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Encyclopedia > Snake
Snake
Fossil range: Cretaceous - Recent
Spotted PythonAntaresia maculosa
Spotted Python
Antaresia maculosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Sauropsida
Subclass: Diapsida
Infraclass: Lepidosauromorpha
Superorder: Lepidosauria
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Linnaeus, 1758
Infraorders and Families

A snake is an elongate reptile of the suborder Serpentes. Like all reptiles, snakes are covered in scales. All snakes are carnivorous and can be distinguished from legless lizards by their lack of eyelids, limbs, external ears, and vestiges of forelimbs. The 2,700+ species of snakes spread across every continent except Antarctica ranging in size from the tiny, 10 cm long thread snake to pythons and anacondas over 17 feet long. In order to accommodate snakes' narrow bodies, paired organs (such as kidneys) appear one in front of the other instead of side by side. The term Snake may refer to any of the following items: The common reptiles of the order Squamata: Snake A river located in the western United States: Snake River A video game popular on mobile phones: Snake (video game) The character from the animated series The Simpsons: Snake The name... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... The Holocene epoch is a geological period, which began approximately 11,550 calendar years BP (about 9600 BC) and continues to the present. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Antaresia maculosa (Peters, 1873) The Spotted python (Antaresia maculosa) is a species of python that lives in northern Australia. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Typical classes Petromyzontidae (lampreys) Placodermi - extinct Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish) Acanthodii - extinct Actinopterygii (ray-finned fish) Actinistia (coelacanths) Dipnoi (lungfish) Amphibia (amphibians) Reptilia (reptiles) Aves (birds) Mammalia (mammals) Vertebrata is a subphylum of chordates, specifically, those with backbones or spinal columns. ... Clades Subclass Anapsida Subclass Diapsida Infraclass Lepidosauromorpha Infraclass Archosauromorpha Sauropsids are a diverse group of mostly egg-laying vertebrate animals. ... Classes Ichthyosauria Sauropterygia Lepidosauria Archosauria Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ... Orders Sphenodontia Squamata Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil The Lepidosauria are a subclass of reptiles comprising the orders : Squamata Sphenodontia or Rhynchocephalia Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil Lepidosaurians are the most successful of modern reptiles. ... Orders Sphenodontia Squamata Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil The Lepidosauria are a subclass of reptiles comprising the orders : Squamata Sphenodontia or Rhynchocephalia Eosuchia Conservation status: Fossil Lepidosaurians are the most successful of modern reptiles. ... Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 1758 (MDCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Common names: (none). ... Baron Nopcsa Baron Franz Nopcsa von FelsÅ‘-Szilvás (also Baron Nopcsa, Ferenc Nopcsa, Nopcsa Ferenc, Baron Franz Nopcsa, and Franz Baron Nopcsa) (May 3rd, 1877 to April 25, 1933) was a Hungarian-born aristocrat, adventurer, scholar, and paleontologist. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Species Acrochordus granulatus Acrochordus arafurae Acrochordus javanicus Acrochordidae is a family of three species of primitive xenophidian snakes from the Australian and Indonesian regions. ... Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte (May 24, 1803 – July 29, 1857) was a French naturalist and ornithologist. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... FAMILY ANILIDAE (cylinder snakes) All of these species in the family Anilidae possess a vestigial pelvic girdle which is visible as cloacal spurs. ... Leonhard Hess Stejneger (October 30, 1851 - February 28, 1943) was a zoologist. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Anomochilidae is a biological family of dwarf pipesnakes native to Malaysia and the East Indies. ... A small, unusual group of advanced snakes, often called mole vipers or stilleto snakes. ... Albrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Boa (disambiguation). ... John Edward Gray. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article needs cleanup. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Genera According to ITIS: Adelophis Adelphicos Alsophis Amastridium Arizona Arrhyton Atractus Bogertophis Boiga Carphophis Cemophora Cerberus Chersodromus Chilomeniscus Chionactis Clelia Clonophis Coluber Coniophanes Conophis Conopsis Contia Cryophis Dendrelaphis Dendrophidion Diadophis Dipsas Dryadophis Drymarchon Drymobius Elaphe Enulius Eridiphas Erythrolamprus Farancia Ficimia Geagras Geophis Gyalopion Heterodon Hypsiglena Imantodes Lampropeltis Leptodeira Leptophis Liochlorophis... Nicolaus Michael Oppel (December 7, 1782–February 16, 1820) was a German naturalist. ... For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... Species There are 10 species: Cylindrophis aruensis Cylindrophis boulengeri Cylindrophis engkariensis - Engkari pipe snake Cylindrophis isolepis Cylindrophis lineatus Cylindrophis maculatus Cylindrophis melanotus Cylindrophis opisthorhodus Cylindrophis rufus Cylindrophis yamdena The Asian pipe snakes (genus Cylindrophis) are a group of snakes of the superfamily Henophidia. ... Leopold Fitzinger. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Elapidae, or elapids, are a family of highly venomous snakes found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Indian Ocean and the Pacific. ... Friedrich Boie (1789-1870) was a German scientist. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... SUBFAMILY LOXOCEMINAE (Mexicam Dwarf Pythons) Contains only 1 single genus. ... Edward Drinker Cope Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840–April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Synonyms Pythonoidea - Fitzinger, 1826 Pythonoidei - Eichwald, 1831 Holodonta - Müller, 1832 Pythonina - Bonaparte, 1840 Pythophes - Fitzinger, 1843 Pythoniens - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Holodontes - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Pythonides - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Pythones - Cope, 1861 Pythonidae - Cope, 1864 Peropodes - Meyer, 1874... Leopold Fitzinger. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Genera Exiliboa Trachyboa Tropidophis Ungaliophis The dwarf boas are a group of snakes traditionally classified as the family Tropidophiidae but sometimes as the subfamily Tropidophiinae within the family Boidae. ... Leo Daniel Brongersma (17 May 1907–24 July 1994) was a Dutch zoologist, author, and lecturer. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Synonyms Uropeltana - Müller, 1832 Uropeltacea - Müller, 1832 Rhinophes - Fitzinger, 1843 Uropeltidae - Gray, 1845 Uropeltina - Gray, 1858 Plecturina - Gray, 1858 Rhinophidae - Cope, 1900 Uropeltinae - McDowell, 1975[1] Common names: pipe snakes, shield-tailed snakes. ... Johannes Peter Müller (July 14, 1801, Koblenz – April 28, 1858, Berlin), was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, and ichthyologist not only known for his discoveries but also for his ability to synthesize knowledge. ... Synonyms Viperae - Laurenti, 1768 Viperini - Oppel, 1811 Viperidae - Gray, 1825[1] The Viperidae are a family of venomous snakes commonly referred to as vipers, although the term viperids is more specific and distinguishes them from the viperines (subfamily Viperinae). ... Nicolaus Michael Oppel (December 7, 1782–February 16, 1820) was a German naturalist. ... For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... The family Xenopeltidae - the Sunbeam Snake - is a family containing only a single genus. ... Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte (May 24, 1803 – July 29, 1857) was a French naturalist and ornithologist. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Common names: blind snakes, thread snakes. ... Edward Drinker Cope Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840–April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Genera Anomalepis Helminthophis Liotyphlops Typhlophis Anomalepididae is a family of American blind snakes. ... Edward Harrison Taylor (April 23, 1889 - 1972) was a U.S. herpetologist from Kansas. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... FAMILY LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE (slender blind snakes) This family of snakes is composed of 2 genera and about 41 species occurring in the Americas, Africa and Asia. ... Leonhard Hess Stejneger (October 30, 1851 - February 28, 1943) was a zoologist. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Genera Acutotyphlops Cyclotyphlops Ramphotyphlops Rhinotyphlops Typhlops Xenotyphlops TYPHLOPIDAE (blind snakes) This family contains 240 species in 3 genera. ... Blasius Merrem (February 4, 1761 _ February 23, 1824) was a German naturalist. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Reptilia redirects here. ... In this SEM image of a butterfly wing the scales are clearly visible, and the tiny platelets on each individual scale are just barely visible in the striping. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... Lizards have evolved limbless form on a number of occasions. ... Binomial name (Schlegel, 1839) Synonyms Typhlops bilineatus - Schlegel, 1839 Typhlops (Eucephalus) bilineatus - Fitzinger, 1843 Stenostoma bilineatum - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Epicrata bilineatus - Gray, 1845 St[enostoma]. (Tetracheilostoma) bilineatum - Jan & Sordelli, 1861 S[tenostoma]. (Tetracheilostoma) bilineatum - Jan, 1863 Glauconia bilineata - Boulenger, 1893 Leptotyphlops bilineata - Barbour, 1914 Leptotyphlops bilineatus... Synonyms Pythonoidea - Fitzinger, 1826 Pythonoidei - Eichwald, 1831 Holodonta - Müller, 1832 Pythonina - Bonaparte, 1840 Pythophes - Fitzinger, 1843 Pythoniens - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Holodontes - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Pythonides - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Pythones - Cope, 1861 Pythonidae - Cope, 1864 Peropodes - Meyer, 1874... For other uses, see Anaconda (disambiguation). ...


While venomous snakes comprise a minority of the species, some possess potent venom capable of causing painful injury or death to humans. However, venom in snakes is primarily for killing and subduing prey rather than for self-defense. snakes may have evolved from a lizard which adapted to burrowing during the Cretaceous period (c 150 Ma), though some scientists have postulated an aquatic origin. The diversity of modern snakes appeared during the Paleocene period (c 66 to 56 Ma). // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Mega-annum, usually abbreviated as Ma, is a unit of time equal to one million years. ... The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65. ...


A literary word for snake is serpent (a Middle English word which comes from Old French, and ultimately from *serp-, "to creep"[1]). In modern usage, the term serpent usually refers to a mythic or symbolic snake. In Christianity, the serpent is sometimes identified with the devil, as in the Biblical account of Adam and Eve, but also with healing, as in the Biblical account of the brass serpent of Moses. The serpent is also the symbol of the healing arts. Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ...

Contents

Taxonomy

Squamata within the entire suborder Serpentes in Linnean taxonomy.[2] There are two infraorders of Serpentes: Alethinophidia and Scolecophidia.[2] This separation is based primarily on morphological characteristics between family groups and mitochondrial DNA. Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ... A class is the rank in the scientific classification of organisms in biology below Phylum and above Order. ... Linnaean taxonomy classifies living things into a hierarchy, originally starting with kingdoms. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Common names: (none). ... Common names: blind snakes, thread snakes. ... Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of organisms. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ...


As with most taxonomic classifications, there are many debates when it comes to how many there are. For instance, many sources classify Boidae and Pythonidae as the same family, or keep others, such as Elapidae and Hydrophiidae, separate for practical reasons despite their extremely close relation. For other uses, see Boa (disambiguation). ... Synonyms Pythonoidea - Fitzinger, 1826 Pythonoidei - Eichwald, 1831 Holodonta - Müller, 1832 Pythonina - Bonaparte, 1840 Pythophes - Fitzinger, 1843 Pythoniens - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Holodontes - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Pythonides - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Pythones - Cope, 1861 Pythonidae - Cope, 1864 Peropodes - Meyer, 1874... The Elapidae, or elapids, are a family of highly venomous snakes found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Indian Ocean and the Pacific. ... Sea snakes of several different species belong to a group related to the cobras but aquatic rather than land dwelling. ...

Alethinophidia 15 families
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Acrochordidae
Bonaparte, 1831[3]
file snakes Marine File Snake (Acrochordus granulatus)
Aniliidae
Stejneger, 1907[4]
coral pipe snakes Burrowing False Coral (Anilius scytale)
Anomochilidae
Cundall, Wallach and Rossman, 1993.[5]
dwarf pipe snakes Leonard's Pipe Snake, (Anomochilus leonardi)
Atractaspididae
Günther, 1858[6]
mole vipers Stiletto Snake (Atractaspis bibroni)
Boidae
Gray, 1825[3]
tree boa, Russell's earth boa, red sand boa, indian python Amazon tree (Corallus hortulanus,)
Bolyeriidae
Hoffstetter, 1946
Round Island boas Round Island Burrowing Boa (Bolyeria multocarinata)
Colubridae
Oppel, 1811[3]
colubrids, Common wolf snake, yellow spotted wolf snake, common kukri snake, streaked kukri snake, dumeril's black headed snake, buffstriped keel back, green keel back, checkered keel back, trinket snake, Rat snake, cat snake, glossy marsh snake, indian ribbon snake, common vine snake Grass Snake (Natrix natrix)
Cylindrophiidae
Fitzinger, 1843
Asian pipe snakes Red-tailed Pipe Snake (Cylindrophis ruffus)
Elapidae
Boie, 1827[3]
cobras, coral snakes, mambas, kraits, sea snakes, sea kraits, Australian elapids King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah)
Loxocemidae
Cope, 1861
Mexican burrowing snakes Mexican burrowing snake (Loxocemus bicolor)
Pythonidae
Fitzinger, 1826
pythons Ball python/Royal python (Python regius)
Tropidophiidae
Brongersma, 1951
dwarf boas Northern Eyelash Boa (Trachyboa boulengeri)
Uropeltidae
Müller, 1832
shield-tailed snakes, short-tailed snakes Ocellated Shield-tail (Uropeltis ocellatus)
Viperidae
Oppel, 1811[3]
vipers, pitvipers, rattlesnakes European asp (Vipera aspis)
Xenopeltidae
Bonaparte, 1845
sunbeam snakes Sunbeam snake (Xenopeltis unicolor)
Scolecophidia 3 families
Family Common Names Example Species Example Photo
Anomalepidae
Taylor, 1939[3]
dawn blind snakes Dawn Blind Snake (Liotyphlops beui)
Leptotyphlopidae
Stejneger, 1892[3]
slender blind snakes Texas Blind Snake (Leptotyphlops dulcis)
Typhlopidae
Merrem, 1820[7]
blind snakes Black Blind Snake (Typhlops reticulatus)

Common names: (none). ... Species Acrochordus granulatus Acrochordus arafurae Acrochordus javanicus Acrochordidae is a family of three species of primitive xenophidian snakes from the Australian and Indonesian regions. ... Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte (May 24, 1803 – July 29, 1857) was a French naturalist and ornithologist. ... Binomial name Acrochordus granulatus (Schneider, 1799) Marine File Snake or Little File Snake (Acrochordus granulatus) is a species of snake in family Acrochordidae. ... Preserved wart snake File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... FAMILY ANILIDAE (cylinder snakes) All of these species in the family Anilidae possess a vestigial pelvic girdle which is visible as cloacal spurs. ... Leonhard Hess Stejneger (October 30, 1851 - February 28, 1943) was a zoologist. ... Anomochilidae is a biological family of dwarf pipesnakes native to Malaysia and the East Indies. ... A small, unusual group of advanced snakes, often called mole vipers or stilleto snakes. ... Albrecht Carl Ludwig Gotthilf Günther. ... For other uses, see Boa (disambiguation). ... John Edward Gray. ... Small Corallus hortulanus from Peru File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Binomial name Bolyeria multocarinata (Boie, 1827) The Round Island Burrowing Boa (Bolyeria multocarinata) is a possible extinct boa endemic to Round Island near Mauritius. ... Genera According to ITIS: Adelophis Adelphicos Alsophis Amastridium Arizona Arrhyton Atractus Bogertophis Boiga Carphophis Cemophora Cerberus Chersodromus Chilomeniscus Chionactis Clelia Clonophis Coluber Coniophanes Conophis Conopsis Contia Cryophis Dendrelaphis Dendrophidion Diadophis Dipsas Dryadophis Drymarchon Drymobius Elaphe Enulius Eridiphas Erythrolamprus Farancia Ficimia Geagras Geophis Gyalopion Heterodon Hypsiglena Imantodes Lampropeltis Leptodeira Leptophis Liochlorophis... Nicolaus Michael Oppel (December 7, 1782–February 16, 1820) was a German naturalist. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Grass Snake, sometimes called the Ringed Snake or Water Snake (Natrix natrix) is a European non-venomous snake. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Species There are 10 species: Cylindrophis aruensis Cylindrophis boulengeri Cylindrophis engkariensis - Engkari pipe snake Cylindrophis isolepis Cylindrophis lineatus Cylindrophis maculatus Cylindrophis melanotus Cylindrophis opisthorhodus Cylindrophis rufus Cylindrophis yamdena The Asian pipe snakes (genus Cylindrophis) are a group of snakes of the superfamily Henophidia. ... Leopold Fitzinger. ... The Elapidae, or elapids, are a family of highly venomous snakes found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Indian Ocean and the Pacific. ... Friedrich Boie (1789-1870) was a German scientist. ... Binomial name Cantor, 1836 Range (in red) The King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the worlds longest venomous snake, growing to a length of 18. ... File links The following pages link to this file: King Cobra Categories: GFDL images ... SUBFAMILY LOXOCEMINAE (Mexicam Dwarf Pythons) Contains only 1 single genus. ... Edward Drinker Cope Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840–April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist. ... Binomial name Loxocemus bicolor Cope, 1861 The Mexican burrowing snake, Loxocemus bicolor, is a henophid snake that lives along the Pacific coast of central Mexico south to Costa Rica and north-western Honduras. ... Image File history File links Loxocemus_bicolor. ... Synonyms Pythonoidea - Fitzinger, 1826 Pythonoidei - Eichwald, 1831 Holodonta - Müller, 1832 Pythonina - Bonaparte, 1840 Pythophes - Fitzinger, 1843 Pythoniens - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Holodontes - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Pythonides - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Pythones - Cope, 1861 Pythonidae - Cope, 1864 Peropodes - Meyer, 1874... Leopold Fitzinger. ... Binomial name (Shaw, 1802) The Ball python (Python regius), also known as the Royal python, is a ground-dwelling, nonvenomous snake native to the savannahs and rain forests of western and central Africa, ball pythons can be found from Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia on the west... The Ball Python (Python regius), also known as the Royal Python, is a ground dwelling snake native to Africa. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x750, 838 KB) Summary Pastel ball python{python regius}. Taken by Cody Campbell on October 6th 2005. ... Genera Exiliboa Trachyboa Tropidophis Ungaliophis The dwarf boas are a group of snakes traditionally classified as the family Tropidophiidae but sometimes as the subfamily Tropidophiinae within the family Boidae. ... Synonyms Uropeltana - Müller, 1832 Uropeltacea - Müller, 1832 Rhinophes - Fitzinger, 1843 Uropeltidae - Gray, 1845 Uropeltina - Gray, 1858 Plecturina - Gray, 1858 Rhinophidae - Cope, 1900 Uropeltinae - McDowell, 1975[1] Common names: pipe snakes, shield-tailed snakes. ... Johannes Peter Müller (July 14, 1801, Koblenz – April 28, 1858, Berlin), was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, and ichthyologist not only known for his discoveries but also for his ability to synthesize knowledge. ... Binomial name Uropeltis ocellatus (Beddome, 1863) Ocellated Shieldtail, Uropeltis ocellatus (or Uropeltis ocellata), is a species of snake. ... Synonyms Viperae - Laurenti, 1768 Viperini - Oppel, 1811 Viperidae - Gray, 1825[1] The Viperidae are a family of venomous snakes commonly referred to as vipers, although the term viperids is more specific and distinguishes them from the viperines (subfamily Viperinae). ... Nicolaus Michael Oppel (December 7, 1782–February 16, 1820) was a German naturalist. ... Binomial name Vipera aspis (Linnaeus, 1758) Synonyms [Coluber] Aspis - Linnaeus, 1758 Vipera Mosis Charas - Laurenti, 1768 Vipera vulgaris - Latreille In Sonnini & Latreille, 1801 Vipera ocellata - Latreille In Sonnini & Latreille, 1801 Coluber Charasii - Shaw, 1802 [Vipera (Echidna)] Aspis - Merrem, 1820 C[hersea]. vulgaris - Fleming, 1822 Vipera aspis - Metaxa, 1823 Aspis ocellata... Image File history File links Vipera-aspis-aspis-1. ... The family Xenopeltidae - the Sunbeam Snake - is a family containing only a single genus. ... Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte (May 24, 1803 – July 29, 1857) was a French naturalist and ornithologist. ... Binomial name Xenopeltis unicolor Reinwardt, 1827 Xenopeltis unicolor is one of two known species of sunbeam snakes (the other being ). Found in southern China and southeast Asia, it is an egg laying snake, producing up to 10 eggs at a time. ... Common names: blind snakes, thread snakes. ... Genera Anomalepis Helminthophis Liotyphlops Typhlophis ... The Anomalepidae (dawn blind snakes) is a snake family belonging to the Typhlopoidea superfamily. ... Edward Harrison Taylor (April 23, 1889 - 1972) was a U.S. herpetologist from Kansas. ... FAMILY LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE (slender blind snakes) This family of snakes is composed of 2 genera and about 41 species occurring in the Americas, Africa and Asia. ... Leonhard Hess Stejneger (October 30, 1851 - February 28, 1943) was a zoologist. ... Genera Acutotyphlops Cyclotyphlops Ramphotyphlops Rhinotyphlops Typhlops Xenotyphlops TYPHLOPIDAE (blind snakes) This family contains 240 species in 3 genera. ... Blasius Merrem (February 4, 1761 _ February 23, 1824) was a German naturalist. ...

Evolution

Phylogeny of snakes is poorly known because snake skeletons are typically small and fragile, making fossilization uncommon. However 150 million year old specimens readily definable as snakes with lizard-like skeletal structures have been uncovered in South America and Africa.[8] It has been agreed, on the basis of morphology, that snakes descended from lizards.[9][8] Molecular evidence reinforces this; it is hypothesized that snakes share a common venomous ancestor with several lizard families, forming the Toxicofera clade. Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... For other uses, see Skeleton (disambiguation). ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils (from Latin fossus, literally having been dug up) are the mineralized or otherwise preserved remains or traces (such as footprints) of animals, plants, and other organisms. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in the anatomy of organisms. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Snake Iguana Monitor Lizard Toxicofera (Latin for those who bear toxins), is a clade which represents about 4600 species (nearly 60%) of Squamates; it encompasses all venomous reptile species, as well as numerous related non-venomous species. ...


Fossil evidence suggests that snakes may have evolved from burrowing lizards, such as varanids or a similar group during the Cretaceous Period.[10] An early fossil snake, Najash rionegrina, was a two-legged burrowing animal with a sacrum, and was fully terrestrial.[11] One extant analog of these putative ancestors is the earless monitor Lanthanotus of Borneo, although it also is semi-aquatic.[12] As these ancestors became more subterranean, they lost their limbs and their bodies became more streamlined for burrowing.[12] According to this hypothesis, features such as the transparent, fused eyelids (brille) and loss of external ears evolved to combat subterranean conditions such as scratched corneas and dirt in the ears with snakes re-emerged onto the surface of the earth much as they are today.[12][10] Other primitive snakes are known to have possessed hindlimbs but lacked a direct connection of the pelvic bones to the vertebrae, including Haasiophis, Pachyrhachis and Eupodophis, which are slightly older than Najash.[13] Species Many, see text. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Binomial name Najash rionegrina Apesteguía & Zaher, 2006 Najash rionegrina is the name given to the fossils of the most primitive snake yet found (based on phylogenetic analysis). ... For the record label, see Sacrum Torch. ... Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land, as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e. ... Classification Family Lanthanotidae Genus Lanthanotus Lanthanotus borneensis Lanthanotus borneensis (earless monitor) (1) is a aquatic, brown lizard from Borneo. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... An aquatic animal is an animal which lives in water for most or all of the time. ... Transparent glass ball In optics, transparency is the property of allowing light to pass. ... The brille (also called the ocular scale, eye cap or spectacle) is the layer of transparent, immovable disc-shaped skin or scale covering the eyes of some animals for protection, especially in animals without eyelids. ... Haasiophis terrasanctus is an extinct snake snake with legs. ... Pachyrhachis problematicus is an extinct snake with legs. ... Binomial name Najash rionegrina Apesteguía & Zaher, 2006 Najash rionegrina is the name given to the fossils of the most primitive snake yet found (based on phylogenetic analysis). ...

Texas Coral Snake Micrurus tener
Texas Coral Snake Micrurus tener

Primitive groups among the modern snakes, pythons and boas, have vestigial hind limbs: tiny, clawed digits known as anal spurs which are used to grasp during mating.[13][8] Leptotyphlopidae and Typhlopidae are other examples where remnants of the pelvic girdle are still present, sometimes appearing as horny projections when visible. The frontal limbs in all snakes are non-existent because of the evolution of the Hox genes in this area. The axial skeleton of the snakes' common ancestor had like most other tetrapods the familiar regional specializations consisting of cervical (neck), thoracic (chest), lumbar (lower back), sacral (pelvic) and caudal (tail) vertebrae. The Hox gene expression in the axial skeleton responsible for the development of the thorax became dominant early in snake evolution and as a result, the vertebrae anterior to the hindlimb buds (when present) all have the same thoracic-like identity (except from the atlas, axis and 1-3 neck vertebrae), making most of the snake's skeleton being composed of an extremely extended thorax. Ribs are found exclusively on the thoracic vertebrae. The neck, lumbar and pelvic vertebrae are very reduced in number (only 2-10 lumbar and pelvic vertebrae are still present), while only a short tail remains of the caudal vertebrae, although the tail is still long enough to be of good use in many species, and is modified in some aquatic and tree dwelling species. Image File history File links Micrurus_tener. ... Image File history File links Micrurus_tener. ... Binomial name Baird & Girard, 1853 Synonyms Elaps tenere Baird & Girard, 1853 Micrurus fulvius tener Conant & Collins, 1991 The Texas Coral Snake (Micrurus tener) is a species of venomous coral snake, an elapid snake found in the southern United States, primarily in Texas, but it also ranges northeast into neighboring states... Synonyms Pythonoidea - Fitzinger, 1826 Pythonoidei - Eichwald, 1831 Holodonta - Müller, 1832 Pythonina - Bonaparte, 1840 Pythophes - Fitzinger, 1843 Pythoniens - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Holodontes - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Pythonides - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Pythones - Cope, 1861 Pythonidae - Cope, 1864 Peropodes - Meyer, 1874... This article is about the Korean pop singer. ... Spurs are the vesligial remnants of legs in primitive snakes, such as boas and pythons. ... FAMILY LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE (slender blind snakes) This family of snakes is composed of 2 genera and about 41 species occurring in the Americas, Africa and Asia. ... Genera Acutotyphlops Cyclotyphlops Ramphotyphlops Rhinotyphlops Typhlops Xenotyphlops TYPHLOPIDAE (blind snakes) This family contains 240 species in 3 genera. ... A homeobox is a DNA sequence found within genes that are involved in the regulation of development (morphogenesis) of animals, fungi and plants. ... In anatomy, the atlas (C1) is the topmost (first) cervical vertebra of the spine. ... In anatomy, the second cervical vertebra (C2) of the spine is named the axis or epistropheus. ...


An alternative hypothesis, based on morphology, suggests that the ancestors of snakes were related to mosasaurs — extinct aquatic reptiles from the Cretaceous — which in turn are thought to have derived from varanid lizards.[9] Under this hypothesis, the fused, transparent eyelids of snakes are thought to have evolved to combat marine conditions (corneal water loss through osmosis), while the external ears were lost through disuse in an aquatic environment, ultimately leading to an animal similar in appearance to sea snakes of today. In the Late Cretaceous, snakes re-colonized the land much like they are today. Fossil snake remains are known from early Late Cretaceous marine sediments, which is consistent with this hypothesis, particularly as they are older than the terrestrial Najash rionegrina. Similar skull structure; reduced/absent limbs; and other anatomical features found in both mosasaurs and snakes lead to a positive cladistical correlation, although some of these features are shared with varanids. In recent years, genetic studies have indicated that snakes are not as closely related to monitor lizards as it was once believed, and therefore not to mosasaurs, the proposed ancestor in the aquatic scenario of their evolution. However, there is more evidence linking mosasaurs to snakes than to varanids. Fragmentary remains that have been found from the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous indicate deeper fossil records for these groups, which may eventually refute either hypothesis. The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Subfamilies Mosasaurinae Plioplatecarpinae Tylosaurinae Mosasaurs (from Latin Mosa, the Meuse river where the fossils were first discovered + Greek sauros, lizard) were serpentine marine reptiles, more closely related to snakes than to monitor lizards (Lee 1997). ... An aquatic animal is an animal which lives in water for most or all of the time. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Species Many, see text. ... For sea snakes in mythology and cryptozoology, see Sea serpent. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ... Species Many, see text. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ...


The great diversity of modern snakes appeared in the Paleocene, correlating with the adaptive radiation of mammals following the extinction of the dinosaurs. There are over 2,900 species of snakes ranging as far northward as the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia and southward through Australia and Tasmania.[9] Snakes can be found on every continent (with the exception of Antarctica), dwelling in the sea, and as high as 16,000 feet (4900m)in the Himalayan Mountains of Asia.[9][14] There are numerous islands from which snakes are conspicuously absent such as Ireland, Iceland, and New Zealand.[14] The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65. ... Four of the 13 finch species found on the Galápagos Archipelago, and thought to have evolved by an adaptive radiation that diversified their beak shapes to adapt them to different food sources. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... For the fast food restaurant chain, see Arctic Circle Restaurants. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Digestion and diet

Snake eating a rodent.
Snake eating a rodent.

All snakes are strictly carnivorous, eating small animals including lizards, other snakes, small mammals, birds, eggs, fish, snails or insects.[9][15][16] Because snakes cannot bite or tear their food to pieces, prey must be swallowed whole. The body size of a snake has a major influence on its eating habits. Smaller snakes eat smaller prey. Juvenile pythons might start out feeding on lizards or mice and graduate to small deer or antelope as an adult, for example. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 561 pixelsFull resolution (2884 × 2024 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 561 pixelsFull resolution (2884 × 2024 pixel, file size: 1. ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ...


The snake's jaw is the most unique jaw in the animal kingdom. Contrary to the popular belief that snakes can dislocate their jaws, snakes have a very flexible lower jaw, the two halves of which are not rigidly attached, and numerous other joints in their skull (see snake skull), allowing them to open their mouths wide enough to swallow their prey whole, even if it is larger in diameter than the snake itself,[15] as snakes do not chew. For example, the African Egg-eating Snake has flexible jaws adapted for eating eggs much larger than the diameter of its head.[16] This snake has no teeth, but does have bony protrusions on the inside edge of its spine which are used to aid in breaking the shells of the eggs it eats.[16] Human jaw front view Human jaw left view Human jaw top view The jaw is either of the two opposable structures forming, or near the entrance to, the mouth. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... The skull of a snake is a very complex and highly evolved structure, with numerous joints to allow the snake to swallow prey far bigger than its head. ... Species 5 recognized species, see article. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ...


While the majority of snakes eat a variety of prey animals, there is some specialization by some species. King cobras and the Australian Bandy-bandy consume other snakes. Pareas iwesakii and other snail-eating Colubrids of subfamily Pareatinae have more teeth on the right side of their mouths than on the left, as the shells of their prey usually spiral clockwise[17][18] Binomial name Cantor, 1836 Range (in red) The King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the worlds longest venomous snake, growing to a length of 18. ... For other uses, see Snail (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Boodontinae Calamariinae Colubrinae Dipsadinae Homalopsinae Natricinae Pareatinae Psammophiinae Pseudoxenodontinae Pseudoxyrhophiinae Xenodermatinae Xenodontinae See text for genera. ... Genera Aplopeltura Asthenodipsas (including Internatus) Pareas Pareatinae is a small subfamily of the Colubridae family of snakes. ...


Some snakes have a venomous bite, which they use to kill their prey before eating it.[19][15] Other snakes kill their prey by constriction.[15] Still others swallow their prey whole and alive.[15][16] A Carpet snake (Morelia spilota variegata) eating a chicken. ...

After eating, snakes become dormant while the process of digestion takes place.[20] Digestion is an intense activity, especially after consumption of very large prey. In species that feed only sporadically, the entire intestine enters a reduced state between meals to conserve energy, and the digestive system is 'up-regulated' to full capacity within 48 hours of prey consumption. Being cold-blooded (ectothermic), the surrounding temperature plays a large role in a snake's digestion. 30 degrees celsius is the ideal temperature for snakes to digest their food. So much metabolic energy is involved in a snake's digestion that in Crotalus durissus, the Mexican rattlesnake, an increase of body temperature to as much as 1.2 degrees celsius above the surrounding environment has been observed.[21] Because of this, a snake disturbed after having eaten recently will often regurgitate its prey in order to be able to escape the perceived threat. When undisturbed, the digestive process is highly efficient, with the snake's digestive enzymes dissolving and absorbing everything but the prey's hair and claws, which are excreted along with waste. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 435 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 1,411 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 435 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 1,411 pixels, file size: 1. ... Species 5 recognized species, see article. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Heaving redirects here. ... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ... CLAWS can also refer to the web site of Creating Livable Alternatives to Wage Slavery (CLAWS)[1] CLAWS is a modular open-source software package that provides account and identity management functions in a heterogeneous computing environment. ... Uric acid (or urate) is an organic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. ...


Skin

Main article: Snake scales

The skin of a snake is covered in scales. Contrary to the popular notion of snakes being slimy because of possible confusion of snakes with worms, snakeskin has a smooth, dry texture. Most snakes use specialized belly scales to travel, gripping surfaces. The body scales may be smooth, keeled, or granular. Snake's eyelids are transparent "spectacle" scales which remain permanently closed, also known as brille. Elaborately shaped scales on the head of a Vine snake, Ahaetulla nasuta. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... Elaborately shaped scales on the head of a Vine snake, Ahaetulla nasuta. ... For other uses, see Worm (disambiguation). ... Keeled scales refer to scales (on snakes, at least) that, rather than being smooth, have a ridge down the center. ...


The shedding of scales is called ecdysis, or, in normal usage moulting or sloughing. In the case of snakes, the complete outer layer of skin is shed in one layer.[22] Snake scales are not discrete but extensions of the epidermis hence they are not shed separately, but are ejected as a complete contiguous outer layer of skin during each moult, akin to a sock being turned inside out.[23] Ecdysis is the molting of the cuticula in arthropods and related groups (Ecdysozoa). ... In animals, moulting (Commonwealth English) or molting (American English) is the routine shedding off old feathers in birds, or of old skin in reptiles, or of old hairs in mammals (see also coat (dog)). In arthropods, such as insects, arachnids and crustaceans, moulting describes the shedding of its exoskeleton (which... In animals, moulting (Commonwealth English) or molting (American English) is the routine shedding off old feathers in birds, or of old skin in reptiles, or of old hairs in mammals (see also coat (dog)). In arthropods, such as insects, arachnids and crustaceans, moulting describes the shedding of its exoskeleton (which...

A line diagram from G.A. Boulenger's Fauna of British India (1890) illustrating the terminology of shields on the head of a snake
A line diagram from G.A. Boulenger's Fauna of British India (1890) illustrating the terminology of shields on the head of a snake

Moulting serves a number of functions - firstly, the old and worn skin is replaced, secondly, it helps get rid of parasites such as mites and ticks. Renewal of the skin by moulting is supposed to allow growth in some animals such as insects, however this view has been disputed in the case of snakes.[23][24] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 544 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (568 × 626 pixel, file size: 33 KB, MIME type: image/png) Ptyas scalation from G. A. Boulenger, Fauna of British India. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 544 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (568 × 626 pixel, file size: 33 KB, MIME type: image/png) Ptyas scalation from G. A. Boulenger, Fauna of British India. ... In animals, moulting (Commonwealth English) or molting (American English) is the routine shedding off old feathers in birds, or of old skin in reptiles, or of old hairs in mammals (see also coat (dog)). In arthropods, such as insects, arachnids and crustaceans, moulting describes the shedding of its exoskeleton (which... In animals, moulting (Commonwealth English) or molting (American English) is the routine shedding off old feathers in birds, or of old skin in reptiles, or of old hairs in mammals (see also coat (dog)). In arthropods, such as insects, arachnids and crustaceans, moulting describes the shedding of its exoskeleton (which...

A snake shedding its skin
A snake shedding its skin

Moulting is repeated periodically throughout a snake's life. Before a moult, the snake stops eating and often hides or moves to a safe place. Just prior to shedding, the skin becomes dull and dry looking and the eyes become cloudy or blue-colored. The inner surface of the old outer skin liquefies. This causes the old outer skin to separate from the new inner skin. After a few days, the eyes clear and the snake "crawls" out of its old skin. The old skin breaks near the mouth and the snake wriggles out aided by rubbing against rough surfaces. In many cases the cast skin peels backward over the body from head to tail, in one piece like an old sock. A new, larger, and brighter layer of skin has formed underneath.[23][25] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixels, file size: 1. ...


An older snake may shed its skin only once or twice a year, but a younger, still-growing snake, may shed up to four times a year.[25] The discarded skin gives a perfect imprint of the scale pattern and it is usually possible to identify the snake if this discard is reasonably complete and intact.[23] Although the primary purpose of shedding is for the snake's growth; it also removes external parasites. This periodic renewal has led to the snake being a symbol of healing and medicine, as pictured in the Rod of Asclepius.[26] Moulting (or molting, see spelling differences) is the routine shedding of old feathers in birds, old hairs in mammals (see also coat (dog)), old skin in reptiles, and the entire exoskeleton in arthropods. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Rod of Asclepius The Rod of Asclepius (also known as Asklepios or Aesculapius) is an ancient Greek symbol associated with astrology and healing the sick with medicine. ...


The shape and number of scales on the head, back and belly are characteristic to family, genus and species. Scales have a nomenclature analogous to the position on the body. In "advanced" (Caenophidian) snakes, the broad belly scales and rows of dorsal scales correspond to the vertebrae, allowing scientists to count the vertebrae without dissection. This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Dorsal scales on the body of a Banded Krait Bungarus fasciatus, an Elapid. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... Dissected rat showing major organs. ...


Scalation counts are also used to tell the sex of a snake when the species is not readily sexually dimorphic. A probe is inserted into the cloaca until it can go no further. The probe is marked at the point where it stops, removed, and compared to the subcaudal depth by laying it alongside the scales.[20] The scalation count determines whether the snake is a male or female as hemipenes of a male will probe to a different depth (usually longer) than the cloaca of a female.[20] In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of certain animal species. ...


Perception

Thermographic image of a snake eating a mouse.
Thermographic image of a snake eating a mouse.

Image File history File links Wiki_snake_eats_mouse. ... Image File history File links Wiki_snake_eats_mouse. ...

Eyesight

Snake vision is remarkable. Generally, vision is best in arboreal snakes and worst in burrowing snakes. Snakes can detect movement.[27] Some snakes, such the Asian vine snake (genus Ahaetulla), have binocular vision, with both eyes capable of focusing on the same point. Most snakes focus by moving the lens back and forth in relation to the retina, while in all other vertebrates, the lens is stretched. In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ... Ahaetulla is a genus of colubrid snakes commonly referred to as vine snakes, or whip snakes. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ... Light from a single point of a distant object and light from a single point of a near object being brought to a focus by changing the curvature of the lens. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ...


Smell

Snakes use smell to track their prey. It smells by using its forked tongue to collect airborne particles then passing them to the Jacobson's organ or the Vomeronasal organ in the mouth for examination.[27] The fork in the tongue gives the snake a sort of directional sense of smell and taste simultaneously.[27] The snake keeps its tongue constantly in motion, sampling particles from the air, ground, and water analyzing the chemicals found and determining the presence of prey or predators in its local environment.[27] A forked tongue is a tongue split into two distinct ends at the tip. ... The vomeronasal organ (VNO) or Jacobsons organ is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ in some tetrapods. ... For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ...


Vibration sensitivity

The part of the body which is in direct contact with the surface of the ground is very sensitive to vibration, thus a snake is able to sense other animals approaching through detecting faint vibrations in the air and on the ground.[27]


Infrared sensitivity

Pit vipers, pythons, and some boas have infrared-sensitive receptors in deep grooves between the nostril and eye, although some have labial pits on their upper lip just below the nostrils (common in pythons) which allow them to "see" the radiated heat.[27] Infrared sensitivity helps snakes locate nearby prey, especially warm-blooded mammals.


Internal organs

1: esophagus 2: trachea 3:tracheal lungs 4: rudimentary left lung 4: right lung 6: heart 7: liver 8 stomach 9: air sac 10: gallbladder 11: pancreas 12: spleen 13: intestine 14: testicles 15: kidneys

Anatomy of a snake. 1 esophagus, 2 trachea, 3 tracheal lungs, 4 rudimentary left lung, 5 right lung, 6 heart, 7 liver, 8 stomach, 9 air sac, 10 gallbladder, 11 pancreas, 12 spleen, 13 intestine, 14 testicles, 15 kidneys.
Anatomy of a snake. 1 esophagus, 2 trachea, 3 tracheal lungs, 4 rudimentary left lung, 5 right lung, 6 heart, 7 liver, 8 stomach, 9 air sac, 10 gallbladder, 11 pancreas, 12 spleen, 13 intestine, 14 testicles, 15 kidneys.

As with all reptiles, snakes are ectothermic. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cold-blooded organisms, more technically known as poikilothermic, are animals that have no internal metabolic mechanism for regulating their body temperatures. ...


The snake's heart is encased in a sac, called the pericardium, located at the bifurcation of the bronchi. The heart is able to move around, however, due to the lack of a diaphragm. This adjustment protects the heart from potential damage when large ingested prey is passed through the esophagus. The spleen is attached to the gall bladder and pancreas and filters the blood. The thymus gland is located in fatty tissue above the heart and is responsible for the generation of immune cells in the blood. The cardiovascular system of snakes is also unique due to the presence of a renal portal system in which the blood from the snake's tail passes through the kidneys before returning to the heart.[28] The pericardium is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the great vessels. ... A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airways in the the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst) is a pear-shaped organ that stores bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... Thymus, see Thyme. ...


The vestigial left lung is often small or sometimes even absent, as snakes' tubular bodies require all of their organs to be long and thin.[28] In the majority of species, only one lung is functional. This lung contains a vascularized anterior portion and a posterior portion which does not function in gas exchange.[28] This 'saccular lung' is used for hydrostatic purposes to adjust buoyancy in some aquatic snakes and its function remains unknown in terrestrial species.[28] Many organs that are paired, such as kidneys or reproductive organs, are staggered within the body, with one located ahead of the other.[28] Snakes have no colenary bladder or lymph nodes.[28] The human vermiform appendix is a vestigial structure; it no longer retains its original function. ... For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... Fluid pressure is the pressure on an object submerged in a fluid, such as water. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ...


Locomotion

The lack of limbs does not impede the movement of snakes, and they have developed several different modes of locomotion to deal with particular environments. Unlike the gaits of limbed animals, which form a continuum, each mode of snake locomotion is discrete and distinct from the others, and transitions between modes are abrupt.[29][30]


Lateral undulation

See also: Lateral undulation

Lateral undulation is the sole mode of aquatic locomotion, and the most common mode of terrestrial locomotion.[30] In this mode, the body of the snake alternately flexes to the left and right, resulting in a series of rearward-moving 'waves'.[29] While this movement appears rapid, snakes have been documented moving faster than 2 body-lengths per second, often much less.[31] This mode of movement is similar to running in lizards of the same mass.[32] Lateral undulation is the most primitive of vertebrate locomotor patterns, present even in hagfish, lampreys, and lancelets. ... Lateral undulation is the most primitive of vertebrate locomotor patterns, present even in hagfish, lampreys, and lancelets. ...

Terrestrial
Terrestrial lateral undulation is the most common mode of terrestrial locomotion for most snake species.[29] In this mode, the posteriorly-moving waves push against contact points in the environment, such as rocks, twigs, irregularities in the soil, etc.[29] Each of these environmental objects, in turn, generates a reaction force directed forward and towards the midline of the snake, resulting in forward thrust while the lateral components cancel out.[33] The speed of this movement depends upon the density of push-points in the environment, with a medium density of about 8 along the snake's length being ideal.[31] The wave speed is precisely the same as the snake speed, and as a result, every point on the snake's body follows the path of the point ahead of it, allowing snakes to move through very dense vegetation and small openings.[33]
Aquatic
When swimming, the waves become larger as they move down the snake's body, and the wave travels backwards faster than the snake moves forwards.[34] Thrust is generated by pushing their body against the water, resulting in the observed slip. In spite of overall similarities, studies show that the pattern of muscle activation is different in aquatic vs terrestrial lateral undulation, which justifies calling them separate modes.[35] All snakes can laterally undulate forward (with backward-moving waves), but only sea snakes have been observed reversing the pattern, i.e. moving backwards via forward-traveling waves.[29]
Mojave rattlesnake, sidewinding

Sea snakes of several different species belong to a group related to the cobras but aquatic rather than land dwelling. ... The Mojave rattlesnake, Crotalus scutulatus, is the most dangerous snake in the United States. ... The Mojave rattlesnake, Crotalus scutulatus, is the most dangerous snake in the United States. ...

Sidewinding

See also: Sidewinding

Most often employed by colubroid snakes (colubrids, elapids, and vipers) when the snake must move in an environment which lacks any irregulaties to push against (and which therefore renders lateral undulation impossible), such as a slick mud flat or sand dune sidewinding is a modified form of lateral undulation in which all of the body segments oriented in one direction remain in contact with the ground, while the other segments are lifted up, resulting in a peculiar 'rolling' motion.[36][37] This mode of locomotion overcomes the slippery nature of sand or mud by pushing off with only static portions on the body, thereby minimzing slipping.[36] The static nature of the contact points can be shown from the tracks of a sidewinding snake, which show each belly scale imprint, without any smearing. This mode of locomotion has very low caloric cost, less than ⅓ of the cost for a lizard or snake to move the same distance.[32] Contrary to popular beliefs, there is no evidence that sidewinding is associated with hot sand.[36]
Crotalus scutulatus, Mojave rattlesnake, sidewinding Sidewinding is a type of locomotion unique to caenophidian snakes, used to move across loose or slippery substrates. ...


Concertina locomotion

See also: Concertina movement

When push-points are absent, but there is not enough space to use sidewinding due to lateral constraints, such as in tunnels, snakes rely on concertina locomotion.[29][37] In this mode, the snake braces the posterior portion of its body against the tunnel wall while the front of the snake extends and straightens.[36] The front portion then flexes and forms an anchor point, and the posterior is straightened and pulled forwards. This mode of locomotion is slow and very demanding, up to seven times the cost of laterally undulating over the same distance.[32] This high cost is due to the repeated stops and starts of portions of the body as well as the necessity of using active muscular effort to brace against the tunnel walls. Concertina movement is the movement occurring in snakes and other legless organisms that consists of gripping with portions of the body while pulling/pushing other sections in the direction of movement. ...


Rectilinear locomotion

See also: Rectilinear locomotion

The slowest mode of snake locomotion is rectilinear locomotion, which is also the only one in which the snake does not need to bend its body laterally, though it may do so when turning.[38] In this mode, the belly scales are lifted and pulled forward before being placed down and the body pulled over them. Waves of movement and stasis pass posteriorly, resulting in a series of ripples in the skin.[38] The ribs of the snake do not move in this mode of locomotion and this method is most often used by large pythons, boas, and vipers when stalking prey across open ground as the snake's movements are subtle and harder to detect by their prey in this manner.[36] Rectilinear locomotion is a mode of locomotion most often associated with snakes, particularly heavy-bodied species like terrestrial pythons and boas, athough most snakes are capable of it. ... Python is a genus within the family Pythonidae which contains probably the best known species typically referred to as pythons. ... This article is about the Korean pop singer. ... A viper is a venomous snake belonging to the Viperidae family. ...


Other

The movement of snakes in arboreal habitats has only recently been studied.[36] While on tree branches, snakes use several modes of locomotion depending on species and bark texture.[36] In general, snakes will use a modified form of concertina locomotion on smooth branches, but will laterally undulate if contact points are available. Snakes move faster on small branches and when contact points are present, in contrast to limbed animals, which do better on large branches with little 'clutter'.


Gliding snakes (Chrysopelea) of Southeast Asia launch themselves from branch tips, spreading their ribs and laterally undulating as they glide between trees.[39][36][40][41] These snakes can perform a controlled glide for hundreds of feet depending upon launch altitude and can even turn in mid-air.[36][42] Species Chrysopelea ornata Chrysopelea paradisii Chrysopelea pelias Chrysopelea rhodopleuron Chrysopelea taprobanica Chrysopelea -- the flying snakes -- is a genus that belongs to the family Colubridae. ...


Reproduction

Although a wide range of reproductive modes are used by snakes; all snakes employ internal fertilization, accomplished by means of paired, forked hemipenes, which are stored inverted in the male's tail.[43] The hemipenes are often grooved, hooked, or spined in order to grip the walls of the female's cloaca.[43] Internal fertilization is a form of animal fertilization of an ovum by spermatozoon within the body of an inseminated animal, whether female or hermaphroditic. ... An everted hemipenis of a North American rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) A hemipenis (plural hemipenes) is one of a pair of reproductive organs of male squamata (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenia). ... In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of certain animal species. ...


Most species of snake lay eggs, and most of those species abandon them shortly after laying; however, individual species such as the King cobra actually construct nests and stay in the vicinity of the hatchlings after incubation.[43] Most pythons coil around their egg-clutches after they have laid them and remain with the eggs until they hatch.[44] The female python will not leave the eggs, except to occasionally bask in the sun or drink water and will generate heat to incubate the eggs by shivering.[44] In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Binomial name Cantor, 1836 Range (in red) The King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the worlds longest venomous snake, growing to a length of 18. ...


Some species of snake are ovoviviparous and retain the eggs within their bodies until they are almost ready to hatch.[45][46] Recently, it has been confirmed that several species of snake are fully viviparous, such as the boa constrictor and green anaconda, nourishing their young through a placenta as well as a yolk sac, which is highly unusual among reptiles, or anything else outside of placental mammals.[45][46] Retention of eggs and live birth are most often associated with colder environments, as the retention of the young within the female.[43][46] Ovoviviparous animals develop within eggs that remain within the mothers body up until they hatch or are about to hatch. ... Poa alpina, a grass which shows vivipary: the seeds germinate while still attached to the mother plant. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The boa constrictor (Boa constrictor), red-tailed boa, jibóia (Latin American name) or macajuel (pronounced mah-cah-well) (Trinidadian name)[1] is a species of boa that can grow up to 13 feet long. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Synonyms Boa murina Linnaeus, 1758 Boa scytale Linnaeus, 1758 Boa gigas Latreille, 1802 Eunectes barbouri Dunn & Conant, 1936 The Green Anaconda (Eunectes murinus) is an anaconda. ... The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... The yolk sac is the first element seen in the gestational sac during pregnancy, usually at 5 weeks gestation. ... Orders Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia Xenarthra Dermoptera: Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Placentalia and Eutheria are terms used to describe major groupings within the animal class of Mammalia. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ...


Venom

See also: Snake venom
Vipera berus, one fang with a small venom stain in glove, the other still in place
Vipera berus, one fang with a small venom stain in glove, the other still in place

Cobras, vipers, and closely related species use venom to immobilize or kill their prey. The venom is modified saliva, delivered through fangs.[47] The fangs of 'advanced' venomous snakes like viperids and elapids are hollow in order to inject venom more effectively, while the fangs of rear-fanged snakes such as the Boomslang merely have a groove on the posterior edge to channel venom into the wound. Snake venoms are often prey specific, its role in self-defense is secondary.[47] Venom, like all salivary secretions, is a pre-digestant which initiates the breakdown of food into soluble compounds allowing for proper digestion and even "non-venomous" snake bites (like any animal bite) will cause tissue damage.[48] // Snake venom is a highly modified saliva that is produced by special glands of certain species of snakes. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixels, file size: 1. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Synonyms [Coluber] berus - Linnaeus, 1758 [Coluber] Chersea - Linnaeus, 1758 Coluber prester - Linnaeus, 1761 Coluber vipera Anglorum - Laurenti, 1768 Coluber Melanis - Pallas, 1771 Coluber Scytha - Pallas, 1773 C[oluber]. Scytha - Bonnaterre, 1790 Vipera melanis - Sonnini & Latreille, 1801 Vipera berus - Daudin, 1803 Vipera chersea - Daudin, 1803 Vipera prester... Wasp sting, with droplet of venom Venom (literally, poison of animal origin) is any of a variety of toxins used by animals, for the purpose of defense and hunting. ... For the band, see Saliva (band). ... // Snake venom is a highly modified saliva that is produced by special glands of certain species of snakes. ...


Certain birds, mammals, and other snakes such as kingsnakes that prey on venomous snakes have developed resistance and even immunity to certain venom.[47] Venomous snakes include three families of snakes and do not constitute a formal classification group used in taxonomy. The term poisonous snake is mostly incorrect - poison is inhaled or ingested whereas venom is injected.[49] There are, however, two examples - Rhabdophis sequesters toxins from the toads it eats then secretes them from nuchal glands to ward off predators, and a small population of garter snakes in Oregon retains enough toxin in their liver from the newts they eat to be effectively poisonous to local small predators such as crows and foxes.[50] King snake redirects here. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Concept mining. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... Rhabdophis is a genus of snakes, generally called Keelback snakes, found primarily in southeast Asia. ... Species many — see text A garter snake, or garden snake, or gardner snake, is any species of North American snake within the genus Thamnophis. ...


Snake venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and are stored in poison glands at the back of the head.[50] In all venomous snakes these glands open through ducts into grooved or hollow teeth in the upper jaw.[47][49] These proteins can potentially be a mix of neurotoxins (which attack the nervous system), hemotoxins (which attack the circulatory system), cytotoxins, bungarotoxins and many other toxins that affect the body in different ways.[49] Almost all snake venom contains hyaluronidase, an enzyme that ensures rapid diffusion of the venom.[47] A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells – neurons – usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ion channels. ... Hemotoxins are toxins that destroy red blood cells (hemolysis), disrupt blood clotting, and/or cause organ degeneration and generalized tissue damage. ... As citotoxinas sao umas cenas que matam as células. ... Bungarotoxin (more accurately α-bungarotoxin) is one of the components of the venom of the elapid snake Taiwanese banded krait (Bungarus multicinctus). ...


Venomous snakes that use hemotoxins usually have the fangs that secrete the venom in the front of their mouths, making it easier for them to inject the venom into their victims.[49] Some snakes that use neurotoxins, such as the mangrove snake, have their fangs located in the back of their mouths, with the fangs curled backwards.[51] This makes it both difficult for the snake to use its venom and for scientists to milk them.[49] Elapid snakes, however, such as cobras and kraits are proteroglyphous, possessing hollow fangs which cannot be erected toward the front of their mouths and cannot "stab" like a viper, they must actually bite the victim.[52] Binomial name Boiga dendrophila (Boie, 1827) The Gold-ringed Cat Snake or Mangrove Snake (Boiga dendrophila) is a species of snake that belongs to the genus of Boiga. ... Genera Acanthophis - death adder Aspidelaps - shieldnose cobra Aspidomorphus - collared adder Austrelaps Boulengerina - water cobra Bungarus - Indian krait Cacophis - dwarf crowned snake Calliophis - Oriental coral snake Demansia - venomous whip snake Dendroaspis - mamba Denisonia - ornamental snake Drysdalia - Australian crown snake Echiopsis - bardick snake Elapognathus - little brown snake Elapsoidea - venomous garter snake Furina... Egyptian Cobra, Naga haje This article is about snakes. ... Species , Banded Krait A krait (Pronounced krIt) is a very deadly snake. ...


It has recently been suggested that all snakes may be venomous to a certain degree, the harmless snakes having weak venom and no fangs.[53]


Snakes may have evolved from a common lizard ancestor that was venomous, from which venomous lizards like the gila monster and beaded lizard may have also derived. They share this venom clade with various other saurian species. Binomial name Cope, 1869 The gila monster (pronounced HEE-la, IPA pronunciation: ) (Heloderma suspectum) is a species of venomous lizard native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. ... Binomial name Heloderma horridum Wiegmann, 1829 The beaded lizard or Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) is found in Mexico and the southern United States. ... Snake Iguana Monitor Lizard The venom clade is a clade which was proposed by Dr. Bryan Grieg Fry, et al, in the Journal Nature. ... Sauria is also the name of a science fiction book by Arrand Pritchard about a planet that is inhabitant by smart reptiles (and later colonised by space travelling humans) Subgroups Lepidosauromorpha Archosauromorpha Sauria is a clade of reptiles that includes all living diapsids, as well as their common ancestor and...


Venomous snakes are classified in two taxonomic families: For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ...

There is a third family containing the opistoglyphous (rear-fanged)snakes as well as the majority of other snake species: Genera Acanthophis - death adder Aspidelaps - shieldnose cobra Aspidomorphus - collared adder Austrelaps Boulengerina - water cobra Bungarus - Indian krait Cacophis - dwarf crowned snake Calliophis - Oriental coral snake Demansia - venomous whip snake Dendroaspis - mamba Denisonia - ornamental snake Drysdalia - Australian crown snake Echiopsis - bardick snake Elapognathus - little brown snake Elapsoidea - venomous garter snake Furina... Egyptian Cobra, Naga haje This article is about snakes. ... Binomial name Cantor, 1836 Range (in red) The King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the worlds longest venomous snake, growing to a length of 18. ... Bungarus is a genus of venomous elapid snakes found in India and South-East Asia. ... Species - Eastern green mamba - Jamesons mamba - Black mamba - Western green mamba For other uses, see Mamba (disambiguation). ... Species An Australian copperhead is any of three closely related species of snake in the genus Austrelaps. ... For sea snakes in mythology and cryptozoology, see Sea serpent. ... Species Over 65, see article. ... Synonyms Viperae - Laurenti, 1768 Viperini - Oppel, 1811 Viperidae - Gray, 1825[1] The Viperidae are a family of venomous snakes commonly referred to as vipers, although the term viperids is more specific and distinguishes them from the viperines (subfamily Viperinae). ... Synonyms Viperae - Laurenti, 1768 Viperini - Oppel, 1811 Viperidae - Gray, 1825[1] The Viperidae are a family of venomous snakes commonly referred to as vipers, although the term viperids is more specific and distinguishes them from the viperines (subfamily Viperinae). ... Species 27 species; see list of rattlesnake species and subspecies. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1766 Synonyms Boa contortrix - Linnaeus, 1766 Scytale contortrix - Sonnini & Latreille, 1801 Scytale Cupreus - Rafinesque, 1818 Scytale cupreus - Say, 1819 Tisiphone cuprea - Fitzinger, 1826 [Cenchris] marmorata - F. Boie, 1827 Acontias atro-fuscus - Troost, 1836 [Toxicophis atro-fuscus] - Troost, 1836 T[rigonocephalus]. cenchris - Schlegel, 1837 Trigonocephalus Contortrix - Holbrook, 1838... Binomial name (Lacépède, 1789) Synonyms Vipera aquatica - Catesby, 1743 Crot[alus]. Piscivorus - Lacépède, 1789 C[rotalus]. Aquaticus - Bonnaterre, 1790 Scytale piscivora - Sonnini & Latreille, 1801 Coluber Aquaticus - Shaw, 1802 Coluber Tisiphone - Shaw, 1802 Scytale piscivorus - Daudin, 1803 [Coluber (Natrix)] piscivorus - Merrem, 1820 Colub[er]. tisiphone - Cuvier, 1829... To many, the terms adder and viper are interchangeable, referring to any member of the Viperidae family. ... Lachesis is a genus of highly venomous pit vipers found in the remote, forested areas in Central and South America. ...

Subfamilies Boodontinae Calamariinae Colubrinae Dipsadinae Homalopsinae Natricinae Pareatinae Psammophiinae Pseudoxenodontinae Pseudoxyrhophiinae Xenodermatinae Xenodontinae See text for genera. ... Binomial name Dispholidus typus (Smith, 1829) A boomslang, Dispholidus typus is a large, venomous colubrid snake native to sub-Saharan Africa. ... Ahaetulla is a genus of colubrid snakes commonly referred to as vine snakes, or whip snakes. ... Species Boiga andamanensis Boiga angulata Boiga barnesii Boiga beddomei Boiga ceylonensis Boiga cyanea Boiga cynodon Boiga dendrophila Boiga dightoni Boiga drapiezii Boiga forsteni Boiga gokool Boiga guangxiensis Boiga irregularis Boiga jaspidea Boiga kraepelini Boiga multifasciata Boiga multomaculata Boiga nigriceps Boiga nuchalis Boiga ocellata Boiga ochracea Boiga philippina Boiga quincunciata Boiga... Subfamilies Boodontinae Calamariinae Colubrinae Dipsadinae Homalopsinae Natricinae Pareatinae Psammophiinae Pseudoxenodontinae Pseudoxyrhophiinae Xenodermatinae Xenodontinae See text for genera. ... This article is about the toxin. ...

Interactions with humans

Snake bite

Main article: Snake bite
Coiled up Green tree python Morelia viridis
Coiled up Green tree python Morelia viridis

Snakes do not ordinarily prey on humans and most will not attack humans unless the snake is startled or injured, preferring instead to avoid contact. With the exception of large constrictors, non-venomous snakes are not a threat to humans. The bite of non-venomous snakes are usually harmless because their teeth are designed for grabbing and holding, rather than tearing or inflicting a deep puncture wound. Although the possibility of an infection and tissue damage is present in the bite of a non-venomous snake; venomous snakes present far greater hazard to humans.[48] Snakebite can refer to several things: A cocktail made from lager beer and cider (hard cider); see snakebite (cocktail). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x819, 321 KB) from de:Image:Baumpython. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x819, 321 KB) from de:Image:Baumpython. ... Binomial name (Schlegel, 1872) Synonyms Python viridis - Schlegel, 1872 Chondropython azureus - Meyer, 1874 Chondropython pulcher - Sauvage, 1878 Chondropython azureus - Peters & Doria, 1878 Chondropython viridis - Boulenger, 1893 Chondropython viridis - Kinghorn, 1928 Chondropython viridis - McDowell, 1975 Morelia viridis - Underwood & Stimson, 1990 Chondropython viridis - Cogger, 1992 M[orelia]. viridis - Kluge, 1993[1] Common...


Documented deaths resulting from snake bites are uncommon. Non-fatal bites from venomous snakes may result in the need for amputation of a limb or part thereof. Of the roughly 725 species of venomous snakes worldwide, only 250 are able to kill a human with one bite. Although Australia is home to the largest number of venomous snakes in the world, about one snakebite proves venomous, on average, in a year; in India where 2,500,000 snakebites are recorded in a single year, as many as 50,000 initial deaths are recorded. [54]


The treatment for a snakebite is as variable as the bite itself. The most common and effective method is through antivenom, a serum made from the venom of the snake. Some antivenin is species specific or monovalent and some is made for use with multiple species in mind also known as polyvalent. In the United States for example, all species of venomous snakes are pit vipers, with the exception of the coral snake. To produce antivenin, a mixture of the venoms of the different species of rattlesnakes, copperheads, and cottonmouths is injected into the body of a horse in ever-increasing dosages until the horse is immunized. Blood is then extracted from the immunized horse and freeze-dried. It is reconstituted with sterile water and becomes antivenin. For this reason, people who are allergic to horses cannot be treated using antivenin. Antivenin for the more dangerous species (such as mambas, taipans, and cobras) is made in a similar manner in India, South Africa, and Australia with the exception being that those antivenins are species-specific. Antivenom (or antivenin, or antivenene) is a biological product used in the treatment of venomous bites or stings. ... Genera See text. ... Species Over 65, see article. ... Species 27 species; see list of rattlesnake species and subspecies. ... Species - Eastern green mamba - Jamesons mamba - Black mamba - Western green mamba For other uses, see Mamba (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Australian snake. ... Egyptian Cobra, Naga haje This article is about snakes. ...


Snake charmers

Main article: Snake charming
Indian Cobra in a basket being charmed
Indian Cobra in a basket being charmed

In some parts of the world, especially in India, snake charming is a roadside show performed by a charmer. In such a show, the snake charmer carries a basket that contains a snake that he seemingly charms by playing tunes from his flute-like musical instrument, to which the snake responds.[55] Snakes lack external ears, though have internal ears. However, snakes show no tendency to be influenced by music.[55] Snake charmer in Jaipur (India) in 2007 Snake charmer in New Delhi (India) in 2006 Snake charming is the practice of apparently hypnotising a snake by simply playing an instrument. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 1. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Indian Cobra or Spectacled Cobra (Naja naja), also known as an Asian Cobra, is a species of venomous snake native to the Indian subcontinent. ... Snake charmer in Jaipur (India) in 2007 Snake charmer in New Delhi (India) in 2006 Snake charming is the practice of apparently hypnotising a snake by simply playing an instrument. ...


Researchers have pointed out that many of these snake charmers are good sleight-of-hand artists. The snake moves correspondingly to the flute movement and the vibrations from the tapping of the charmer's foot, neither of which is noticed by the public. Charmers rarely catch their snakes and the snakes are either nonvenomous or defanged cobras. Other snake charmers also have a snake and mongoose show, where both the animals have a mock fight; however, this is not very common, as the snakes, as well as the mongooses, may be seriously injured or killed. For other uses, see Mongoose (disambiguation). ...


Snake charming as a profession is now discouraged in India as a contribution to forest and snake conservation. In fact, in some places in India snake charming is banned by law.[55]


Snake trapping

The tribals of "Irulas" from Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in India have been hunter-gatherers in the hot dry plains forests and have practiced this art for generations. They have a vast knowledge of snakes in the field. Irulas generally catch the snakes with the help of a simple stick. Earlier, the Irulas caught thousands of snakes for the snake-skin industry. After the complete ban on snake-skin industry in India and protection of all snakes under the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, they formed the Irula Snake Catcher's Cooperative and switched to catching snakes for removal of venom, releasing them in the wild after four extractions. The venom so collected is used for producing life-saving antivenin, biomedical research and for other medicinal products.[56] The Irulas are also known to eat some of the snakes they catch and are very useful in rat extermination in the villages. Andhra redirects here. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... The Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 refers to a sweeping package of legislation enacted in 1972 by the Government of India. ... Antivenin (or antivenom, or antivenene) is a biological product used in the treatment of venomous bites or stings. ...


Despite the existence of snake charmers, there have also been professional snake catchers or wranglers. Modern day snake trapping involves a herpetologist using a long stick with a "V" shaped end. Some like Bill Haast, Austin Stevens, and Jeff Corwin prefer to catch them using bare hands. Herpetology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of reptiles and amphibians including their classification, ecology, behavior, physiology, anatomy, and paleontology. ... William E. Bill Haast (b. ... Austin James Stevens (born 19 May 1950) is a South African-born herpetologist and wildlife photographer best known for hosting a series of snake documentaries. ... Jeff Corwin Jeffrey Samuel Corwin (born July 11, 1967 in Norwell, Massachusetts), better known as Jeff Corwin, is the host and executive producer of The Jeff Corwin Experience and Corwins Quest, two American television shows about animals airing on the Animal Planet cable channel. ...


Consumption of snakes

Great Blue Heron with a snake
Great Blue Heron with a snake

While not commonly thought of as a dietary item by most cultures, in some cultures, the consumption of snakes is acceptable, or even considered a delicacy, prized for its alleged pharmaceutical effect of warming the heart. Snake soup of Cantonese cuisine is consumed by local people in Autumn, to prevent a cold. Western cultures document the consumption of snakes under extreme circumstances of hunger.[57] Cooked rattlesnake meat is an exception, which is commonly consumed in parts of the Midwestern United States. In Asian countries such as China, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam and Cambodia, drinking the blood of snakes, particularly the cobra, is believed to increase sexual virility.[58] The blood is drained while the cobra is still alive when possible, and is usually mixed with some form of liquor to improve the taste.[58] Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Great Blue Heron , Ardea herodias, is a wading bird in the heron family Ardeidae, common over most of North and Central America as well as the West Indies and the Galápagos Islands, except for the far north and deserts and high mountains where there... Yue cuisine Chinese: Cantonese (Yue) cuisine originates from Guangdong Province in Southern China, or more precisely, the area around Guangzhou (Canton). ...


In some Asian countries, the use of snakes in alcohol is also accepted. In such cases, the body of a snake or several snakes is left to steep in a jar or container of liquor. It is claimed that this makes the liquor stronger (as well as more expensive). One example of this is the Habu snake sometimes placed in the Okinawan liquor Awamori also known as "Habu Sake".[59] Species T. okinavensis T. elegans T. flavoviridis T. tokarensis A Habu is any of four species of venomous snakes found in the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... Awamori (泡盛) is an alcoholic beverage indigenous to and unique to Okinawa, Japan. ...


Snakes as pets

In the Western world some snakes, especially docile species such as the ball python and corn snake, are kept as pets. To supply this demand a captive breeding industry has developed. Snakes bred in captivity tend to make better pets and are considered preferable to wild caught specimens. The Ball Python (Python regius), also known as the Royal Python, is a ground dwelling snake native to Africa. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1766 The Corn Snake (Elaphe guttata guttata) or Red Rat Snake (Pantherophis guttatus) is a North American species of Rat Snake. ... Herpetoculture is the keeping of live reptiles and amphibians in captivity, whether as a hobby or as a commercial breeding operation. ...


Symbolism

Medusa by 16th Century Italian artist Caravaggio
Medusa by 16th Century Italian artist Caravaggio
Rod of Asclepius, in which the snakes, through ecdysis, symbolize healing.
Rod of Asclepius, in which the snakes, through ecdysis, symbolize healing.
Main article: Serpent (symbolism)

In Egyptian history, the snake occupies a primary role with the Nile cobra adorning the crown of the pharaoh in ancient times. It was worshipped as one of the gods and was also used for sinister purposes: murder of an adversary and ritual suicide (Cleopatra). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 587 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (935 × 955 pixel, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 587 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (935 × 955 pixel, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... For other uses, see Medusa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Caravaggio (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ecdysis is the molting of the cuticula in arthropods and related groups (Ecdysozoa). ... For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ... Hathor The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Cleopatra was a co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes), her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne, and, after Caesars assassination, aligned with Mark Antony, with whom she produced twins. ...


In Greek mythology snakes are often associated with deadly and dangerous antagonists, but this is not to say that snakes are symbolic of evil; in fact, snakes are a chthonic symbol, roughly translated as 'earthbound'. The nine-headed Lernaean Hydra that Hercules defeated and the three Gorgon sisters are children of Gaia, the earth.[60] Medusa was one of the three Gorgon sisters who Perseus defeated.[60] Medusa is described as a hideous mortal, with snakes instead of hair and the power to turn men to stone with her gaze.[60] After killing her, Perseus gave her head to Athena who fixed it to her shield called the Aegis.[60] The Titans are also depicted in art with snakes instead of legs and feet for the same reason—they are children of Gaia and Ouranos (Uranus), so they are bound to the earth. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... The 16th-century German illustrator has been influenced by the Beast of Revelation in his depiction of the Hydra. ... For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek mythological monster. ... For other uses, see Medusa (disambiguation). ... Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums) Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aegis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ...


Three medical symbols involving snakes that are still used today are Bowl of Hygieia, symbolizing pharmacy, and the Caduceus and Rod of Asclepius, which are symbols denoting medicine in general.[26] Bowl of Hygeia with serpent. ... For the medical symbol often mistakenly referred to as a caduceus, see Rod of Asclepius. ... Rod of Asclepius The Rod of Asclepius (also known as Asklepios or Aesculapius) is an ancient Greek symbol associated with astrology and healing the sick with medicine. ...


India is often called the land of snakes and is steeped in tradition regarding snakes.[61] Snakes are worshipped as gods even today with many women pouring milk on snake pits (despite snakes' aversion for milk).[61] The cobra is seen on the neck of Shiva and Vishnu is depicted often as sleeping on a 7 headed snake or within the coils of a serpent.[62] There are also several temples in India solely for cobras sometimes called Nagraj (King of Snakes) and it is believed that snakes are symbols of fertility. There is a Hindu festival called Nag Panchami each year on which day snakes are venerated and prayed to. See also Nāga. A glass of cows milk. ... For other uses, see Shiva (disambiguation). ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... Nag Panchami is a Hindu festival celebrated by Hindus in most parts of India. ... For the modern ethnic group, see Naga people. ...


In Islam, Christianity and Judaism the snake makes its infamous appearance in the first book (Genesis 3:1) of the Bible when a serpent appears before the first couple Adam and Eve as an agent of the devil and tempts them with the forbidden fruit from the Tree of Knowledge. The snake returns in Exodus when Moses, as a sign of God's power, turns his staff into a snake and when Moses made the Nehushtan, a bronze snake on a pole that when looked at cured the people of bites from the snakes that plagued them in the desert. The serpent makes its final appearance symbolizing Satan in the Book of Revelation:"And he laid hold on the dragon the old serpent, which is the devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years." (Revelation 20:2) For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... The term forbidden fruit is a metaphor that describes any object of desire whose appeal is a direct result of the knowledge that cannot or should not be obtained or something that someone may want but cannot have. ... Tree of Knowledge may refer to: The Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil mentioned in the Book of Genesis The Bodhi tree under which the Buddha received enlightenment according to Buddhism The metaphysical Tree of Jiva and Atman in Vedic mythology The Axis mundi, or world axis, which takes... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Moses lifts up the brass snake, curing the Isrealites from Snake Bites. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...


The Ouroboros is a symbol that is associated with many different religions and customs, and is also claimed to be related to Alchemy. The Ouroboros or Oroboros is a snake eating its own tail in a clock-wise direction (from the head to the tail) in the shape of a circle, representing manifestation of one's own life and rebirth, leading to immortality. For other uses, see Ouroboros (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ...


The snake is one of the 12 celestial animals of Chinese Zodiac, in the Chinese calendar. The Snake (蛇) (also known as the Serpent) is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. ... Chinese astrology (占星術 pinyin: zhan4 xing1 shu4; 星學 pinyin: xing1 xue2; 七政四餘 pinyin: qi1 zheng4 si4 yu2; and 果老星宗 pinyin: guo3 lao3 xing1 zong1) is related to the Chinese calendar, particularly its 12-year cycle of animals (aka Chinese Zodiac), and the fortune-telling aspects according to movement of heavenly... The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ...


Many ancient Peruvian cultures worshipped nature.[63] They placed emphasis on animals and often depicted snakes in their art.[64]


In religion

A snake associated with Saint Simeon Stylites.
A snake associated with Saint Simeon Stylites.

Muhammad, the prophet of Islam was reported to have said to "Kill the snake with two white lines on its back, for it blinds the on-looker and causes abortion." [65] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 520 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (582 × 671 pixel, file size: 127 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Plate showing Saint Simeon Stylites on his column with a snake. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 520 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (582 × 671 pixel, file size: 127 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Plate showing Saint Simeon Stylites on his column with a snake. ... 6th century depiction of Simeon on his column St Simeon Stylites or Symeon the Stylite (c. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Snakes also play a role in the Christian faith. The serpent was seen as a representative of evil and shy plotting, which can be seen in the image of Satan taking the form of a snake in the Garden of Eden to tempt Eve.


Snakes have also been widely revered, such as in ancient Greece, where the serpent was seen as a healer, and Asclepius carried two intertwined on his wand, a symbol seen today on many ambulances. In Judaism, the snake of brass is also a symbol of healing, of one's life being saved from imminent death (Numbers 26:6-9). In Christianity, Christ's redemptive work is compared to saving one's life through beholding the serpent of brass (John 3:14).


In Neo-Paganism and Wicca, the snake is seen as a symbol of wisdom and knowledge.


See also

Cupisnique Snake. 200 B.C.Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru.
Cupisnique Snake. 200 B.C.Larco Museum Collection Lima, Peru.

Snakes Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ...

Snakes in culture The typical Ophidian skull is characterized by a solidly ossified brain-case, with the distinct frontals and the united parietals extending downwards to the basisphenoid, which is large and produced forward into a rostrum extending to the ethmoidal region. ... A venomous snake is a snake that uses modified saliva, venom, delivered through fangs in its mouth, to immobilize or kill its prey. ... This is a list of extant snakes, given by their common names. ... This is a list of the extant Serpentes families. ... Lizards have evolved limbless form on a number of occasions. ...

A snakebot is a biomorphic hyper-redundant robot that resembles a snake. ... A snake-arm robot is a slender hyper-redundant manipulator. ... This article is about medicinal compounds. ... There has been one documented case of an exploding snake, whereby a Burmese python burst. ... Snake Shyam (M.S. Balasubramania) is a snake enthusiast in Mysore, India. ... Snakes on a Plane is a cult high concept,[1] horror-thriller feature film[2] starring Samuel L. Jackson. ... Other sites in the U.S. of similar history may be found at Indian Mounds Park The Great Serpent Mound is a 1,330-foot-long, three-foot-high prehistoric effigy mound located on a plateau of the Serpent Mound crater along Ohio Brush Creek in Adams County, Ohio. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ...

Cited references

  1. ^ Definition of serpent - Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved on 12 October 2006.
  2. ^ a b Serpentes (TSN 174118). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 20 August 2007.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Cogger(1991), p.23
  4. ^ Aniliidae (TSN 209611). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 12 December 2007.
  5. ^ Anomochilidae (TSN 563894). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 13 December 2007.
  6. ^ Atractaspididae (TSN 563895). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 13 December 2007.
  7. ^ Typhlopidae (TSN 174338). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 13 December 2007.
  8. ^ a b c Mehrtens (1987) p. 11
  9. ^ a b c d e Sanchez, Alejandro, Diapsids III: Snakes, <http://www.kingsnake.com/westindian/metazoa12.html>. Retrieved on 26 November 2007 
  10. ^ a b Mc Dowell, Samuel (1972), "The evolution of the tongue of snakes and its bearing on snake origins", Evolutionary Biology 6: 191-273 
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  58. ^ a b Flynn, Eugene. "Flynn Of The Orient Meets The Cobra", Fabulous Travel, April 23, 2002. Retrieved on November 26, 2007. 
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  63. ^ Benson, Elizabeth, The Mochica: A Culture of Peru. New York, NY: Praeger Press. 1972
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  65. ^ Sahih Bukhari 4:54:527

is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag ratio: 10:19; nicknames: Stars and Stripes, Old Glory The flag of the United States of America consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50 small, white, five-pointed stars... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) are a publisher, especially of art and illustrated books, founded in 1949 by Walter and Eva Neurath. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ...

References

  • Serpentes (TSN 174118). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 6 December 2007.
  • Bebler, John L. (1979). The Audubon Society Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of North America. Alfred A. Knopf, 581. ISBN 0394508246. 
  • Bullfinch, Thomas (2000). Bullfinch's Complete Mythology. London: Chancellor Press, 679. ISBN 0753703815. 
  • Capula, Massimo; Behler (1989). Simon & Schuster's Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of the World. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671690981. 
  • Coborn, John (1991). The Atlas of Snakes of the World. New Jersey: TFH Publications. 
  • Cogger, Harold authorlink = Harold Cogger (1992). Reptiles & Amphibians. Sydney, Australia: Weldon Owen. ISBN 0831727861. 
  • Conant, Roger (1991). A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians Eastern/Central North America. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0395583896. 
  • Deane, John (1833). The Worship of the Serpent. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger Publishing, 412. ISBN 1564598985. 
  • Ditmars, Raymond L (1906). Poisonous Snakes of the United States: How to Distinguish Them. New York: E. R. Sanborn, 11. 
  • Ditmars, Raymond L (1931). Snakes of the World. New York: Macmillian, 11. ISBN 978-0025317307. 
  • Ditmars, Raymond L (1933). Reptiles of the World: The Crocodilians, Lizards, Snakes, Turtles and Tortoises of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. New York: Macmillian, 321. 
  • Ditmars, Raymond L (1935). Snake-Hunters' Holiday.. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 309. 
  • Ditmars, Raymond L (1939). A Field Book of North American Snakes. Garden City,New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co, 305. 
  • Freiberg, Dr. Marcos (1984). The World of Venomous Animals. New Jersey: TFH Publications. ISBN 0876665679. 
  • Gibbons, J. Whitfield (1983). Their Blood Runs Cold: Adventures With Reptiles and Amphibians. Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 164. ISBN 978-0817301354. 
  • Mattison, Chris (2007). The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 272. ISBN 978-0691132952. 
  • McDiarmid, RW (1999). Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 1. Herpetologists' League, 511. 
  • Mehrtens, John (1987). Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling. ISBN 0806964618. 
  • Romulus Whitaker (English edition); Tamil translation by O.Henry Francis (1996). நம்மை சுட்ரியுள்ள பாம்புகள் (Snakes around us, Tamil). National Book Trust. ISBN 81-237-1905-1. 
  • Rosenfeld, Arthur (1989). Exotic Pets. New York: Simon & Schuster, 293. ISBN 067147654. 
  • Spawls, Steven (1995). The Dangerous Snakes of Africa. Sanibel Island,Florida: Ralph Curtis Publishing, 192. ISBN 0883590298. 

The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the state. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This is about the city of Sydney in Australia. ... Roger Conant (May 6, 1909–December 19, 2003) was an American herpetologist, author, educator and conservationist. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... View from top of Big Mountain, near Whitefish, in winter Whitefish is a city located in Flathead County, Montana. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Raymond Ditmars. ... This article is about the state. ... Raymond Ditmars. ... This article is about the state. ... Raymond Ditmars. ... This article is about the state. ... Raymond Ditmars. ... This article is about the state. ... Raymond Ditmars. ... Garden City, New York, is a village in central Nassau County, New York, in the USA, which was founded by multi-millionaire Alexander Turney Stewart in 1869. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The University of Alabama (also known as Alabama, UA or colloquially as Bama) is a public coeducational university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA. Founded in 1831, UA is the flagship school of the University of Alabama System. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... This article is about the state. ... Romulus Whitaker is a renowned herpetologist and a wildlife conservationist. ... This article is about the state. ... Jean-François Millet Le Semeur (The Sower) Simon & Schuster logo, circa 1961. ... J. N. Ding Darling reserve Sanibel Island is an island located on the Gulf coast of Florida, just offshore of Fort Myers. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...

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Serpentes
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This is a list of the extant Serpentes families. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ... Common names: (none). ... Species Acrochordus granulatus Acrochordus arafurae Acrochordus javanicus Acrochordidae is a family of three species of primitive xenophidian snakes from the Australian and Indonesian regions. ... FAMILY ANILIDAE (cylinder snakes) All of these species in the family Anilidae possess a vestigial pelvic girdle which is visible as cloacal spurs. ... Anomochilidae is a biological family of dwarf pipesnakes native to Malaysia and the East Indies. ... A small, unusual group of advanced snakes, often called mole vipers or stilleto snakes. ... For other uses, see Boa (disambiguation). ... This article needs cleanup. ... Genera According to ITIS: Adelophis Adelphicos Alsophis Amastridium Arizona Arrhyton Atractus Bogertophis Boiga Carphophis Cemophora Cerberus Chersodromus Chilomeniscus Chionactis Clelia Clonophis Coluber Coniophanes Conophis Conopsis Contia Cryophis Dendrelaphis Dendrophidion Diadophis Dipsas Dryadophis Drymarchon Drymobius Elaphe Enulius Eridiphas Erythrolamprus Farancia Ficimia Geagras Geophis Gyalopion Heterodon Hypsiglena Imantodes Lampropeltis Leptodeira Leptophis Liochlorophis... Species There are 10 species: Cylindrophis aruensis Cylindrophis boulengeri Cylindrophis engkariensis - Engkari pipe snake Cylindrophis isolepis Cylindrophis lineatus Cylindrophis maculatus Cylindrophis melanotus Cylindrophis opisthorhodus Cylindrophis rufus Cylindrophis yamdena The Asian pipe snakes (genus Cylindrophis) are a group of snakes of the superfamily Henophidia. ... The Elapidae, or elapids, are a family of highly venomous snakes found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Indian Ocean and the Pacific. ... SUBFAMILY LOXOCEMINAE (Mexicam Dwarf Pythons) Contains only 1 single genus. ... Synonyms Pythonoidea - Fitzinger, 1826 Pythonoidei - Eichwald, 1831 Holodonta - Müller, 1832 Pythonina - Bonaparte, 1840 Pythophes - Fitzinger, 1843 Pythoniens - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Holodontes - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Pythonides - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844 Pythones - Cope, 1861 Pythonidae - Cope, 1864 Peropodes - Meyer, 1874... Genera Exiliboa Trachyboa Tropidophis Ungaliophis The dwarf boas are a group of snakes traditionally classified as the family Tropidophiidae but sometimes as the subfamily Tropidophiinae within the family Boidae. ... Synonyms Uropeltana - Müller, 1832 Uropeltacea - Müller, 1832 Rhinophes - Fitzinger, 1843 Uropeltidae - Gray, 1845 Uropeltina - Gray, 1858 Plecturina - Gray, 1858 Rhinophidae - Cope, 1900 Uropeltinae - McDowell, 1975[1] Common names: pipe snakes, shield-tailed snakes. ... Synonyms Viperae - Laurenti, 1768 Viperini - Oppel, 1811 Viperidae - Gray, 1825[1] The Viperidae are a family of venomous snakes commonly referred to as vipers, although the term viperids is more specific and distinguishes them from the viperines (subfamily Viperinae). ... The family Xenopeltidae - the Sunbeam Snake - is a family containing only a single genus. ... Common names: blind snakes, thread snakes. ... Genera Anomalepis Helminthophis Liotyphlops Typhlophis Anomalepididae is a family of American blind snakes. ... FAMILY LEPTOTYPHLOPIDAE (slender blind snakes) This family of snakes is composed of 2 genera and about 41 species occurring in the Americas, Africa and Asia. ... Genera Acutotyphlops Cyclotyphlops Ramphotyphlops Rhinotyphlops Typhlops Xenotyphlops TYPHLOPIDAE (blind snakes) This family contains 240 species in 3 genera. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Snakes of North America (759 words)
Boidae is a large family of snakes that includes all five of the world's giant snakes.
Most are medium sized snakes, and all lack a pelvic girdle and have no vestigial hind limbs and whose left lung is either absent or greatly reduced.
The cobra family is thought to have evolved from Colubrid snakes and many appear very similar in appearance with long, slender bodies and large scales (plates) on the head.
Snake (reptile) - MSN Encarta (1031 words)
Snakes are reptiles, a diverse group of animals that also includes lizards, turtles, and crocodiles.
Snakes are thought to have evolved from lizards and share many characteristics with this group—particularly the so-called legless lizards, which have tiny, almost imperceptible legs.
The largest snakes are the anaconda and the reticulated python, both of which grow as long as 10 m (about 33 ft) and can weigh up to 250 kg (about 550 lb).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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