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Encyclopedia > Smolensk
A view of Smolensk in 1912.
A view of Smolensk in 1912.

Smolensk (Russian: Смоленск) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dnieper River, the administrative centre of Smolensk Oblast. Its population in 2003 was estimated as 351,100 (325,137 as of 2002 Census). Situated some 225 miles west-southwest of Moscow, this walled city was destroyed several times throughout its long history. It was on the invasion routes of both Napoleon and Hitler. Today, Smolensk is noted for electronics, textiles, and food processing. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Types of settlements in Russia, Soviet Union, and some other post-Soviet states have certain peculiarities with respect to the English language traditions. ... The Dnieper River (also: Dnepr, Dniapro, or Dnipro) is a river (2,290 km length) which flows from Russia through Belarus and then Ukraine. ... Categories: Stub | Oblasts of Russia | Smolensk Oblast ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ...

Contents

History

Origins of the name

The name of the city is derived from the name of the Smolnya Rivulet. The origin of the hydronym is less clear. One possibility is the old Slavic word for black soil, which might have coloured the waters of the long-derelict Smolnya. An alternative origin could be the Russian word smola that means both tar and resin. Pine trees grow in the area, and city was once a center of resin processing and trade. A hydronym (from Greek hudor, water and onuma, name) is a proper name of a body of water. ... Chernozem, or Black Earth (from Polish czarnoziem which means black soil), a kind of soil. ... Tar is a viscous black liquid derived from the destructive distillation of organic matter. ... Resin of a pine Insect trapped in resin. ... Species About 115. ...


Medieval origins

Smolensk is among the oldest of Russian cities. The first recorded mention of the city was 863 AD, two years after the founding of ancient Russia. According to Russian Primary Chronicle, Smolensk (then located slightly downstream) was the capital of the Slavic Krivichs tribe in 882 when Oleg of Novgorod took it in passing from Novgorod to Kiev. The town was first attested two decades earlier, when the Varangian chieftains Askold and Dir, while on their way to Kiev, decided against messing with Smolensk on account of its large size and population. Image File history File links Assumption_Cathedral_in_Smolensk. ... Image File history File links Assumption_Cathedral_in_Smolensk. ... The Assumption cathedral as seen from the distance The Cathedral of the Assumption, or the Assumption cathedral, of Smolensk was constructed over a period of almost 100 years on the site of an earlier temple of the same name which was destroyed at the end of the 1609 -1611 siege. ... The Russian Primary Chronicle (Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let, which is often translated in English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the early East Slavic state, Kievan Rus, from... Kriwi  album cover The Krivichs (Кривичи́ in Russian, Крывічы́ in Belarusian or Krivichi), a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 12th centuries, which inhabited the upper reaches of the Volga, Dnieper, Western Dvina, the southern part of the Lake Peipus and parts of the Neman basin. ... Events Carloman, King of the West Franks becomes sole king upon the death of his brother. ... Prince Oleg (Old Norse name Helgi, Khazarian form: Helgu) was a Varangian ruler who moved the capital of Rus from Novgorod the Great to Kiev. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Askold (Höskuldr) and Dir (Dyri) were according to the Primary Chronicle, two of Ruriks men. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ...


The first foreign writer to mention the city was the Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus. In De Administrando Imperio (c. 950) he described Smolensk as a key station on the Road from Varangians to Greeks. The Rus sailed from the Baltics up the Western Dvina as far as they could then they pulled their boats out onto the ground and dragged them along to the upper Dnieper. It was in Smolensk that they supposedly mended any leaks and small holes that might have appeared in their boats from being dragged on the ground and they used tar to do that, hence the city name. Constantine and his mother Zoë. Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos (the Purple-born) (Constantinople, 905 – November 9, 959 in Constantinople) was the son of Byzantine emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife Zoe Karvounopsina. ... De Administrando Imperio is the commonly used title of a scholarly work from ca. ... Events World Population: 250 Million. ... The Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Путь «из варяг в греки» in Russian) was a trade route, which connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus and the Byzantine Empire. ... Rus’ (Русь, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular but by no means the only theory, took its name from its ruling warrior class with Scandinavian roots. ... The Baltic Sea The Baltic states, or Baltic countries, is a term which usually refers to three countries to the East of the Baltic Sea: Estonia Latvia Lithuania It ought to be noted that although the present-day Baltic countries are republics, the term Baltic Republics refers to the same... The Daugava or Western Dvina (Russian: За́падная Двина́, Belarusan: Дзьвіна́, Latvian: Daugava, German: Düna, Polish Dźwina) is a river rising in the Valdai Hills flowing through Russia... For the Gentoo Linux package manager, see Portage (software). ... This article is about the river. ... Tar is a viscous black liquid derived from the destructive distillation of organic matter. ...


The princedom of Smolensk was founded in 1054. Due to its central position amid Russian lands, the city developed rapidly. By the end of the 12th century the princedom was one of the strongest in Eastern Europe, so that Smolensk dynasty frequently controlled the Kievan throne. Numerous churches were built in the city at that time, including the church of Sts Peter and Paul (1146, reconstructed to its presumed original appearance after WWII) and church of St John the Baptist (1180, also partly rebuilt). The most remarkable church in the city is called Svirskaya (1197, still standing); it was admired by contemporaries as the most beautiful structure to the east of Kiev. Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ... Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe variably defined. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ... John the Baptist (also called John the Baptizer or John the Dipper) is regarded as a prophet by at least three religions: Christianity, Islam, and Mandaeanism. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ...

Our Lady of Smolensk (11th century).
Our Lady of Smolensk (11th century).

Download high resolution version (615x1215, 72 KB)Our Lady of Smolensk, the 11th-century icon lost during the WWII This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (615x1215, 72 KB)Our Lady of Smolensk, the 11th-century icon lost during the WWII This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Between Russia, Lithuania, and Poland

Although spared by the Mongol armies in 1240, Smolensk paid tribute to the Golden Horde, gradually becoming a pawn in the long struggle between Lithuania and Muscovy. The last sovereign monarch of Smolensk was George of Smolensk; during his disastrous reign the city was taken by Vytautas of Lithuania on three occasions, in 1395, 1404 and 1408. After the city's incorporation into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, some Smolensk boyars (e.g., the Sapiehas) moved to Vilnius; descendants of the ruling princes (e.g., the Tatischevs, Kropotkins, Mussorgskis, Viazemskis) fled to Moscow. Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... The Golden Horde (Turkish: Altın Ordu, Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Tatar-Mongol state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Yury Svyatoslavich or Georgy Svyatoslavovich (Russian: or Георгий Святославович) was the last sovereign ruler of Smolensk and Bryansk (1386-95, 1401-04) whose life was spent in vain attempts to fend off aggression by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. ... Vytautas the Great - engraving of XVI ct. ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... Events December 13 - The Order of the Dragon is officially formated under King Sigismund of Hungary. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... A boyar (also spelt bojar; Romanian: boier) was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Ruthenian (Russian) and Romanian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the 17th century. ... The family coat of arms was: Lis. ... Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Vilnius city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 20 Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population 540,318 in 2005 (1st)} First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Vilna redirects here. ... Monument to Tatischev in Tolyatti. ... Peter Kropotkin Prince Peter Alexeievich Kropotkin (Пётр Алексе́евич Кропо́ткин) ( December 9, 1842 - February 8, 1921) was one of Russias foremost anarchists and one of the first advocates... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Russian: , Modest Petrovič Musorgskij, French: ) (March 9/21, 1839 – March 16/28, 1881), one of the Russian composers known as the Five, was an innovator of Russian music. ... Vyazemsky may refer to: Pyotr Vyazemsky (1792–1878), a leading personality of the Golden Age of Russian poetry Vyazemsky District, name of several districts in Russia Vyazemsky (town), a town in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia Category: ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ...


With a population of tens of thousands of people, Smolensk was probably the largest city in 15th-century Lithuania. Three Smolensk regiments proved decisive during the Battle of Grunwald against the Teutonic knights. It was a severe blow to Lithuania when the city was retaken by Vasili III of Russia in 1514. To commemorate this event, the tsar founded the Novodevichy Convent in Moscow and dedicated it to the icon of Our Lady of Smolensk. Combatants Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Teutonic Order Commanders WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw II JagieÅ‚Å‚o, Vytautas the Great Ulrich von Jungingen Strength 39,000 27,000 Casualties Unknown 8,000 dead 2,000 captured The Battle of Grunwald or Battle of Tannenberg took place on July 15, 1410... The Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order (Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Ierosolimitanorum, Order of the Teutonic House of Mary in Jerusalem) is a German Roman Catholic religious order formed at the end of the 12th century in Acre in Palestine. ... Vasili III Ivanovich (Russian: Василий III Иванович, also Basil) (March 25, 1479 – December 3, 1533) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1505 to 1533. ... 1514 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Monomakhs Cap symbol of Russian autocracy, the crown of Russian grand princes and tsars Czar and tzar redirect here. ... Novodevichy convent in summer Novodevichy Convent, also known as Bogoroditse-Smolensky Monastery (Новодевичий монастырь, Богородице-Смоленс&#1082... For other senses of this word, see icon (disambiguation). ...


In order to repel future Polish-Lithuanian attacks, Boris Godunov made it his priority to heavily fortify the city. The stone kremlin constructed in 15971602 is the largest in Russia. It features remarkably thick walls and numerous watch-towers. Heavy fortifications didn't prevent the fortress from being taken by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1611 after a long 20-month siege, during the Time of Troubles and Dimitriads. Weakened Muscovy ceded temporarily Smolensk land to the Commonwealth in the Truce of Deulino and for the next forty three years it was the capital of the Smoleńsk Voivodship. Polish-Lithuanian can refer to: Polish-Lithuanian Union from 1385 until 1569 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 untul 1795 Categories: Disambiguation ... Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ... Kremlin (Russian: Кремль IPA: ) is the Russian word for fortress, citadel, or castle and refers to any major fortified central complex found in historical Russian cities. ... Events 17 January - A court case in Guildford recorded evidence that a certain plot of land was used for playing “kreckett” (i. ... This page is about the year. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Events June 23 - Henry Hudsons crew maroons him, his son and 7 others in a boat November 1 - At Whitehall Palace in London, William Shakespeares romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time. ... The Defense of Smolensk from the Poles, by Boris Chorikov (1802-66). ... The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время, Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of Moscow Rurikids, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ... Combatants Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Muscovite Russia Commanders Strength Casualties The Polish-Muscovite War (1605–1618) is the name of the series of wars (1605–1618) between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovite Russia (or Muscovy), in the background of the Russian dynastic crisis known as the Time of Troubles (1598... Truce of Deulino (also known as Peace or Treaty of Dywilino), was signed in December 1618 and concluded the Dymitriad wars (also known as Polish-Muscovy War of 1605-1618) between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy. ... SmoleÅ„sk Voivodship (Polish: Województwo SmoleÅ„skie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) since 15th century till the partitions of Poland in 1795. ...


To recapture the city, Muscovy launched the so-called "Smolensk War" against the Commonwealth in 1632. After a heavy defeat at the hands of king Wladislaw IV, the city remained in Polish-Lithuanian hands. In 1632, the Uniate bishop Lew Kreuza built his apartments in Smolensk; they were later converted into the Orthodox church of St. Barbara. The hostilities resumed in 1654 when the Commonwealth was being rocked by the Uprising of Ukrainian Cossacks and Swedish invasion. After another siege, on September 23, 1654 Smolensk was recaptured by Russia as the Polish garrison left the city. In the 1667 Treaty of Andrusovo the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth finally renounced its claims to the Smolensk. Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... The Smolensk War was a conflict fought in the years 1632- 1634 between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Muscovy. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Reign in Poland From November 8, 1632 until May 20, 1648 Reign in Russia From 1610 until 1635 Elected in Poland On November 8, 1632 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Elected in Russia In 1610 Coronation On February 6, 1633 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... The Russo-Polish War of 1654-1667, also called the War for Ukraine, was the last major conflict between Muscovite Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Chmielnicki Uprising or Chmielnicki Rebellion is the name of a civil war in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the years 1648–1654. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Treaty of Andrusovo, 1667 (Polish Rozejm w Andruszowie, Russian Андрусовское перемирие, Ukrainian Андрусівське переми&#1088... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Modern history

Eagles monument in Smolensk, commemorating the centenary of the Russian victory over Napoleon.
Eagles monument in Smolensk, commemorating the centenary of the Russian victory over Napoleon.

Smolensk has been a special place to Russians for many reasons, not least for the fact that the local cathedral housed one of the most venerated Orthodox icons, attributed to St Luke. Building the new Cathedral of the Assumption was a great project which took more than a century to complete. Despite slowly sinking into economic backwater, Smolensk was still valued by tsars as a key fortress defending the route to Moscow. It was made the capital of Guberniya in 1708. Image File history File linksMetadata Smolensk_eagles. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Smolensk_eagles. ... The Assumption cathedral as seen from the distance The Cathedral of the Assumption, or the Assumption cathedral, of Smolensk was constructed over a period of almost 100 years on the site of an earlier temple of the same name which was destroyed at the end of the 1609 -1611 siege. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ... Luke the Evangelist (Greek Λουκας Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ... The Assumption cathedral as seen from the distance The Cathedral of the Assumption, or the Assumption cathedral, of Smolensk was constructed over a period of almost 100 years on the site of an earlier temple of the same name which was destroyed at the end of the 1609 -1611 siege. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ... // Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth July 1 - Tewoflos becomes Emperor of Ethiopia September 28 - Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague J...

Smolensk's coat of arms
Smolensk's coat of arms

In August 1812 two of the largest armies ever assembled clashed in Smolensk. During the hard-fought battle, described by Leo Tolstoy in War and Peace, Napoleon entered the city. Total losses were estimated at 30,000 men. Apart from other military monuments, downtown Smolensk features the Eagles monument, unveiled in 1912 to mark the centenary of Napoleon's Russian campaign. Coat of arms of Smolensk This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... La Grande Armée (in English, the Big or Grand Army) is the French military term for the main force in a military campaign. ... The First Battle of Smolensk took place on August 17, 1812, between 175,000 French under Napoleon Bonaparte and 130,000 Russians under Prince Bagration, of whom about 50,000 and 60,000 respectively were actually engaged. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Russian: , Lev Nikolaevič Tolstoj), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy (September 9, 1828 [O.S. August 28] – November 20, 1910 [O.S. November 7]) was a Russian novelist, writer, essayist, philosopher, Christian anarchist, pacifist, educational reformer, vegetarian, moral thinker and an influential member of... War and Peace (Russian: Война и мир, Vojna i mir; in original orthography: Война и миръ, Vojna i mir) is an epic novel by Leo Tolstoy, first published from 1865 to 1869, which tells the story of Russian society during the Napoleonic Era. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ...


Immediately after the October Revolution, when Belarus proper was still occupied by German forces, Smolensk (Belarusian: Смаленск, Smalensk) became a notable centre of Belarusian political life, although remaining administratively a part of Russia. In 1918, German occupational forces declared Smolensk Governorate a constituent of the Belarusian People's Republic, which only lasted less than a year. On January 2, 1919 the Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed in Smolensk, but its government moved to Minsk as soon as the Polish interventionists, had been driven out of the Belarusian capital several months later. Bolshevik (1920), by Boris Kustodiev. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... July 28, 1713 (July 17, Julian calendar): The Smolensk Governorate was abolished and its territory divided between Moscow Governorate and Riga Governorate. ... National motto: None Official language Belarusian Capital Minsk, Currently in Exile in Canada National anthem Vajacki marÅ¡ Chairperson of the Rada Ivonka Survilla Independence  - Declared  - Forced into Exile Treaty of Brest-Litovsk March 25, 1918 January 5, 1919 The Belarusian Peoples Republic (Belarusian: Белару́ская Наро́дная Рэспу́бліка, eng. ... January 2 is the second day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... State motto: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Belarusian: Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... Location Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Government Belarus District City Belarus Minsk Voblast Minsk City City 980 (Polatsk) Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 256 km² Population  - City (2006) 1,780,000 Coordinates Elevation 280. ...


During World War II Smolensk was again chosen by history as a stage for one of its greater battles, the Battle of Smolensk. The first Soviet counteroffensive against the German army was launched here in August 1941. Over 93% of the city was destroyed during the fighting. The ancient icon was lost forever. It is no surprise that the title of Hero City was bestowed on Smolensk after the war. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The eastern front at the time of the Battle of Smolensk. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... This article is about the year. ... Hero City (город-герой or gorod-geroy in Russian) is an honorary title awarded to twelve cities and one city-fortress in the Soviet Union for outstanding heroism during the Great Patriotic War of 1941 to 1945. ...

The Smolensk Train Station
The Smolensk Train Station

After the Germans captured the city in 1941, they found the intact archives of Smolensk Oblast Committee of the Communist Party, the so-called Smolensk Archive. The archive was moved to Germany, and a significant part of it eventually ended up in the United States, providing Western scholars and intelligence specialists with unique information on the local workings of the Soviet government during its first two decades. The archives were returned to Russia by the United States in 2002 [1][2] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 530 KB) Train station in Smolensk, Russia picture by User:Markv File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Smolensk Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 530 KB) Train station in Smolensk, Russia picture by User:Markv File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Smolensk Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added... This article is about the year. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...


Sister cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Tulle is a netting, which is often starched, made of various fibers, including silk, nylon, and rayon, that is often used for veils or gowns. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Hagen is the 37th largest city in Germany, located in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Nickname: The Springs Location in the state of Colorado Coordinates: County El Paso Mayor Lionel Rivera Area    - City 482. ...

Other pictures

Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Kremlin ... Download high resolution version (642x619, 95 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Смоленск
  • Smolensk Youth information portal (Russian)
  • Travel to Smolensk (English)
  • Smolensk Wiki (Russian)
  • Homepage of the Smolensk fortress (Russian)
  • Some photos of the Smolensk fortress
  • More photos
  • Historic images of Smolensk
  • Smolensk on Wikimapia
Major fortresses of Western Russia Koporye Fortress.

Gdov | Ivangorod | Izborsk | Kirillov | Koporye | Korela | Kronstadt | Ladoga | New Dvina Fort | Novgorod | Oreshek | Porkhov | Pskov | Smolensk | Solovki | St Petersburg | Tiversk | Vyborg | Yamburg Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Kremlin (Russian: Кремль IPA: ) is the Russian word for fortress, citadel, or castle and refers to any major fortified central complex found in historical Russian cities. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 915 KB) Fortress of Koporye, Leningrad Oblast, Russia. ... Gdov (Гдов) is a Russian town in the Pskov Oblast, which stands on the river Gdovka, just 2 km from its outflow into Chudskoye Lake. ... Ivangorod Fortress is a castle constructed near the town of Ivangorod, Russia. ... Izborsk (И́зборск in Russian, Irboska in Estonian) is an old Russian town to the west of Pskov and just to the east from the Estonian border. ... Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery, properly translated in English as The Assumption monastery of St Cyril, has always rivalled the Solovetsky Monastery as the strongest fortress and the richest landowner of the Russian North. ... Koporye Fortress near St Petersburg Koporye (Russian: Копорье) is a historic village in Russia, about 100 km to the west of St Petersburg, which contains some of the most impressive medieval ruins in Russia. ... Korela Fortress, at the town of Priozersk, was founded by the Karelians who named the place Novogorodian chronicles refer to it as It was first mentioned in a Novgorodian chronicle of 1143 and archeological digs have revealed a layer belonging to the 12th century. ... 1888 map of Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), or Kronshtadt, Cronstadt, is a strongly fortified Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, near the head of the Gulf of Finland, at , . It lies thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg, of which it is the chief port. ... Ladoga may refer to one of the following. ... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Shlisselburg (Russian: ) is a town in western Russia (Kirovsky District, Leningrad Oblast) located at the head of the Neva River on Lake Ladoga, 45 km east of Saint Petersburg, which lies at the mouth of the Neva on the Gulf of Finland. ... Porkhov (Порхов in Russian) is a medieval fortress and town in the Pskov Oblast, Russia. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... Solovetsky Monastery Solovetsky Monastery (Соловецкий монастырь in Russian), a monastery on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea. ... The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропавловская крепость) is in St. ... Tiversk or Tiversky gorodok (Russian: ) was a medieval Russian fortress in the Karelian Isthmus, to the south-west of Priozersk (Kexholm), Leningrad Oblast. ... A view of Vyborg from the castle tower Vyborg (Russian: ; Finnish: ; Swedish: ; German: ) is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, situated on the Karelian Isthmus near the head of the Bay of Vyborg, 130 km to the northwest of St. ... St Catherine Cathedral of Yamburg was built in 1764-1782 to a late baroque design by Antonio Rinaldi. ...

Coordinates: 54°47′N 32°03′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Smolensk Hotels (315 words)
Smolensk is a port on the Dnieper River.
Smolensk was sacked by the Mongols in 1238-40.
It was captured by the Lithuanians in 1408, taken by the Russians in 1514, occupied by the Poles in 1611, and reconquered in 1654 by the Russians, to whom it passed by the Treaty of Andrusov (1667).
Smolensk: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1925 words)
Smolensk was sacked by the Mongols in 1238–40.
Its population in 2003 was estimated as 351,100 (325,137 as of 2002 Census).
The last sovereign monarch of Smolensk was George of Smolensk; during his disastrous reign the city was taken by Vytautas of Lithuania on three occasions, in 1395, 1404 and 1408.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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