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Encyclopedia > Smog
Pollution
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Air pollution
Acid rainAir Quality IndexAtmospheric dispersion modelingChlorofluorocarbonGlobal dimmingGlobal warming • Haze • Indoor air qualityOzone depletionParticulateSmog
Water pollution
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Soil contamination
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Natural environment

Smog is a kind of air pollution; the word "smog" is a portmanteau of smoke and fog. Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area and is caused by a mixture of smoke and sulphur dioxide. Smog may be: Smog, a form of air pollution SMOG (Simple Measure Of Gobbledygook), a measure of readability Smog (band), a music artist Smaug, a dragon that appears in The Hobbit, a fantasy book by J. R. R. Tolkien Category: ... Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ... Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earths surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in 1950s. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other pollutant particles obscure the normal clarity of the sky. ... Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since around 1980; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earths... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... Pumping of highly toxic (dark black) sludge, much seeps back into the ocean in the form of particles. ... Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... Subsequent to an Oil Spill An oil spill is the unintentional release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment as a result of human activity. ... Ship pollution is the pollution of water by shipping! It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized. ... Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ... Thermal pollution is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated drinking water is consumed. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ... Standing water redirects here. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil pollution comprises the pollution of soils with materials, mostly chemicals, that are out of place or are present at concentrations higher than normal which may have adverse effects on humans or other organisms. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... An herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... This article about actinides in the environment is about the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of actinides in the environment. ... The environmental radioactivity page is devoted to the subject of radioactive materials in man and his environment. ... Fission products are the residues of fission processes. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness, is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ... // Radium Radium in quack medicine See the story of Eben Byers for details of one very nasty case which involved a product called Radithor this contained 1 mCi of 226Ra and 1 mCi of 228Ra per bottle. ... Uranium in the environment, this page is devoted to the science of uranium in the environment and in animals (including humans). ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... Radio spectrum pollution is the straying of waves in the radio and electromagnetic spectrums outside their allocations that cause problems for some activities. ... Visual pollution is the term given to unattractive visual elements of a vista, a landscape, or any other thing that a person might want to look at. ... The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2000 For other similarly-named agreements, see Montreal Protocol (disambiguation). ... Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes, opened for signature on 31 October 1988 and entered into force on 14 February 1991, was to provide for the control or reduction of nitrogen oxides and... Kyoto Protocol Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... note - abbreviated as Air Pollution opened for signature - 13 November 1979 entered into force - 16 March 1983 objective - to protect the human environment against air pollution and to gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including long-range transboundary air pollution parties - (48) Armenia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities in England. ... EPA redirects here. ... Global Atmosphere Watchs logo The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) is a worldwide system established by the World Meteorological Organization – a United Nations agency – to monitor trends in the Earths atmosphere. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... A portmanteau (IPA: ) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Fog (disambiguation). ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...

Contents

Origin of term

Smog in New York City as viewed from the World Trade Center in 1988.
Smog in New York City as viewed from the World Trade Center in 1988.

Coinage of the term "smog" is generally attributed to Dr. Henry Antoine Des Voeux in his 1905 paper, “Fog and Smoke,” for a meeting of the Public Health Congress. The 26 July 1905 edition of the London newspaper Daily Graphic quoted Des Voeux, “He said it required no science to see that there was something produced in great cities which was not found in the country, and that was smoky fog, or what was known as ‘smog.’” The following day the newspaper stated that “Dr. Des Voeux did a public service in coining a new word for the London fog.” Image File history File links SmogNY.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Smog ... Image File history File links SmogNY.jpg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Smog ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ...


"Smog" also appears in a Jan. 19, 1893, Los Angeles Times article and is attributed to "a witty English writer."


Health effects

Smog is a problem in a number of cities and continues to harm human health.[1] Ground-level ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide are especially harmful for senior citizens, children, and people with heart and lung conditions such as emphysema, bronchitis, and asthma[2]. It can inflame breathing passages, decreasing the lungs' working capacity, and causing shortness of breath, pain when inhaling deeply, wheezing, and coughing. It can cause eye and nose irritation and it dries out the protective membranes of the nose and throat and interferes with the body's ability to fight infection, increasing susceptibility to illness. Hospital admissions and respiratory deaths often increase during periods when ozone levels are high [3]. Seasonal average concentrations of tropospheric ozone in Dobson units over the period 1979 to 2000. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , Flash point Flammable gas Related Compounds Related oxides carbon dioxide; carbon suboxide; dicarbon monoxide; carbon trioxide Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ...


The U.S. EPA has developed an Air Quality index to help explain air pollution levels to the general public. 8 hour average ozone concentrations of 85 to 104 ppbv are described as "Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups", 105 ppbv to 124 ppbv as "unhealthy" and 125 ppb to 404 ppb as "very unhealthy" [1]. The "very unhealthy" range for some other pollutants are: 355 μg m-3 - 424 μg m-3 for PM10; 15.5 ppbv - 30.4ppb for CO and 0.65 ppbv - 1.24 [2] EPA redirects here. ... Parts-per notation is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... http://visibleearth. ...

Characteristic coloration for smog in California in the beige cloud bank behind Golden Gate Bridge

Download high resolution version (900x239, 75 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (900x239, 75 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening into the San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean. ...

Areas affected

Beijing air on a day after rain (left) and a sunny but smoggy day (right).
Beijing air on a day after rain (left) and a sunny but smoggy day (right).

Smog can form in almost any climate where industries or cities release large amounts of air pollution. However, it is worse during periods of warmer, sunnier weather when the upper air is warm enough to inhibit vertical circulation. It is especially prevalent in geologic basins encircled by hills or mountains. It often stays for an extended period of time over densely populated cities or urban areas, such as London, New York, Los Angeles, Mexico City, Houston, Toronto, Athens, Beijing, Hong Kong, the Randstad or Ruhr Area and can build up to dangerous levels. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 300 pixels Full resolution (960 × 360 pixel, file size: 151 KB, MIME type: image/png) This is a pair of photos taken in Beijing by me during a trip to the Peoples Republic of China in August 2005. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 300 pixels Full resolution (960 × 360 pixel, file size: 151 KB, MIME type: image/png) This is a pair of photos taken in Beijing by me during a trip to the Peoples Republic of China in August 2005. ... Peking redirects here. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the state. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. ... Houston redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Peking redirects here. ... Schematic map of the Randstad. ... Ruhr Area within Germany Map of the Ruhr Area The Ruhr Area, also called simply Ruhr, (German Ruhrgebiet, colloquial Ruhrpott or Kohlenpott) is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, consisting of a number of large formerly industrial cities bordered by the rivers Ruhr to the south, Rhine to...


Historically, there have been acute incidents where smog has killed thousands of people in a single metropolitan area. For man-made disasters see: List of wars and disasters by death toll A death toll is the number of dead as a result of war, violence, accident, natural disaster, extreme weather, or disease. ...


London

Victorian London was notorious for its thick smogs, or "pea-soupers", a fact that is often recreated to add an air of mystery to a period costume drama.
Victorian London was notorious for its thick smogs, or "pea-soupers", a fact that is often recreated to add an air of mystery to a period costume drama.

London has been known for smog since Roman times. In 1306, concerns over air pollution were sufficient for Edward I to (briefly) ban coal fires in London.[4] In 1661, John Evelyn's Fumifugium suggested burning fragrant wood instead of mineral coal, which he believed would reduce coughing. The Ballad of Gresham College the same year describes how the smoke "does our lungs and spirits choke, Our hanging spoil, and rust our iron." Download high resolution version (768x1024, 54 KB)A film crew recreates the atmosphere of a Victorian London smog or pea-souper. ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 54 KB)A film crew recreates the atmosphere of a Victorian London smog or pea-souper. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... A costume drama is a period piece in which elaborate costumes, sets and properties are featured in order to capture the ambience of a particular era. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Roman Era is a period in Western history, when ancient Rome was the center of power of the world around the Mediterranean Sea, where Latin was the lingua franca. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ... John Evelyn. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Severe episodes of smog continued in the 19th century and were nicknamed "pea-soupers". The Great Smog of 1952 darkened the streets of London and killed approximately 4,000 people in the short time of 4 days (a further 8,000 died from its effects in the following weeks and months). Initially a flu epidemic was blamed for the loss of life. In 1956 the Clean Air Act introduced smokeless zones in the capital. Consequently, reduced sulphur dioxide levels made the intense and persistent London smog a thing of the past. It was after this the great clean-up of London began and buildings recovered their original stone façades which, during two centuries, had gradually blackened. Smog caused by traffic pollution, however, does occur in modern London. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Smog also referred to as the Big Smoke, befell London starting on 5 December 1952, and lasted until 9 December 1952. ... Respiratory disease properly named influenza(say: in-floo-en-zah ). Some specific varities of influenza with a vaccination available are: A-New Caledonia, A-California, B-Shanghai. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Clean Air Act (1956) responded to London, Englands Great Smog of 1952. ... The Clean Air Act 1956 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which responded to Londons Great Smog of 1952. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...


Mexico City

Due to its location in a highland 'bowl', cold air sinks down onto the urban area of Mexico City, trapping industrial and vehicle pollution underneath, and turning it into the most infamous smog-plagued city of Latin America. Within one generation, the city has changed from being known for some of the cleanest air of the world into one with some of the worst pollution, with pollutants like nitrogen dioxide breaching international health standards by 2-3 times.[5] Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. ... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Tehran

In December 2005, schools and public offices had to close in Tehran, Iran and 1600 people were taken to hospital, in a severe smog blamed largely on unfiltered car exhaust.[6] December 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → 31 December 2005 (Saturday) 25-year-old Scottish human rights worker Kate Burton and her parents are freed unharmed in the Gaza Strip by the Palestinian gunmen who kidnapped them two days earlier. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ...


United States

The United States Environmental Protection Agency has designated over 300 U.S. counties to be non-attainment areas for one or more pollutants tracked as part of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards.[7] These areas are largely clustered around large metropolitan areas, with the largest contiguous non-attainment zones in California and the Northeast. Various U.S. and Canadian government agencies collaborate to produce real-time air quality maps and forecasts.[8] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... EPA redirects here. ... The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. ...


Major incidents in the US

  • 1948, October 30-31, Donora, PA: 20 died, 600 hospitalized, thousands more stricken. Lawsuits were not settled until 1951.[9]
  • 1953, November, New York: Smog kills between 170 and 260 people.[10]
  • 1954, October, Los Angeles: heavy smog shuts down schools and industry for most of the month.[11]
  • 1963, New York: blamed for 200 deaths [12]
  • 1966, New York: blamed for 169 deaths [13]

Photochemical smog

In the 1950s a new type of smog, known as photochemical smog, was first described. This forms when sunlight hits various pollutants in the air and forms a mix of inimicial chemicals that can be very dangerous. A photochemical smog is the chemical reaction of sunlight, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in the atmosphere, which leaves airborne particles (called particulate matter) and ground-level ozone. Nitrogen oxides are released in the exhaust of fossil fuel-burning engines in cars, trucks, coal power plants, and industrial manufacturing factories. VOC's are vapors released from anthropogenic (man-made) sources such as gasoline, paints, solvents, pesticides, and biogenic sources, such as pine and citrus tree emissions. Nitrogen has six different oxides: Nitric oxide (NO) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) The term nitrogen oxide is imprecise and can be used to refer to any of these or to a mixture of them. ... This article describes a highly specialized aspect of its subject in the Terminology and legal definitions section. ... Particulates, alternately referred to as Particulate Matter (PM) , aerosols or fine particles are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in the air. ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, this is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ... Petrol redirects here. ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ...


This noxious mixture of air pollutants can including the following:

All of these chemicals are usually highly reactive and oxidizing. Due to this fact, photochemical smog is considered to be a problem of modern industrialization. The term nitrogen oxide is a general term and can be used to refer to any of these oxides (oxygen compounds) of nitrogen, or to a mixture of them: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Dinitrogen monoxide (N2O) (Nitrous oxide) Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3) Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) Dinitrogen... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Seasonal average concentrations of tropospheric ozone in Dobson units over the period 1979 to 2000. ... Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemical compounds that have high enough vapour pressures under normal conditions to significantly vaporize and enter the atmosphere. ... peroxyacetyl nitrate, the most common PAN Peroxyacyl nitrates, or PANs, are powerful respiratory and eye irritants present in photochemical smog. ... An aldehyde is either a functional group consisting of a terminal carbonyl group, or a compound containing a terminal carbonyl group. ...


Photochemical smog is a concern in most major urban centres but, because it travels with the wind, it can affect sparsely populated areas as well.


Southeast Asia

Singapore's Downtown Core on 7 October 2006, when it was affected by forest fires in Sumatra, Indonesia.
Singapore's Downtown Core on 7 October 2006, when it was affected by forest fires in Sumatra, Indonesia.

Smog is a regular problem in Southeast Asia caused by land and forest fires in Indonesia, especially Sumatra and Kalimantan, although the less political term haze is preferred in describing the problem. Farmers and plantation owners are usually responsible for the fires, which they use to clear tracts of land for further plantings. Those fires mainly affect Brunei, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, and occasionally Guam and Saipan[3] [4] The economic losses of the fires in 1997 have been estimated at US$9.3 billion [5]. This includes damages in agriculture production, destruction of forest lands, health, transportation, tourism, and other economic endeavours. Not included are social, environmental, and psychological problems and long-term health effects. The latest bout of haze to occur in Malaysia, Singapore and the Malacca Straits is in October 2006, and was caused by smoke from fires in Indonesia being blown across the Straits of Malacca by south-westerly winds. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 338 KB) Summary Downtown Core, Singapore. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 338 KB) Summary Downtown Core, Singapore. ... The Downtown Core is technically an urban planning area in the city-state of Singapore which surrounds the mouth of the Singapore River, and is part of the Central Area, Singapores central business district. ... For other uses, see Wildfire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For other uses, see Wildfire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Kalimantan is the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. ... Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other pollutant particles obscure the normal clarity of the sky. ... Saipan seen from the air A map of Saipan, Tinian & Aquijan Saipan (IPA: in English) is the largest island and capital of the United States Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a chain of 15 tropical islands belonging to the Marianas archipelago in the western Pacific Ocean (15°10... The 2006 Southeast Asian haze affects several countries in the Southeast Asian region and beyond. ... ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) reacted and signed Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution, formed a Regional Haze Action Plan (RHAP) and established a co-ordination and support unit (CSU). RHAP, with the help of Canada, established a monitoring and warning system for forest/vegetation fires and implemented a Fire Danger Rating System (FDRS). The Malaysian Meteorological Service (MMS) [6] has issued a daily rating since September 2003. The Indonesians have been ineffective at enforcing legal policies on errant farmers. Hymn The ASEAN Hymn Jakarta, Indonesia Membership 10 Southeast Asian states Leaders  -  Secretary General Ong Keng Yong Area  -  Total 4,497,4931 km²  Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character , sq mi  Population  -   estimate 566. ... Severe haze affecting Ampang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in August 2005 ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution is an environmental agreement signed in 2002 between ASEAN nations to bring haze pollution under control in Southeast Asia. ...


Natural causes

An erupting volcano can also emit high levels of sulphur dioxide, creating volcanic smog, or vog. Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Vog is volcanic smog formed when sulfur dioxide and other pollutants emitted by an erupting volcano mixes with oxygen and moisture in the presence of sunlight. ...


Pollution index

Smog fills the skies of Delhi, India. Measures like CNG-run buses and Delhi Metro have decreased the pollution-level of the city.
Smog fills the skies of Delhi, India. Measures like CNG-run buses and Delhi Metro have decreased the pollution-level of the city.

The severity of smog is often measured using automated optical instruments such as Nephelometers, as haze is associated with visibility and traffic control in ports. Haze however can also be an indication of poor air quality though this is often better reflected using accurate purpose built air indexes such as the American Air Quality Index, the Malaysian API (Air Pollution Index) and the Singaporean Pollutant Standards Index. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 686 pixels, file size: 336 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: wili hybrid File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,024 × 686 pixels, file size: 336 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Source: wili hybrid File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Typical North America vehicles carry this diamond shape symbol, meaning it is running on compressed natural gas fuel. ... The Delhi Metro is the metro system of Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited. ... A nephelometer is an instrument for measuring suspended particulates in a liquid. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ... The Pollutant Standards Index, or PSI, provides a uniform system of measuring pollution levels for the major air pollutants. ...


In hazy conditions, it is likely that the index will report the suspended particulate level. The disclosure of the responsible pollutant is mandated in some jurisdictions.


The American AQI is divided into six color coded categories. Technically AQI runs only from 0 to 500. The 301 to 500 range is categorised as hazardous and colored maroon. [7] Maroon is a color related to dark red. ...


The Malaysian API does not have a capped value; hence its most hazardous readings can go above 500. Above 500, a state of emergency is declared in the affected area. Usually, this means that non-essential government services are suspended, and all ports in the affected area are closed. There may also be prohibitions on private sector commercial and industrial activities in the affected area excluding the food sector. So far, state of emergency rulings due to hazardous API levels were applied to the Malaysian towns of Port Klang, Kuala Selangor and the state of Sarawak during the 2005 Malaysian haze and the 1997 Southeast Asian haze. Wikinews has news related to this article: Haze crisis over Malaysia prompts talks with Indonesia The 2005 Malaysian haze is a week-long choking smog-like haze over Malaysia that has prompted crisis talks with Indonesia and has caused widespread inconvenience. ... The 1997 Southeast Asian haze occured in the second half of 1997, and its after effects caused widespread inconvenience especially visibility and health problems within Southeast Asia. ...


Cultural references

Claude Monet made several trips to London between 1899 and 1901, during which he painted views of the Thames and Houses of Parliament which show the sun struggling to shine through London's smog-laden atmosphere.
Claude Monet made several trips to London between 1899 and 1901, during which he painted views of the Thames and Houses of Parliament which show the sun struggling to shine through London's smog-laden atmosphere.
  • The London "pea-soupers" earned the capital the nickname of "The Smoke". Similarly, Edinburgh was known as "Auld Reekie". The smogs feature in many London novels as a motif indicating hidden danger or a mystery, perhaps most overtly in Margery Allingham's The Tiger in the Smoke (1952), but also in Dickens' Bleak House (1852).

[A]s he handed me into a fly after superintending the removal of my boxes, I asked him whether there was a great fire anywhere? For the streets were so full of dense brown smoke that scarcely anything was to be seen.
"Oh, dear no, miss," he said. "This is a London particular."
I had never heard of such a thing.
"A fog, miss," said the young gentleman.
— Dickens, Bleak House Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x1781, 414 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Smog ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2024x1781, 414 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Smog ... Claude Monet also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (November 14, 1840 – December 5, 1926)[1] was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movements philosophy of expressing ones perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Margery Louise Allingham (1904-1966) was born in London and attended The Perse High School for Girls in Cambridge, before returning to London and the Polytechnic for Speech-Training. ... Dickens redirects here. ... Bleak House is the ninth novel by Charles Dickens, published in 20 monthly parts between March 1852 and September 1853. ...

  • The 1970 made-for-TV movie A Clear and Present Danger, which featured Hal Holbrook, E.G. Marshall, Joseph Campanella, Jack Albertson and Pat Hingle, was one of the first American television network entertainment programs to warn about the problem of smog and air pollution.[14] (This film is not to be confused with the 1994 film with a similar name.)
  • 'Smog' or 'Smoggy' has also come into use to describe a resident of Teesside (in North East England) or a supporter of Middlesbrough Football Club, due to the high concentration of chemical and heavy industry in the Teesside area. Although it has now been proven that the Teesside air is cleaner than London, Newcastle, Sunderland and many other British cities, the main source of pollution in the air is now vehicle exhaust fumes, like most urban areas.

A television movie (also TV movie, TV-movie, made-for-TV movie, etc. ... Clear and Present Danger is a 1994 film directed by Phillip Noyce, based on the book of the same name by Tom Clancy. ... Smoggy is a term that refers to people from the Teesside conurbation in North-Eastern England. ... Arms of the County Borough of Teesside Teesside is the name given to the conurbation in northern England based on Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees and Redcar, along the banks of the River Tees with a resident population of over 388,000 in 2005. ... Middlesbrough F.C. are an English football team, commonly known as Boro. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... Contrails are condensation trails (sometimes vapour trails): artificial cirrus clouds made by the exhaust of aircraft engines or wingtip vortices which precipitate a stream of tiny ice crystals in moist, frigid upper air. ... Criteria air contaminants (CAC) are a group of air pollutants that cause smog, acid rain and other health hazards. ... Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other pollutant particles obscure the normal clarity of the sky. ... The inversion effect is a phenomenon that keeps smog at ground level due to layers of air having different temperatures. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitric oxide or Nitrogen monoxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. This gas is an important signaling molecule in the body of... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... A Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS) is essentially a lightweight ‘laboratory’ that is used to test and/or assess mobile source emissions (i. ... Seasonal average concentrations of tropospheric ozone in Dobson units over the period 1979 to 2000. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ... The Pollutant Standards Index, or PSI, provides a uniform system of measuring pollution levels for the major air pollutants. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: Haze crisis over Malaysia prompts talks with Indonesia The 2005 Malaysian haze is a week-long choking smog-like haze over Malaysia that has prompted crisis talks with Indonesia and has caused widespread inconvenience. ... The 2006 Southeast Asian haze affects several countries in the Southeast Asian region and beyond. ... The 1997 Southeast Asian haze occured in the second half of 1997, and its after effects caused widespread inconvenience especially visibility and health problems within Southeast Asia. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ USA Today
  2. ^ "Who is most at risk from ozone?"
  3. ^ Ozone in Wisconsin
  4. ^ http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/494657_4
  5. ^ Air pollution in Mexico City, University of Salzburg
  6. ^ "Hundreds treated over Tehran smog", BBC News, 2005-12-10. Retrieved on 2006-08-03. 
  7. ^ http://www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/greenbk/
  8. ^ Available at http://www.airnow.gov/
  9. ^ http://www.radford.edu/~wkovarik/envhist/7forties.html
  10. ^ http://www.radford.edu/~wkovarik/envhist/7forties.html
  11. ^ http://www.radford.edu/~wkovarik/envhist/7forties.html
  12. ^ http://washingtonpost.findlaw.com/supreme_court/briefs/99-1257/99-1257fo5/text.html
  13. ^ http://washingtonpost.findlaw.com/supreme_court/briefs/99-1257/99-1257fo5/text.html
  14. ^ http://imdb.com/title/tt0065558/

For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
NOW with Bill Moyers. Science & Health. Deadly Smog - Overview | PBS (1158 words)
It was over fifty years ago that a deadly smog enveloped the small town, and gave birth to the modern movement to protect the environment.
In late October 1948 the Monongahela River Valley town of Donora, Pennsylvania was subsumed in a noxious smog.
The investigation into Donora Smog Disaster was essential to the first federal clean-air act, passed in 1955.
Smog - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1348 words)
Victorian London was notorious for its thick smogs, or "pea-soupers", a fact that is often recreated to add an air of mystery to a period costume drama.
Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area and is caused by a mixture of smoke and sulphur dioxide.
Smog is caused by a reaction between sunlight and emissions mainly from human activity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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