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Encyclopedia > Smyrna
Smyrna(Σμύρνη)
Ancient City of Greece
(Izmir)
The Agora of Smyrna (columns of the western stoa) SmyrnaSmyrna(Izmir)
The Agora of Smyrna (columns of the western stoa)
Smyrna (Turkey )
Smyrna
Smyrna(Izmir)

Smyrna (Greek: Σμύρνη) is an ancient city (today İzmir in Turkey) that was founded by ancient Greeks at a central and strategic point on the Aegean coast of Anatolia. Aided by its advantageous port conditions, its ease of defence and its good inland connections, Smyrna rose to prominence before the Classical Era. Its importance can be said to have remained practically uninterrupted to this day. Its initial location at the northeastern corner of the tip of the Gulf of Smyrna is commonly called "Old Smyrna", and the city after the move to a new location on the slopes of Mount Pagos (Kadifekale today) at the time of Alexander the Great, constitute Smyrna proper. The heart of that new city, principally dating from the late Hellenistic and early Roman period, before a great earthquake in 178, forms the large area of İzmir Agora Open Air Museum today (see below). Shows the Location of the Province Ä°zmir Izmir from space, June 1996 Izmir (Turkish spelling Ä°zmir, contraction of its former name Smyrna), the second-largest port (after Ä°stanbul) and the third most populous city (2,409,000 in 2000) of Turkey, is located on the Aegean Sea near the Gulf... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 320 pixelsFull resolution (3323 × 1331 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/png) Карта Турции в нужной проекции для Шаблон:ПозКарта, обрезанная ровно по линиям градусов (25° - 45° в.д., 43° - 35° с.ш.). Map of Turkey, in the equirectangular projection (equidistant cylindrical projection, or plate carrée). ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... Shows the Location of the Province Ä°zmir Izmir from space, June 1996 Izmir (Turkish spelling Ä°zmir, contraction of its former name Smyrna), the second-largest port (after Ä°stanbul) and the third most populous city (2,409,000 in 2000) of Turkey, is located on the Aegean Sea near the Gulf... Ä°zmir, historically Smyrna, is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... This article describes the ancient classical period: for the classical period in music (second half of the 18th century): see Classical music era. ... The Gulf of Ä°zmir (Turkish: ), formerly known as the Gulf of Smyrna, is an inlet of the Aegean Sea. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Commodus and Marcus Aurelius travel to the Danube to engage the Marcomanni. ...


The region was settled as of the beginning of the third millennium BCE. It is said to have been a city of the autochthonous Leleges before the Greek colonists started to settle in the coast of Asia Minor as of the beginning of the first millennia BCE. Throughout antiquity Smyrna was a leading city-state of Ionia, with influence over the Aegean shores and islands. Smyrna was also among the cities that claimed Homer as a resident.[1] The Leleges were one of the aboriginal peoples of southwest Anatolia (compare Pelasgians), who were already there when the Indo-European Hellenes arrived. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ...


There are several explanations brought forth as regards its name. One of these involve a Greek myth derived from an eponymous Amazon named Smyrna, which was also the name of a quarter of Ephesus, and can also be recognized under the form Myrina, a city of Aeolis. The early Aeolian Greek settlers of Lesbos and Cyme, expanding eastwards, occupied the valley of Smyrna. It was one of the confederacy of Aeolian city-states, marking the Aeolian frontier with the Ionian colonies. An eponym is the name of a person, whether real or fictitious, who has (or is thought to have) given rise to the name of a particular place, tribe, discovery, or other item. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... Lemnos (mod. ... Alternative meaning: the Aeolis region of Mars. ... The Aeolians were one of the ancient Greek tribes. ... Lesbos (Modern Greek: Lesvos (Λέσβος), Turkish: Midilli), is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea. ... Cyme can refer to: Cyme, a botanical term a for a class of flower clusters (see inflorescence) characterized by the terminal flower in the cluster blooming first. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ...


Strangers or refugees from the Ionian city of Colophon settled in the city and finally (traditionally in 688 BCE) by an uprising Smyrna passed into their hands and became the thirteenth of the Ionian city-states. Revised mythologies made it a colony of Ephesus[2] In 688 BCE the Ionian boxer Onomastus of Smyrna won the prize at Olympia, but the coup was probably then a recent event. The Colophonian conquest is mentioned by Mimnermus (before 600 BCE), who counts himself equally of Colophon and of Smyrna. The Aeolic form of the name was retained even in the Attic dialect, and the epithet "Aeolian Smyrna" remained current long after the conquest. Colophon (Greek Κολοφών; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was a titular see of Asia Minor. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC - 680s BC - 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC Events and Trends 689 BC - King Sennacherib of Assyria sacks Babylon 687 BC - Gyges becomes king of... An epithet (Greek - επιθετον and Latin - epitheton; literally meaning imposed) is a descriptive word or phrase. ...


Smyrna's position at the mouth of the small river Hernus at the head of a deep arm of the sea (Smyrnaeus Sinus) that reached far inland and admitted Greek trading ships into the heart of Lydia, placed it on an essential trade route between Anatolia and the Aegean and raised Smyrna during the seventh century BCE to power and splendor. One of the great trade routes which cross Anatolia descends the Hermus valley past Sardis, and then, diverging from the valley, passes south of Spil Mount and crosses a low pass into the little valley where Smyrna lies between the mountains and the sea. Miletus, and later Ephesus, situated at the sea end of the other great trade route across Anatolia, competed for a time successfully with Smyrna, but after both cities' harbors silted up, Smyrna remained without a rival. Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ... A recent view of the ceremonial court of the thermae–gymnasium complex in Sardis, dated to 211—212 AD Sardis, also Sardes (Lydian: Sfard, Greek: Σάρδεις, Persian: Sparda), modern Sart in the Manisa province of Turkey, was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia, the seat of a proconsul under... Undisturbed wild horses roam within Spil Dağı National Park Spil Mount, or ancient name Mount Sipylus (in Turkish Spil Dağı) is a mountain rich is legends and history situated near the city of Manisa in Aegean Region of Turkey, towering along the road between İzmir and Manisa. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ...


The river Meles, which flowed by Smyrna, is famous in literature and was worshipped in the valley. A common and consistent tradition connects Homer with the valley of Smyrna and the banks of the Meles; his figure was one of the stock types on coins of Smyrna, one class of which numismatists call "Homerian"; the epithet Melesigenes was applied to him; the cave where he was wont to compose his poems was shown near the source of the river; his temple, the Homereum, stood on its banks. The steady equable flow of the Meles, alike in summer and winter, and its short course, beginning and ending near the city, are celebrated by Aristides and Himerius. The description applies admirably to the stream which rises from abundant springs east of the city and flows into the southeast extremity of the gulf. For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ...


The archaic city ("Old Smyrna") contained a Temple of Athena from the seventh century BCE. For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Lydian Smyrna

Map of Smyrna and Other Cities within the Lydian Empire
Map of Smyrna and Other Cities within the Lydian Empire

When the Mermnad kings raised the Lydian power and aggressiveness, Smyrna was one of the first points of attack. Gyges (ca. 687 — 652) was, however, defeated on the banks of the Hermus, the situation of the battlefield showing that the power of Smyrna extended far to the east. A strong fortress, the ruins of whose ancient and massive walls are still imposing, on a hill in the pass between Smyrna and Nymphi, was probably built by the Smyrnaean Ionians to command the valley of Nymphi. According to Theognis (about 500 BCE), it was pride that destroyed Smyrna. Mimnermus laments the degeneracy of the citizens of his day, who could no longer stem the Lydian advance. Finally, Alyattes III (609 — 560 BCE) conquered the city and sacked it, and though Smyrna did not cease to exist, the Greek life and political unity were destroyed, and the polis was reorganized on the village system. Smyrna is mentioned in a fragment of Pindar and in an. inscription of 388 BCE, but its greatness was past. Image File history File links Map_of_Lydia_ancient_times. ... Image File history File links Map_of_Lydia_ancient_times. ... Gyges can be: A figure from Greek mythology, one of the Hecatonchires. ... A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) plural: poleis (πόλεις) is a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizens. ...


Hellenistic Smyrna

Agora of Smyrna
Agora of Smyrna

Alexander the Great conceived the idea of restoring the Greek city, in a scheme that was, according to Strabo, actually carried out under Antigonus ( 316 — 301 BCE) and Lysimachus (301 BCE — 281 BCE), who enlarged and fortified the city. The ruined acropolis of the ancient city, the "crown of Smyrna," had been on a steep peak about 1250 ft. high, which overhangs the northeast extremity of the gulf. The later, Hellenistic city was founded on the modern site of İzmir, partly on the slopes of a rounded hill the Greeks called Pagus[3] near the southeast end of the gulf, and partly on the low ground between the hill and the sea. The beauty of the Hellenistic city, clustering on the low ground and rising tier over tier on the hillside, was frequently praised by the ancients and is celebrated on its coins. Image File history File links Agora3. ... Image File history File links Agora3. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance...


Smyrna is shut in on the west by a hill now called Deirmen Tepe, with the ruins of a temple on the summit. The walls of Lysimachus crossed the summit of this hill, and the acropolis occupied the top of Pagus. Between the two the road from Ephesus entered the city by the Ephesian gate, near which was a gymnasium. Closer to the acropolis the outline of the stadium is still visible, and the theatre was situated on the north slopes of Pagus. Smyrna possessed two harbours, the outer, which was simply the open roadstead of the gulf, and the inner, which was a small basin, with a narrow entrance partially filled up by Tamerlane in 1402. For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ...


The streets were broad, well paved and laid out at right angles; many were named after temples: the main street, called the Golden, ran across the city from west to east, beginning probably from the temple of Zeus Akraios on the west slope of Pagus, and running round the lower slopes of Pagus (like a necklace on the statue, to use the favorite terms of Aristides the orator) towards Tepejik outside the city on the east, where probably stood the temple of Cybele, worshipped under the name of Meter Sipylene, (from Spil Mount, which bounds the Smyrna valley), the patroness of the city. The plain towards the sea was too low to be properly drained and hence in rainy weather the streets of the lower town were deep with mud and water. Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ...


At the end of the Hellenistic period, in 197 BC, the city suddenly cut her ties with King Eumenes of Pergamum and instead appealed to Rome for help. Because Rome and Smyrna had had no ties until then, a cult of the city was created to establish a bond and the cult eventually became widespread through the whole Roman Empire. As of 195 BC, the city of Rome itself started to be deified, in the cult to the goddess Roma. In this sense, the Smyrniots can be considered as the creators of the goddess Roma. Coin of Eumenes II Eumenes II of Pergamum (ruled 197 - 160 BC) was king of Pergamum and a member of the Attalid dynasty. ... This coin struck under Philip the Arab to celebrate Saeculum Novum bears, on the reverse, a temple devoted to the goddess Roma In Roman mythology, Roma was a deity personifying the Roman state, or an personification in art of the city of Rome (as seen on the column of Antoninus...


Roman and Byzantine Smyrna

In the Roman period Smyrna vied with Ephesus and Pergamum for the title "First City of Asia". A Christian church existed here from a very early time, having its origin in the considerable Jewish colony. One of the seven churches John of Patmos was instructed to write to in the Book of Revelation[4] was the church at Smyrna: "behold, the devil shall cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried." Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, was martyred AD 153. The bishops of Smyrna were originally subject to the metropolitan of Ephesus; later they became independent. The seven churches of Asia are seven churches mentioned in the Book of Revelation of the New Testament. ... Saint John on Patmos by Hans Baldung Grien, 1511 Saint John of Patmos, by Jean Fouquet John of Patmos is the name given to the author of the Book of Revelation (or Book of the Apocalypse) in the New Testament. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... For other uses, see Polycarp (disambiguation). ...


When Constantinople became the seat of government, the trade between Anatolia and the west lost in importance, and Smyrna declined. The Seljuk commander Çaka Bey seized Smyrna in 1084 and used it as a base for naval raids, but the city was recovered by the generals of Alexios I Komnenos. The city was several times ravaged by the Turks, and had become quite ruinous when the emperor John Ducas Vatatzes about 1222 rebuilt it. But Ibn Batuta found it still in great part a ruin when the homonymous chieftain of the Beylik of Aydın had conquered it about 1330 and made his son Umur governor. It became the port of the emirate. Soon afterwards the Knights of Saint John established themselves in the town, but failed to conquer the citadel. In 1402 Tamerlane stormed the town and massacred almost all the inhabitants. The Mongol conquest was only temporary, but Smyrna was resumed by the Turks under Aydın dynasty after which it became Ottoman, when the Ottomans took over the lands of Aydın, and remained Turkish to this day. Çaka Bey or Çakabey was the bey of Ä°zmir (Smyrna) during the Beyliks era in Anotolia about 1081. ... Events Saint Bruno founds the Carthusian Order of monks Kyanzittha begins his reign in Myanmar. ... Emperor Alexios I Komnenos Alexios I Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: ; Latin: ; 1048 – August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the son of John Komnenos and Anna Dalassena and the nephew of Isaac I Komnenos (emperor 1057–1059). ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 See also: 1222 state leaders Events Foundation of the University of Padua Completion of the Cistercian convent in Alcobaca... Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta (February 24, 1304 - 1377) was a Moroccan Berber traveller and explorer. ... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) were small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities (beylik) governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia as of the end of the 13th century. ... The Anatolian Turkish Beylik of AydınoÄŸlu with its capital in Aydın (named after the dynasty) was one of the frontier principalities established by Oghuz Turkish clans after the decline of Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate. ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


Smyrna Agora

Agora of Smyrna
Agora of Smyrna

The ruins of the agora of Smyrna constitute today the space of İzmir Agora Museum in İzmir's Namazgah quarter, although its area is commonly referred to as "Agora" by the city's inhabitants. Image File history File links Agora2. ... Image File history File links Agora2. ... Stoa of the ancient agora de Thessaloniki An agora (αγορά), translatable as marketplace, was a public space and an essential part of an ancient Greek polis or city-state. ...


Situated on the northern slopes of the Pagos hills, it was the commercial, judicial and political nucleus of the ancient city, its center for artistic activities and for teaching.


İzmir Agora Open Air Museum consists of five parts, including the agora area, the base of the northern basilica gate, the stoa and the ancient shopping centre. St. ...


The agora of Smyrna was built during the Hellenistic era. After a destructive earthquake in 178 AD is was rebuilt in the Roman period (second century AD) under the emperor Marcus Aurelius, according to an urban plan drawn by Hippodamos. The bust of the emperor's wife Faustina on the second arch of the western stoa confirms this fact. The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Rome, April 26, 121[2] – Vindobona or Sirmium, March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Hippodamus of Miletus (sometimes also called Hippodamos), was a Greek architect of the 5th century BC. It was he who introduced order and regularity into the planning of cities, in place of the previous intricacy and confusion. ... Faustina the Younger Annia Galeria Faustina, the Younger, (c. ...


It was constructed on a sloping terrain in three floors, close to the city center. The terrain is 165 m wide and 200 m long. It is bordered on all sides by porticos. Because a Byzantine and later an Ottoman cemetery was located over the ruins of the agora, it was preserved from modern constructions. This agora is now the largest and the best preserved among Ionian agoras. The agora is now surrounded by modern buildings that still cover its eastern and southern parts. Categories: Architectural elements | Stub ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Look up Ottoman, ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Architects first real look at the Greek Ionic order: Julien David LeRoy, Les ruines plus beaux des monuments de la Grèce Paris, 1758 (Plate XX) Ionic order: 1 - entablature, 2 - column, 3 - cornice, 4 - frieze, 5 - architrave or epistyle, 6 - capital (composed of abacus and volutes), 7 - shaft, 8...


The agora was used until the Byzantine period. The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...

Columns of the Agora of Smyrna
Columns of the Agora of Smyrna

On entering the courtyard, one sees on one's left side the western stoa, in the back the basilica and on the right side the Ottoman cemetery. The courtyard was surrounded by porticoes on three sides. The basilica and the western portico were built over an infrastructure of basements with round arches to protect them against future earthquakes. The eastern end and the southern porticoes consisted of a two-floor compounded structure. Beneath the basilica was a covered market place. The design of the basement has a strong resemblance with the crypto-porticus constructions of the western provinces. Image File history File links Agora1. ... Image File history File links Agora1. ... The Painted Porch (Stoa poikile), during the 3rd century BC, was where Zeno of Citium taught Stoicism. ... St. ... Look up Appendix:Architectural glossary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The monumental entrance at the eastern side was one of the most magnificent and arched structures of the Hellenistic era.


A two-storied stoa, 17.5 m wide, was constructed at the eastern and western side of the agora. Each stoa was divided in three galleries by two rows of columns. Each stoa had an upper story. The stoas were protected from sun and rain by a roof. These impressive structures measured 75 m by 18 m. The southern part of the western stoa has many water channels and large water reservoirs, pointing to the presence of water in the agora.


Most of the discoveries were made by archaeological digs carried out by the German professors R. Naumann, F. Miltner and S. Kantar, the director of İzmir and Ephesus museums, in 1932-1941. They uncovered a three-floor, rectangular compound with stairs in the front, built on columns and arches around a large courtyard in the middle of the building. For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... In geometry, a rectangle is defined as a quadrilateral where all four of its angles are right angles. ... For other uses, see Column (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arch (disambiguation). ... A court or courtyard is an enclosed area, often a space enclosed by a building that is open to the sky. ...


New digs in the agora began in 1996 and are being continued under the sponsorship of the Greater Municipality of İzmir. A primary school that was adjacent to agora and that fell victim to a fire in 1980 not having been reconstructed, its space could be incorporated into the historical site. This meant that not only could the area of agora be increased to 16,590 square metres but also new digs could be launched in a previously unexplored zone. The archaeologists and the local authorities, means permitting, are also keenly eyeing a neighbouring multi-storey car park, which is known to cover an important part of the ancient settlement. During the present renovations the old restorations in concrete are gradually being replaced by marble. Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


The most important result of the new studies has been the discovery of the agora's northern gate. It has been concluded that embossed figures of the goddess Hestia found in these digs were a continuation of the Zeus altar uncovered during the first digs. Statues of the gods Hermes, Dionysos, Eros and Heracles have also been found, as well as many statues, heads, embossments, figurines and monuments of people and animals, made of marble, stone, bone, glass, metal and terracotta. Inscriptions found here list the people who provided aid to Smyrna after the earthquake of 178 AD. For the 1934 film, see The Goddess (1934 film). ... For other uses, see Hestia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... Bacchus by Caravaggio Dionysus, the name of a god, is occasionally confused with one of several historical figures named Dionysius. ... This article is about the Greek god Eros. ... Alcides redirects here. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ...

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Agora of Izmir

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

The Ottoman and Turkish city

See İzmir. Ä°zmir, historically Smyrna, is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ...


See also

Great Fire of Smyrna as on 14 September 1922 The Great Fire of Smyrna is the name commonly given to the fire that ravaged İzmir/Smyrna starting 13 September 1922 and lasted for four days until the 17 September. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... The machine factory (shown here in a company letter of 1910) founded by Demosthenis Issigonis, Alecs grandfather, was one of the thriving Greek businesses in Smyrna (now Izmir). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece, and Rome. 
  2. ^ Strabo xiv. (633 BCE); Stephanus Byzantinicus; Pliny, Natural History v.31.
  3. ^ Simply "the hill".
  4. ^ Revelation 2:8-11

The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Stephanus Byzantinus (Stephanus of Byzantium), the author of a geographical dictionary entitled Εθνικα (Ethnica), of which, apart from some fragments, we possess only the meagre epitome of one Hermolaus. ... Naturalis Historia Pliny the Elders Natural History is an encyclopedia written by Pliny the Elder. ...

References

  • Stillman, ed. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites, 1976.
  • Official homepage of Izmir Agora Museum.
  • Turner, J. - Grove Dictionary of Art - Oxford University Press, USA; New Ed edition (January 2, 1996); ISBN 0-19-517068-7
  • Akurgal, Ekrem - Ancient Civilizations and Ruins of Turkey; publ. Kegan Paul, 2002; ISBN 0710307764

  Results from FactBites:
 
www.ci.smyrna.ga.us (654 words)
n Friday, August 17 the City of Smyrna took another step toward preserving and promoting Smyrna's urban forest when Mayor A. Max Bacon signed the grant and the City of Smyrna received $10,000 in cost-share funding through the Georgia Forestry Commission’s (GFC) Urban & Community Forestry Grant Program.
The purpose of the Smyrna project is to inventory the existing City urban forest. 
- Water Ban - To report violations of the water use restrictions in Smyrna call 770-319-5338 during normal business hours and 770-434-6666 after hours and on weekends.
Smyrna clipper ship (1458 words)
The Smyrna a 1,305-ton vessel of the Aberdeen White star line built in 1876 was laden with general cargo when she had left London bound for Sydney.
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With general cargo estimated at £43,000 English pounds and a the vessel itself £11,000 the High court of the Admiralty decided that the 'Moto' was solely at blame for the collision awarding the Smyrna's owners G.Thompson and Co a sum not exceeding a total of £55,811 in compensation.
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