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Encyclopedia > Smoke
For other uses, see Smoke (disambiguation).
Smoke from a wildfire
Smoke from a wildfire

Smoke is the airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes pyrolysis or combustion, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass. It is commonly an unwanted by-product of fires (including stoves and lamps) and fireplaces, but may also be used for pest control (cf. fumigation), communication (smoke signals), defense (smoke-screen) or inhalation of tobacco or other drugs. Smoke is sometimes used as a flavouring agent and preservative for various foodstuffs. Smoke is also sometimes a component of internal combustion engine exhaust gas, particularly diesel exhaust. Smoke and similar can mean:- smoke, a cloud of particles suspended in the air. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wildfiretopanga. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Wildfiretopanga. ... A wildfire, also known as a wildland fire, forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, peat fire (gambut in Indonesia), bushfire (in Australasia), or hill fire, is an uncontrolled fire often occurring in wildland areas, but which can also consume houses or agricultural resources. ... Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... A combustion reaction taking place in a igniting match Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ... A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and is not the primary product or service being produced. ... A stove is a heat-producing device. ... Look up Lamp in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a disambiguation. ... Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides to suffocate or poison the pests within. ... A smoke signal is a form of visual communication used over a long distance, developed both in the Americas and in China. ... A U.S. Army Humvee laying a smoke screen A smoke-screen is a release of smoke in order to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks or ships. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... An assortment of psychoactive drugs A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... Automobile exhaust Exhaust gas is flue gas which occurs as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline/petrol, diesel, fuel oil or coal. ... Exhaust gas is gas which occurs as a result of combustion of fuel such as gasoline/petrol or diesel. ...


Smoke inhalation is the primary cause of death in victims of indoor fires. The smoke kills by a combination of thermal damage, poisoning and pulmonary irritation caused by carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and other combustion products. Smoke inhalation is the primary cause of death in victims of indoor fires. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... The skull and crossbones symbol (Jolly Roger) traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Hydrogen cyanide is a chemical compound with chemical formula HCN. A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called hydrocyanic acid. ...


Smoke particles are actually an aerosol (or mist) of solid particles and liquid droplets that are close to the ideal range of sizes for Mie scattering of visible light. This effect has been likened to three-dimensional textured privacy glass—the smoke cloud does not obstruct an image, but thoroughly scrambles it. Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... Dramatic morning mist Mist is a phenomenon of a liquid in small droplets floating through air. ... Mie theory, also called Lorenz-Mie theory or Lorenz-Mie-Debye theory, is a complete analytical solution of Maxwells equations for the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by spherical particles (also called Mie scattering). ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ...

Contents

Chemical composition

"Bling-bling": Skywriters use smoke to spell.
"Bling-bling": Skywriters use smoke to spell.

The composition of smoke depends on the nature of the burning fuel and the conditions of combustion. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1893 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Smoke Skywriting Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1893 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Smoke Skywriting Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... A bling bling-heavy album cover from The B.G. For the Marvel Comics character, see Bling (comics). ... Skywriting is the process of using a small aircraft, able to expel special smoke during flight, to fly in certain patterns as to create writing readable by someone on the ground. ...


Fires with high availability of oxygen burn in high temperature and with small amount of smoke produced; the particles are mostly composed of ash, or in large temperature differences, of condensed aerosol of water. High temperature also leads to production of nitrogen oxides. Sulfur content yields sulfur dioxide. Carbon and hydrogen get completely oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. Fires burning with lack of oxygen produce significantly wider palette of compounds, many of them toxic. Partial oxidation of carbon produces carbon monoxide, nitrogen-containing materials can yield hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, and nitrogen oxides. Content of chlorine (eg. in polyvinyl chloride) or other halogens may lead to production of eg. hydrogen chloride, phosgene, dioxin, and chloromethane, bromomethane and other halocarbons. The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Hydrogen cyanide is a chemical compound with chemical formula HCN. A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called hydrocyanic acid. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen... Polyvinyl chloride Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ... The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 (old-style: VII or VIIA; Group 7 IUPAC Style) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, iodine, I, and astatine, At. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Phosgene is a highly toxic chemical compound with the formula COCl2. ... Dioxin is the common name for the group of compounds classified as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , Flash point -46 °C Autoignition temperature 625 °C Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Chloromethane, also called Methyl chloride, or simply R-40 or HCC 40, is a chemical compound... The chemical compound bromomethane is an organic halogen compound with formula CH3Br. ... Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms: fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine. ...


Pyrolysis of the burning material also results in production of large amount of hydrocarbons, both aliphatic (methane, ethane, ethylene, acetylene) and aromatic (benzene and its derivates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; eg. benzo[a]pyrene, studied as a cancerogen, or retene), terpenes. Heterocyclic compounds may be also present. Heavier hydrocarbons may condense as tar. Simple sketch of pyrolysis chemistry Pyrolysis usually means the chemical decomposition of organic materials by heating in the absence of oxygen or any other reagents, except possibly steam. ... In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is a cleaning solution consisting only of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Ethane is a chemical compound with chemical formula C2H6. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the simplest alkyne hydrocarbon, consisting of two hydrogen atoms and two carbon atoms connected by a triple bond. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... For benzine, see petroleum ether. ... An illustration of typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. ... Benzo[a]pyrene, C20H12, is a five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is mutagenic and highly carcinogenic. ... Retene Retene, methyl isopropyl phenanthrene or 1-methyl-7-isopropyl phenanthrene, C18H18, is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon present in the coal tar fraction, boiling above 36 °Celsius. ... Many terpenes are derived from conifer resins, here a pine. ... Pyridine a simple heterocyclic compound Heterocyclic compounds are organic compounds which contain a ring structure containing atoms in addition to carbon, such as sulfur, oxygen or nitrogen, as part of the ring. ... Tar can be produced from corn stalks by heating in a microwave. ...


Presence of sulfur can lead to formation of eg. hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, and thiols; especially thiols tend to get adsorbed on surfaces and produce lingering odor even long after the fire. Partial oxidation of the released hydrocarbons yields in a wide palette of other compounds: aldehydes (eg. formaldehyde, acrolein, and furfural), ketones, alcohols (often aromatic, eg. phenol, guaiacol, syringol, catechol, and cresols), carboxylic acids (formic acid, acetic acid, etc.). Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English), H2S, is a colorless, toxic, flammable gas that is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Carbonyl sulfide is a colourless gas at room temperature with an unpleasant odor. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Carbon disulfide is a colorless liquid with the formula CS2. ... Sulphydryl // In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ... An aldehyde. ... The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal) is a gas with a pungent smell. ... In organic chemistry, acrolein or propenal is the simplest unsaturated aldehyde. ... The chemical compound furfural is an industrial chemical derived from a variety of agricultural byproducts, including corncobs, oat and wheat bran, and sawdust. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Chemical structure of guaiacol Guaiacol, or 2-methoxyphenol, is a natural organic compound with the molecular formula C7H8O2. ... Syringol Syringol, also called 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, 1,3-dimethoxy-2-hydroxybenzene, 2-hydroxy-1,3-dimethoxybenzene, or pyrogallol 1,3-dimethyl ether, is an organic compound. ... Catechol, also benzene-1,2-diol, is a phenol, with formula C6H4(OH)2. ... Cresols are organic chemical compounds which are methylphenols. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ... Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3COOH best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ...


The visible particles in such smokes are most commonly composed of carbon (soot). Other particulates may be composed of drops of condensed tar, or solid particles of ash. Content of metals yields particles of metal oxides. Particles of inorganic salts may also be formed, eg. ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate. Many organic compounds, typically the aromatic hydrocarbons, may be also adsorbed on the surface of the solid particles. General Name, symbol, number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... Soot, also called lampblack, Pigment Black 7, carbon black or black carbon, is a dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, usually composed mainly of amorphous carbon, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke—especially from the combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in the... Ammonium sulphate, [NH4]2[SO4] contains 21% nitrogen as ammonia and 24% sulfur as sulfate. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In chemistry, adsorption of a substance is its concentration on a particular surface. ...


Smoke emissions may contain characteristic trace elements. Vanadium is present in emissions from oil fired power plants and refineries; oil plants also emit some nickel. Coal combustion produces emissions containing selenium, arsenic, chromium, cobalt, copper, and aluminium. General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated... A refinery is composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations used for refining certain materials or converting raw material into products of value. ... General Name, symbol, number nickel, Ni, 28 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 10, 4, d Appearance lustrous, metallic and silvery with a gold tinge Standard atomic weight 58. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, period, block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 26. ...


Some components of smoke are characteristic for the combustion source. Guaiacol and its derivates are products of pyrolysis of lignin and are characteristic for wood smoke; other markers are syringol and derivates, and other methoxy phenols. Retene, a product of pyrolysis of conifer trees, is an indicator of forest fires. Levoglucosan is a pyrolysis product of cellulose. Hardwood vs softwood smokes differ in the ratio of guaiacols/syringols. Markers for vehicle exhaust include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, hopanes, steranes, and specific nitroarenes (eg. 1-nitropyrene). The ratio of hopanes and steranes to elemental carbon can be used to distinguish between emissions of gasoline and diesel engines. [1] Chemical structure of guaiacol Guaiacol, or 2-methoxyphenol, is a natural organic compound with the molecular formula C7H8O2. ... Lignin (sometimes lignen) is a chemical compound (complex, highly cross-linked aromatic polymer) that is most commonly derived from wood and is an integral part of the cell walls of plants, especially in tracheids, xylem fibres and sclereids. ... Smoke from a wildfire Smoke is a suspension in air (aerosol) of small particles resulting from incomplete combustion of a fuel. ... Syringol Syringol, also called 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, 1,3-dimethoxy-2-hydroxybenzene, 2-hydroxy-1,3-dimethoxybenzene, or pyrogallol 1,3-dimethyl ether, is an organic compound. ... In chemistry, the methoxy prefix indicates the function group consisting of the methyl group and oxygen. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Retene Retene, methyl isopropyl phenanthrene or 1-methyl-7-isopropyl phenanthrene, C18H18, is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon present in the coal tar fraction, boiling above 36 °Celsius. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood For the record label, see Hardwood Records. ... Despite being fairly hard, cedar is a softwood Softwood is the wood from conifers. ... An illustration of typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. ... Prednisone is a synthetic corticosteroid drug which is usually taken orally and can be used for a large number of different conditions. ...


Dangers of smoke

Smoke from oxygen-deprived fires contains a significant amount of compounds that are flammable. A cloud of smoke, in contact with atmospheric oxygen, therefore has the potential of being ignited - either by another open flame in the area, or by its own temperature. This leads to effects like backdraft and flashover. A backdraft is a situation which can occur when a fire is starved of oxygen; consequently combustion ceases but the fuel gases and smoke remain at high temperature. ... A flashover is the near simultaneous ignition of all combustible material in an enclosed area. ...


Many compounds of smoke from fires are highly toxic and/or irritant. The most dangerous is the carbon monoxide, leading to carbon monoxide poisoning, sometimes with supporting effect of hydrogen cyanide and phosgene. Smoke inhalation can therefore quickly lead to incapacitation and loss of consciousness. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after the inhalation of carbon monoxide gas. ... Hydrogen cyanide is a chemical compound with chemical formula HCN. A solution of hydrogen cyanide in water is called hydrocyanic acid. ... Phosgene is a highly toxic chemical compound with the formula COCl2. ... Smoke inhalation is the primary cause of death in victims of indoor fires. ...


Smoke can obscure visibility, impeding occupant exiting from fire areas. In fact, the poor visibility due to the smoke that was in the Worcester Cold Storage Warehouse fire in Worcester, Massachusetts was the exact reason why the trapped rescue firefighters couldn't evacuate the building in time. Due to the striking similarity that each floor shared, the dense smoke caused the firefighters to become disoriented.[1] The Worcester Cold Storage Warehouse fire was a fire that occurred on December 3rd, 1999, in Worcester, Massachusetts. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Worcester County Settled 1673 Incorporated 1684 Government  - Type Council-manager also known as Plan E  - City Manager Michael V. OBrien  - Mayor Konstantina B. Lukes  - City Council Dennis L. Irish Michael C. Perotto Joseph M. Petty Gary Rosen Kathleen...


Visible and invisible particles of combustion

Depending on particle size, smoke can be visible or invisible to the naked eye. This is best illustrated when toasting bread in a toaster. As the bread heats up, the products of combustion increase in size. These particles begin as invisible but become visible if the toast is burnt. In Meteorology, ability is a measure of the nothingness at which an object or light can be seen. ... An example of how an object could appear to be invisible through the use of mirrors Invisibility is the state of an object which cannot be seen. ... The naked eye is a figure of speech referring to human visual perception that is unaided by enhancing equipment, such as a telescope or binoculars. ... Two pieces of toasted white bread. ... A combustion reaction taking place in a igniting match Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ... A combustion reaction taking place in a igniting match Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ...


Smoke from a typical house fire contains hundreds of different chemicals and fumes. As a result, the damage caused by the smoke can often exceed that caused by the actual heat of the fire. In addition to the physical damage caused by the smoke of a fire - which manifests in the form of stains - is the often even harder to eliminate problem of a smokey odor. Just as there are contractors that specialize in rebuilding/repairing homes that have been damaged by fire and smoke, Fabric Restoration companies specialize in restoring fabrics that have been damaged in a fire. For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... Fabric Restoration - Not to be confused with retail dry cleaners and laundries, fabric restoration companies specialize in the restoration of fabric items after they have been affected by fire, smoke, water, or mold. ...


See also

Smoke from a bee smoker, used in beekeeping
Smoke from a bee smoker, used in beekeeping
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Smoke

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 124 KB) Bee Smoker File links The following pages link to this file: Smoke ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 124 KB) Bee Smoker File links The following pages link to this file: Smoke ... A bee smoker A bee smoker (usually called simply a smoker) is a device used in beekeeping to calm honey bees. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Look up dust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Canadian firefighter A firefighter or fireman is trained and equipped to extinguish fires. ... A smoke detector or smoke alarm is a device that detects smoke and issues an alarm to alert nearby people that there is a potential fire. ... It has been suggested that Haze be merged into this article or section. ... A Smoke Hood is a protective device similar in concept to a gas mask. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... Skywriting is the process of using a small aircraft, able to expel special smoke during flight, to fly in certain patterns as to create writing readable by someone on the ground. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Smoking Smoking is the process of flavoring, cooking, or preserving food by exposing it to the smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials, most often wood. ... Air safety is a broad term encompassing the theory, investigation and categorization of flight failures, and the prevention of such failures through appropriate regulation, as well as through education and training. ... A U.S. Army Humvee laying a smoke screen A smoke-screen is a release of smoke in order to mask the movement or location of military units such as infantry, tanks or ships. ... Home made smoke powder burning Smoke bombs are a firework designed to produce colored smoke upon ignition. ... Smoke grenade A purple smoke grenade being used during a military training exercise Main article: Hand grenade Smoke grenades are canister-type grenades used as ground-to-ground or ground-to-air signaling devices, target or landing zone marking devices, or a screening devices for unit movements. ... A smoke signal is a form of visual communication used over a long distance, developed both in the Americas and in China. ... Colored smoke is a kind of smoke created by an aerosol of small particles of a suitable pigment or dye. ... Smoke test is a term used in plumbing, electronics, and computer software development. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.telegram.com/static/fire/

External links

  • Shedding new light on wood smoke
  • Chemical constituents of wood smoke
  • Health impact of ultrafine particles
  • Burning Issues Public Education Site
  • New Dangers of Secondhand Smoke

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