyed), but bystanders deflected the blow to the cheek. The resulting settlement would have beggared Páll. Loftsson intervened in the Althing to mitigate the judgement and to compensate Sturla offered to raise and educate Snorri. Jón Loftsson (d. ... Oddi at Rangárvellir was a center of learning in South Iceland during the Middle Ages. ... For other meanings of Odin, Woden or Wotan see Odin (disambiguation), Woden (disambiguation), Wotan (disambiguation). ...


Snorri therefore received education and made connections that he might not otherwise have made. He attended the school of Sæmundr fróði, grandfather of Loftsson, at Oddi. He never returned to his parents' home. His father died in 1183 and his mother as guardian soon wasted Snorri's share of the inheritance. Loftsson died in 1197. The two families then arranged a marriage in 1199 between Snorri and his first wife, Herdís. From her father Bersi he inherited an estate at Borg and a chieftainship. He soon acquired more property and chieftainships. Sæmundr the wise or Sæmundr fróði in Icelandic (1056-1133) was an Icelander and Christian priest, who studied in Paris. ...


Snorri and Herdís were together for four years at Borg. They had a few children. The marriage succumbed to Snorri's philandering, and in 1206 he settled in Reykholt as manager of an estate there, but without Herdís. He made significant improvements to the estate, including a hot outdoor bath (Snorralaug). The bath and the buildings have been preserved to some extent. During the initial years at Reykholt he had several more children by different women: Gudrun, Oddny and Thuridur. Temüjin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... There are two villages with this name in Iceland: Reykholtsdalur avec Deildartunguhver // Reykholt (Borgarfjörður, West Iceland) The village is situated in the valley of the river Hvítá, called the Reykholtsdalur. ...


National life

Snorri quickly became known as a poet, but was also a successful lawyer. In 1215 he became lawspeaker of the Althing, perhaps the highest position an individual could hold in the Icelandic government. In the summer of 1218, he left the lawspeaker position and sailed to Norway, by royal invitation. There he became well-acquainted with the teen-age King Hákon Hákonarson and his co-regent, Jarl Skúli. He spent the winter as house-guest of the jarl. They showered gifts upon him including the ship in which he sailed and he in turn wrote poetry about them. In the summer of 1219 he met his Swedish colleague, the lawspeaker Eskil Magnusson and his wife Kristina Nilsdotter Blake in Skara. They were both related to royalty and probably gave Snorri an insight into the history of Sweden. A certified copy of the Magna Carta March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III. June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning... A Lawspeaker (Old Swedish: laghmaþer or laghman, Norwegian: lagmand, Icelandic: lög(sögu)maðr) was a unique Scandinavian legal office. ... The Alþing, commonly Anglicized as Althing (Modern Icelandic Alþingi; Old Norse Alþing) is the national parliament: literally, the all-thing of Iceland. ... // Events Damietta is besieged by the knights of the Fifth Crusade. ... Haakon Haakonsson (1204 – December 15, 1263) (Norwegian HÃ¥kon HÃ¥konsson, Old Norse Hákon Hákonarson), also called Haakon the Old, was king of Norway from 1217 to 1263. ... Skule Baardsson or Duke Skule allowed his supporters to proclaim him king of Norway at the traditional Øyrating in 1239. ... // Events Saint Francis of Assisi introduces Catholicism into Egypt, during the Fifth Crusade The Flag of Denmark fell from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse Ongoing events Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Births Christopher I of Denmark (died 1259) Frederick II of Austria (died 1246) Guillaume de Gisors, supposedly the... A Lawspeaker (Old Swedish: laghmaþer or laghman, Norwegian: lagmand, Icelandic: lög(sögu)maðr) was a unique Scandinavian legal office. ... Eskil Magnusson was the lawspeaker of Västergötland c. ... Skara is a Municipality in Västra Götaland County, in western Sweden. ...


Snorri was mainly interested in history and culture. The Norwegian regents, however, cultivated Snorri, making him a squire and then the king's chamberlain, a position that required an oath of loyalty. It is unclear that he understood the significance of these honors. The king hoped to incorporate Iceland into Norway, which he could do by vote of the Althing, of which Snorri had been a key member. Chamberlain can have several meanings: A chamberlain is an officer in charge of managing the household of a sovereign. ... The Alþing, commonly Anglicized as Althing (Modern Icelandic Alþingi; Old Norse Alþing) is the national parliament: literally, the all-thing of Iceland. ...


In 1220 Snorri returned to Iceland and by 1222 was back as lawspeaker of the Althing, which he held this time until 1232. The basis of his election was entirely his fame as a poet. Politically he was the kings's spokesman, supporting union with Norway, a platform that acquired major enemies for him among the chiefs. Personally in 1224 he took up residence with Hallveig Ormsdottir, a granddaughter of Loftsson, now a widow of great means, and formed a common-law relationship that lasted the rest of his life. She was a much younger woman. Although they were fond of each other they had no children together, concentrating instead on raising the children they had had with others. Five of Snorri's children survived to adulthood. // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 See also: 1222 state leaders Events Foundation of the University of Padua Completion of the Cistercian convent in Alcobaca... // Canonization of Saint Anthony of Padua, patron of lost items Pope Gregory IX driven from Rome by a revolt, taking refuge at Anagni First edition of Tripitaka Koreana destroyed by Mongol invaders Battle of Agridi 15 June 1232 Arnolfo di Cambio, Florentine architect (died 1310) Manfred of Sicily (approximate date... // Foundation of the University of Naples Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquers Latgallians and the stronghold of Tartu from Ugaunian and Russian troops. ...


Failure in Iceland

As chief and statesman Snorri behaved exactly the opposite of the resolute and often heroic characters of the sagas, to such a degree that his authorship of them sometimes is questioned.


Many of the other chiefs found his position as royal office-holder in one state while serving in the governing body of another despicable, especially the other Sturlungar. Snorri's strategy was to consolidate power over them, at which point he could offer Iceland to the king. His first moves were civic. On the death in 1222 of Saemund, son of Jón Loftsson, he became a suitor for the hand of his daughter, Solveig. Herdís' silent vote did nothing for his suit. His nephew, Sturla Sigvatson, Snorri's political opponent, stepped in to marry her in 1223, the year before Snorri met Hallveig. The Sturlungs (Icelandic: Sturlungar) were a powerful family clan in medieval mid-13th century Iceland, in the time of the Icelandic Commonwealth. ... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ...


A period of clan feuding followed. Snorri perceived that only resolute, saga-type actions were going to achieve his objective, but he proved unwilling or incapable of carrying them out. He raised an armed party under another nephew, Bodvar Tordson, and another under his son, Urökja, with the intent of executing a first strike against his brother Sigvat and Sturla Sigvatson. On the eve of battle he dismissed those forces and offered terms to his brother.


Sigvat and Sturla with a force of 1000 men drove Snorri into the countryside, where he sought refuge among the other chiefs. Urökja undertook guerilla operations in the fjords of west Iceland and the war was on.


Haakon IV made an effort to intervene from afar, inviting all the chiefs of Iceland to a peace conference in Norway. This maneuver was transparent to Sigvat, who understood, as apparently Snorri did not, what could happen to the chiefs in Norway. Instead of killing his opponents he began to insist that they take the king up on his offer.


This was Urökja's fate, who was captured by Sturla during the pretext of a peace negotiation at Reykjaholt, and also of Torleiv Tordson, a cousin of Snorri's, who came to his assistance with 800 men and was deserted by Snorri on the battlefield in a flare-up over the chain of command. In 1237 Snorri thought it best to join the king.


The end of Snorri and the commonwealth

The reign of Haakon IV (Hákon Hákonarson), King of Norway, was troubled by civil war relating to questions of succession and was at various times divided into quasi-independent regions under contenders. There were always plots against the king and questions of loyalty; nevertheless, he managed to build up the Norwegian state from what it had been. Haakon Haakonsson (1204 – December 15, 1263) (Norwegian HÃ¥kon HÃ¥konsson, Old Norse Hákon Hákonarson), also called Haakon the Old, was king of Norway from 1217 to 1263. ... This article is a list of rulers of Norway up until the present, including: The Norwegian kingdom (with the Faroe Islands) The Union with Iceland and Greenland (1262-1814) The Norwegian kingdom (with Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands 1262-1814) The Union of Sweden and Norway (1319-1343) The...


When Snorri arrived in Norway for the second time it was clear to the king that he was no longer a reliable agent. The conflict between Haakon and Skúli was beginning to escalate into civil war. Snorri stayed with the jarl and his son and the jarl made him a jarl hoping to command his allegiance. In August, 1238, Sigvat and three of his sons, including Sturla, were killed at the Battle of Örlygstadir in Iceland against Gissur Þorvaldsson and Kolbein the Young, chiefs whom they had provoked. Snorri, Urökja and Torleiv requested permission to return home. As the king now could not predict Snorri's behavior, permission was denied. He was explicitly ordered to remain in Norway on the basis of his honorary rank. Skúli on the other hand gave permission and helped them book passage. Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... Gissur Thorvaldsson (1208 - January 12, 1268) (Icelandic: Gissur Þorvaldsson) was a medieval Icelandic chieftain or goði of the Haukdælir family clan, and great-grandson of Jón Loftsson. ...


Iceland was an independent nation. The king's orders had no international validity and Snorri chose to disobey them, returning in 1239. The king was distracted by the necessity to confront Skúli, whom he defeated militarily in 1240 and had hunted down and killed in the spring of 1241. Meanwhile Snorri resumed his chieftainship and made a bid to crush Gissur by pursuing him in court for the deaths of Sigvat and Sturla. A meeting of the Althing was arranged for the summer of 1241 but Gissur and Kolbein arrived with several hundred men. Snorri and 120 men formed around a church. Gissur chose to pay fines rather than to attack.


Meanwhile, in 1240, after the jarl's defeat, but before his removal from the scene, Haakon sent two agents to Gissur bearing a secret letter with kill or capture orders concerning Snorri. Gissur was being invited now to join the unionist movement, which he could accept or refuse, just as he pleased. His initial bid to take Snorri at the Althing failed.


Hallveig died of natural causes. When the family bickered over the inheritance, Hallveig's sons, Klaeing and Orm, asked assistance from their uncle Gissur. Holding a meeting with them and Kolbein the Younger, Gissur brought out the letter. Orm refused. Shortly after, Snorri received a letter in secret cipher warning him of the plot. Before he could act Gissur led seventy men on a daring commando raid to his house, achieving complete surprise. Snorri Sturluson was assassinated in his house at Reykholt in autumn of 1241. It is not clear that he was ever given a chance to avail himself of the "capture" option. He fled to the basement. There Símon knútur asked Arni the Bitter to strike him. Then Snorri said: Eigi skal höggva! — "You shall not strike!" Símon answered: "Högg þú!" — "You strike then!" Snorri repeated: Eigi skal höggva! and these were his last words.[4] There are two villages with this name in Iceland: Reykholtsdalur avec Deildartunguhver // Reykholt (Borgarfjörður, West Iceland) The village is situated in the valley of the river Hvítá, called the Reykholtsdalur. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... Árni beiskur or Árni the Bitter (d. ...


The crime was not popular in either Iceland or Norway. To diminish the odium the king insisted that if Snorri had submitted he would have been spared. The fact that he could make such an argument reveals how far his influence in Iceland had come. Haakon went on suborning the chiefs of Iceland. In 1262 the Althing ratified union with Norway and ceased to be a sovereign body. Each member swore an oath of personal loyalty to Haakon IV. The end of his reign arrived in 1263, but Iceland was retained by the Scandinavian kings and did not become an independent republic again until 1944. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


References

  • Bagge, Sverre (1991). Society and politics in Snorri Sturluson's Heimskringla. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06887-4. 
  • Snorri Sturluson, "Kringla leaf" (c. 1260), part of Heimskringla treasure 1 National Library of Iceland displayed via The European Library
  • Monsen, Erling (1990), "Introduction to the Translation of Snorre's History of the Norse Kings", Heimskringla or the Lives of the Norse Kings: Edited with notes by Erling Monsen and translated into English with the assistance of A.H. Smith, Mineola, New York: Dover Publications, Inc., ISBN 0-486-26366-5. A reprint of the 1932 Cambridge edition by W. Heffer.

The European Library is a library portal for searching the databases and open public access catalogues as well as for accessing the digital content of European national libraries. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Old Norse/Icelandic spelling of the name is Snorri Sturluson. Snorre Sturlason is the modern Norwegian and Snorre Sturlasson the modern Swedish spelling. For the construction of the name (a patronymic), see Icelandic naming conventions. English no longer features this type of name, except as a foreign word. Anglicization of Scandinavian names is not standard and varies a great deal. Encyclopedias and dictionaries nearly all list Snorri under his Icelandic name. Books and articles may use Snorre Sturleson, Snorri Sturlusson, Snorre Sturlson, Snorri Sturlson, Snorri Sturlusson, in addition to his Norwegian and Swedish names.
  2. ^ Often Anglicised to Sturla Tordson for English speakers.
  3. ^ One Anglicization is Gudny daughter of Bodvar.
  4. ^ Monsen page xi. All accounts of Snorri's life are based on information given mainly in the Sturlunga saga.

Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Look up patronymic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Icelandic names differ from most Western family name systems by being patronymic (and sometimes matronymic) in that they reflect the immediate father (or mother) of the child and not the historic family lineage. ... The Sturlunga saga is a collection of Icelandic sagas by various authors from the 12th and 13th centuries, and it was assembled ca 1300. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... The University of Iceland (Háskóli Íslands) is a state university, founded in 1911. ...

The Age of the Sturlungs

Family Clans
Sturlungar | Ásbirningar | Oddaverjar | Haukdælir | Vatnsfirðingar | Svínfellingar The Age of the Sturlungs or the Sturlung Era (Icelandic Sturlungaöld) was a 42-44 year period of internal strife in mid 13th century Iceland. ... The Sturlungs (Icelandic: Sturlungar) were a powerful family clan in medieval mid-13th century Iceland, in the time of the Icelandic Commonwealth. ... The Ásbirnings were a powerful family clan in the medieval Icelandic Commonwealth. ... The Oddaverjar were among the most powerful family clans in the medieval Icelandic Commonwealth. ... The Haukdælir were one of the family clans who controlled medieval Iceland during the period of the Icelandic Commonwealth. ... The Vatnsfirðings (or Vatnsfirðingar) were one of the most influential family clans in 12th century Iceland during the period of the Icelandic Commonwealth. ... The Svínfellings (or Svínfellingar) were a family clan in the medieval Icelandic Commonwealth. ...

Goði chieftains
Snorri Sturluson | Sighvatur Sturluson | Sturla Sighvatsson | Þórður kakali Sighvatsson | Sturla Þórðarson | Gissur Þorvaldsson | Kolbeinn ungi Arnórsson | Brandur Kolbeinsson | Árni beiskur | Eyjólfur ofsi Þorsteinsson Sturla Sighvatsson (1199 – August 21, 1238) was an Icelandic chieftain or goði of the Sturlungar family clan who played an active role in the armed conflicts in Iceland during the Age of the Sturlungs (Icelandic: Sturlungaöld). ... Þórður kakali Sighvatsson (???? - 1256) (the nickname kakali probably means The Stammerer) was a 13th century Icelandic chieftain who fought in the the Icelandic civil war during the Age of the Sturlungs. ... Sturla Þórðarson was an Icelandic politician/chieftain and writer of sagas during the 13th century. ... Gissur Thorvaldsson (1208 - January 12, 1268) (Icelandic: Gissur Þorvaldsson) was a medieval Icelandic chieftain or goði of the Haukdælir family clan, and great-grandson of Jón Loftsson. ... Kolbeinn ungi Arnórsson (1208 – July 22, 1245) was an Icelandic chieftain or goði of the Ásbirningar family clan. ... Árni beiskur or Árni the Bitter (d. ...

Battles and Conflicts
Battle of Örlygsstaðir | Battle of the Gulf | Battle of Haugsnes | The Flugumýri Arson The Battle of Örlygsstaðir was fought on August 21, 1238 between Sighvatur Sturluson (brother of Snorri Sturluson) and his son Sturla Sighvatsson on the one hand and Kolbeinn the Young and Gissur Þorvaldsson (later Earl Gissur) on the other. ... Flóabardagi (English: Battle of the Gulf) was a naval battle which took place on June 25, 1244 off the coast of Iceland during the Sturlungaöld civil war. ... The Battle of Haugsnes was fought on April 19, 1246 between the forces of Thordur Kakali and those of Gissur Thorvaldsson. ... Flugumýrarbrenna (English: The Flugumýri Arson) was an incident that took place in 13th century Iceland during the Age of the Sturlungs. ...

Politics
Haakon IV of Norway | Hallvarður gullskór | Vassalage | Old Covenant | Icelandic Commonwealth | Jarldom | Althingi | Goðorð Haakon Haakonsson (1204 – December 15, 1263) (Norwegian HÃ¥kon HÃ¥konsson, Old Norse Hákon Hákonarson), also called Haakon the Old, was king of Norway from 1217 to 1263. ... A vassal, in European medieval feudalism terminology, is one who through a commendation ceremony (composed of homage and fealty) enters into mutual obligations with a lord, usually military conscription and mutual protection, in exchange for a fief. ... The Old Covenant (Icelandic Gamli sáttmáli ) was the name of the agreement which effected the union of Iceland and Norway. ... The Icelandic Commonwealth or the Icelandic Free State (Icelandic: Þjóðveldisöld) was the state existing in Iceland between the establishment of the Althing in 930 and the pledge of fealty to the Norwegian king in 1262. ... For people, see Earl (given name) and Earl (surname). ... Alþingi (English: Althing) is the national parliament, or literally the General Iceland. ... A goði or gothi (plural goðar) is the Old Norse term for a priest and chieftain. ...

Persondata
NAME Snorri Sturluson
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Snorri; Snorre Sturlason (Norwegian); Snorre Sturlasson (Swedish)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Author of the Prose Edda
DATE OF BIRTH 1178
PLACE OF BIRTH Iceland
DATE OF DEATH September 23, 1241
PLACE OF DEATH Reykholt, Iceland

  Results from FactBites:
 
Snorri Sturluson (1021 words)
Snorri Sturluson was a descendant of the poet and hero from Egil's Saga, Egill Skallgrímsson.
Snorri lost most of his cases in court and acquired many enemies.
Skâaldskaparmâal: Snorri Sturluson's ars poetica and medieval theories of languge
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Snorri Sturluson (544 words)
Snorri Sturluson (1178 – September 23, 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet and politician.
Snorri was raised by Jón Loftsson in Oddi.
Snorri became involved in an unsuccessful rebellion against Hákon Hákonarson, the King of Norway, which resulted in his assassination in his house at Reykholt in 1241 by a band of seventy men of Gissur Þorvaldsson, an agent of the king.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m