FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Smithsonian National Zoological Park
Smithsonian National Zoological Park
The front entrance to the National Zoo
The front entrance to the National Zoo
Date opened 1889 [1]
Location Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., USA
Land area 163 acres (0.66 km²) [2]
# of Animals 2,400 [2]
# of Species 400 [2]
Accreditations/
Memberships
AZA
Website

This box: view  talk  edit

The Smithsonian National Zoological Park, commonly known as the National Zoo or 'Washington Zoo', is a zoo located in Washington, D.C. It is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). Founded in 1889, it consists of two distinct installations: a 163 acre (0.7 km²) zoo within the Rock Creek Park in Washington D.C., and a 3,200 acre (13 km²) Conservation and Research Center located in Front Royal, Virginia, at the edge of the Shenandoah National Park. The zoo in Washington is open to the public and dedicated in large part to education; the conservation center in Virginia is closed to the public and used primarily to breed and study endangered species. Altogether, the two facilities contain some 2,700 animals of 435 different species. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 2382 KB) Smithsonian Zoo front entrance. ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Rock Creek Park is an urban natural area with public park facilities which bisects Washington, D.C. East of the park, except for a few enclaves, the city has a decidedly urban character. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia. ... An acre is an English unit of area, which is also frequently used in the United States and some Commonwealth countries. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (formerly the American Zoo and Aquarium Association), or AZA is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of zoos and aquariums in the areas of conservation, education, science, and recreation. ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo Zoo redirects here. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia. ... The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (formerly the American Zoo and Aquarium Association), or AZA is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of zoos and aquariums in the areas of conservation, education, science, and recreation. ... Rock Creek Park is an urban natural area with public park facilities which bisects Washington, D.C. East of the park, except for a few enclaves, the city has a decidedly urban character. ... The Conservation and Research Center is a research extension of Washingtons National Zoological Park, itself a part of the Smithsonian Institution. ... Front Royal is a town located in Warren County, Virginia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... Shenandoah National Park encompasses part of the Blue Ridge Mountains in the Piedmont region of Virginia. ...

Contents

History

The National Zoo was founded by famed naturalist and American conservation leader William T. Hornaday. Hornaday, then serving as a taxidermist for the Smithsonian, became increasingly concerned over the decline of many native American species, most notably the American bison. Hornaday envisioned a facility that would breed endangered American animals in captivity and educate the public about wildlife. He opened a small trial zoo outside the Smithsonian castle featuring bison, bears, and other American animals. With the aid of the Secretary of the Smithsonian, Congress approved of the founding of a National Zoological Park in Rock Creek Park; Hornaday, embittered over not being chosen as director, left Washington in disgust. He later went on to help found and serve as the first director of the Bronx Zoo. A taxidermied snow leopard. ... The Smithsonian castle, as seen through the garden gate. ... Binomial name Bison bison (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ... This article is about the zoo, for the tv series see The Bronx Zoo (TV). ...


The zoo grew slowly, mostly from contributions of animals from the public and circuses, and lurched to the edge of closure many times in its early history. It did not begin to truly grow until William Mann became the zoo's third director, prior to World War II. Mann organized collecting expeditions around the world to bring a variety of species to the zoo, some common place, "must haves" like giraffes and leopards, others great rarities, like a young gorilla.

The elephant exhibit at the National Zoo
The elephant exhibit at the National Zoo

Today, the National Zoo is recognized as one of the premier zoological research institutions in the United States, largely on account of its contributions to captive breeding through artificial manipulation, and studies done on wild and free ranging species. The National Zoo conducts research in numerous field stations around the world, providing expertise and logistical support to local research and conservation efforts in Asia, Africa, Europe, and North and South America. A second facility, called the Smithsonian National Zoo's Conservation and Research Center, is located in Front Royal, Virginia. It is a facility devoted to breeding, holding and conducting experiments on zoo animals. Download high resolution version (1504x1000, 312 KB)The Zoo in Washington, DC. This shot is of the Elephant display. ... Download high resolution version (1504x1000, 312 KB)The Zoo in Washington, DC. This shot is of the Elephant display. ...


The 116-year-old zoo, which is free and open to everyone, attracts 2 million visitors a year, according to the Washington Post in 2005. ...


The National Zoo maintains its own security police, the National Zoological Park Police, which consists of 50 full-time and part-time officers. They have concurrent jurisdiction over the zoo with the U.S. Park Police and the Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Police Department. Security police (also known as special police) are the special security officers employed by (usually governmental) organizations to protect their facilities, properties, personnel, users, visitors and operations from harm and who enforce laws and administrative regulations. ... In law, jurisdiction (from the Latin jus, juris meaning law and dicere meaning to speak) is the practical authority granted to a formally constituted legal body or to a political leader to deal with and make pronouncements on legal matters and, by implication, to administer justice within a defined area... The United States Park Police is the oldest uniformed federal law enforcement agency in the United States. ... MPDC Chief Charles Ramsey with his staff The Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia, also known as the D.C. Police, MPD, or MPDC, is the municipal police force for Washington, DC. Headed by a Chief of Police it was formed in 1861 in accordance with the personal...


Special events

Annually, each Easter Monday, the National Zoo serves as the venue for the African American Family Celebration. This celebration has been a tradition for more than 100 years. The celebration began in response to the inability of African Americans to participate in the annual Easter Egg Roll held at the White House, until the Eisenhower presidency. Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is celebrated as a holiday in some largely Christian cultures. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Categories: Stub ... North façade of the White House, seen from Pennsylvania Avenue. ...


The zoo also celebrates Tai Shan's Panda Birthday every year.


Giant pandas at the Zoo

Panda Cub (Tai Shan) and mother (Mei Xiang) at the National Zoo
Panda Cub (Tai Shan) and mother (Mei Xiang) at the National Zoo

The government of the People's Republic of China donated two giant pandas, Ling-Ling (female) and Hsing-Hsing (male), to the zoo two months after President Richard Nixon's historic 1972 trip to China. Ling-Ling died in 1992 and Hsing-Hsing in 1999 without producing any cubs that survived for more than a few days. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x768, 459 KB) Summary Photograph by Bernardo Piereck Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x768, 459 KB) Summary Photograph by Bernardo Piereck Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Binomial name Ailuropoda melanoleuca (David, 1869) Giant Panda range Subspecies A. melanoleuca melanoleuca A. melanoleuca qinlingensis The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) black-and-white cat-foot) is a mammal classified in the bear family, Ursidae, native to central and southern China. ... NIXON GOT FUCKED RIGT UP THE ASS BY A BUG FAT BLACK MAN WITH A BIG ASS DICK. HE LOVED IT AND MOANED ALOT CAUSE OF IT. HE LOVES DICk ! President: | Dwight D. Eisenhower |- ! Political party: | Republican |} In 1952, he was elected Vice President on Dwight D. Eisenhowers ticket. ...


A new pair of pandas, female Mei Xiang ("Beautiful Fragrance") and male Tian Tian ("More and More"), arrived on loan from the Chinese government in late 2000 [1]. The zoo pays an estimated 10 million dollars for 10 years of panda loan. On July 9, 2005, a male panda cub was born at the Zoo; it was the first surviving panda cub birth in the Zoo's history, and was the product of artificial insemination done by the zoo's reproductive research team. The cub was named Tai Shan ("Peaceful Mountain") on October 17, 100 days after his birth; the panda went without a name for its first hundred days in observance of a Chinese custom. (If Tai Shan survives into adulthood, he will become the third giant panda to do so in U.S. history. The previous panda cubs were born at the San Diego Zoo in 1999, 2003. A fourth cub was also born at the San Diego Zoo on August 2, 2005, and a fifth was born at Zoo Atlanta in early September 2006.) Mei Xiang, or beautiful fragrance, is a female Giant Panda who lives at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C. The cub that Mei Xiang produced with mate Tian Tian is the media darling and world famous panda Tai Shan, born July 9, 2005. ... Tian Tian or More and More is a 275- pound male giant panda at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park in Washington, DC. The panda was born on August 27, 1997 at the China Research and Conservation Center for the Giant Panda in the Sichuan Province. ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tai Shan at three weeks old Tai Shan (Chinese: æ³°å±±; Pinyin: , pronounced Tie-SHON), also known as Butterstick, is a giant panda born at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park (National Zoo) in Washington, D.C on July 9, 2005. ... Mount Tai (Chinese: æ³°å±±; pinyin: ) is a mountain of historical and cultural significance located north of the city of Taian, in Shandong Province, China. ... October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated or generally accepted rules, norms, standards or criteria, often taking the form of a custom. ... San Diego Zoo Entrance The world-famous San Diego Zoo in Balboa Park, San Diego, California is one of the largest, most progressive zoos in the world. ... San Diego Zoo Entrance The world-famous San Diego Zoo in Balboa Park, San Diego, California is one of the largest, most progressive zoos in the world. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... Zoo Atlanta is an Association of Zoos and Aquariums-accredited wildlife park and major attraction in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. The 40 acre (16 hectare) zoo, founded in 1889, is located in Atlantas Grant Park and attracts around one million visitors a year. ...


Tai Shan is property of the Chinese Government and will be sent to China shortly after his second birthday sometime in July 2007.


Exhibits and Animals of Note

The following are features of the zoo:


Panda House - Features the zoo's pair of pandas, Mei Xian and Tian Tian and their baby, Tai Shan, who was born after artificial insemination performed by zoo veterinarians and other scientists.


Reptile Discovery Center - Home to the zoo reptile collection, including cobras, crocodiles, and Komodo dragons. The first Komodo dragon born outside of Indonesia was hatched at the National Zoo.


Bird House - Features a nocturnal room for kiwis and a free-flight room for tropical birds. Outside walkways pass yards of larger birds, such as cassowaries, cranes, flamingos, and king vultures.


Cheetah Conservation Station - Besides the cheetahs (the first litter of cheetah cubs in the zoo's history was produced in fall 2004), the cheetah area displays maned wolves, endangered oryx, and a lonely Grevy's zebra.


Amazonia - This South American immersion exhibit features a walk through rainforest, starting with a "flooded" area with lots of fish. As you come out of the water, the exhibit opens to a lush forest which is home to marmosets, sloth, birds, tortoises and a massive freshwater aquarium of large Amazonian fish.


Invertebrate House - A unique collection of invertebrates, including coral, anemones, lobster, bird-eating spiders and and a giant Pacific octopus. A butterfly room/Pollinarium is also part of the exhibit.


Marine Mammals - Features a group of California sea lions, including two young sea lion pups taken from the wild after being orphaned and not able to be returned to the wild. They also exhibit a pair of grey seals.


Beaver Valley - Home to the zoo's North American animals, Beaver Valley displays not only its namesake beavers, but also river otters, bald eagles, and gray wolves.


Elephant House - The elephant house is home to the zoo's Asian Elephant family, as well as a single Nile hippopotamus, [[pygmy hippopotamus], and capybara. Rhinos were once kept in this building, but the zoo got rid of them to give more space to the elephants. On June 22, 2006, the zoo announced plans for a new $60 million state of the art Asian elephant exhibit. (Washington Post Story, June 22, 2006 by Carolyn Barker). Binomial name Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758 The Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), from the Greek ‘ιπποπόταμος (hippopotamos, hippos meaning horse and potamos meaning river), is a large, plant-eating African mammal, one of only two extant, and three or four recently extinct, species in the family Hippopotamidae. ... Binomial name Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) Capybara range The capybara (also capibara) (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is a semi-aquatic herbivorous animal, the largest of living rodents. ...


Ape House - Home to gorillas and orangutans, but no chimpanzees. The orangutans can travel on an outdoor cable crossway across the zoo to a different building.


Small Mammal House - a variety of small animals in glass-fronted rooms with semi-naturalistic environments.


Asia Trails - Opened in October 2006 - features Asian species such as sloth bears, clouded leopards and Asian otters, as well as incorporating the Giant and Red Pandas.


Animal care controversies and dark times at the zoo

Between 1999 and 2004, mismanagement led to the accidental or neglectful deaths of around two dozen animals in the National Zoo's care, threatening the Zoo's accreditation and causing the resignation of its director, Lucy Spelman, at the end of 2004 [2]. One incident involved the January 2003 death of two endangered red pandas after they ate vermin poison that had been buried in their yard by a contractor that was unlicensed in the District of Columbia. The incident led the city of Washington to seek to fine the Zoo over its claim of federally granted immunity. In late 2002 and early 2003, besides the red pandas, the Zoo experienced other high profile deaths, and the Washington Post featured a story the Washington Post headlining "Nation's Emblem of Freedom Dies on Independence Day"[3]. The insider source of most of the deaths and the interpretation on how they happened was a former zoo pathologist, Dr. Don Nichols. As part of budget cuts during Dr. Spelman's tenure as director, Dr. Nichols' research funding had been terminated in lieu of animal care. As a veterinarian, Dr. Spelman had practiced medicine on several of the animals that died and were featured in the Washington Post article based on Dr. Nichols' released insider information and his interpretation of circumstances. Although Dr. Nichols was perceived as a disgruntled former employee, his claims were taken very seriously. Errors in care, management and communications were found after a panel conducted an external investigation, including instances where veterinarians significantly altered legal medical records weeks, even years after events occurred. The critically endangered Amur Tiger, a rare subspecies of tiger. ... Binomial name Ailurus fulgens F. Cuvier, 1825 Red Panda range The Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens Latin: fire-colored cat), also known as the Lesser Panda, Bear Cat or Fire Fox, is a mostly herbivorous mammal, slightly larger than a domestic cat (55 cm long). ... Immunity confers a status ojavascript:insertTags(ì,,)n a person or body that makes that person or body free from otherwise legal obligations such as, for example, lijavascript:insertTags(Ú,,)ability for damages or punishment for criminal acts. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ...


The zoo's head veterinarian at the time, Dr. Suzan Murray, was accused and never cleared of personally altering medical records to make them sound more benign that what actually transpired, [4] often stating that medical records are not legal documents but rather "a user-friendly way of maintaining and sharing important information" [5]. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) specifically states it is unethical for a veterinarian to remove medical records or any part of any record". [6].


In January 2005, the National Academy of Sciences released its final report on a two-year investigation into animal care and management at the National Zoo. The committee, consisting of external veterinarians and scientists, evaluated 74% of all large mammal deaths that occurred at the National Zoo from 1999 to 2003. They concluded that "in a majority of cases, the animal received appropriate care throughout its lifetime. In particular, the committee’s evaluation of randomly sampled megavertebrate deaths at the Rock Creek Park facility revealed few questions about the appropriateness of these animals’ care, suggesting that the publicized animal deaths were not indicative of a wider, undiscovered problem with animal care at the Rock Creek Park facility." [7] This finding, however, was not widely reported by the Washington Post nor other media outlets. President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ...


The problems at the zoo, which culminated with Dr. Spelman's resignation, included facilities and budget shortcomings, although the animal care problems where prominently highlighted. Dr. Suzan Murray continues to serve as the zoo's head veterinarian. One other veterinarian featured prominently in the inadequate care of animals at the zoo also remains on staff, but the zoo has added a new head pathologist and added other veterinarians.


Changes in 2005 and beyond

In 2005, the National Zoo appointed a new director, John Berry. Under his brief tenure, political celebrities such as Bill Frist (R-Tenn) and Senator Stevens (R-Alaska) have been seen regularly touring the zoo. In fact, Senator Frist's visit as a heart consultant to one of the zoo's gorillas was featured as an editorial story on the Washington Post by Laura Blumenfeld [8]. The story was criticized in many blogs due to its alleged heavy propaganda content. [9], [10]. Interestingly, a few months later, zoo officials would announce that this same gorilla (named Kuja), and deemed "healthy" by Senator Frist, died of chronic heart failure[11]. William Harrison Bill Frist, Sr. ...


On July 28, 2006, the zoo made an announcement that they will spend $60 million to build a new, 4 acre captive elephant facility [12], with construction scheduled to begin Spring 2007. Despite opposition from Animal Rights Groups,[13], and specific requests to the zoo's director from elephant experts,[14] the zoo plans to expand its captive facilities and house and breed as many as 10 elephants in 4 acres. Since the captive Asian elephant population is small, the only way the zoo would be able to do this would be by importing Asian elephants from the wild. July 28 is the 209th day (210th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 156 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On October 17, 2006, the zoo opened its newest exhibit, called "Asia Trails", which features state of the art exhibits for Asiatic sloth bears, Asian small clawed otters, fishing cats, clouded leopards, red pandas, a Japanese Giant salamander and of course, the Giant pandas. October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


References

  1. ^ http://nationalzoo.si.edu/AboutUs/History/ retrieved October 22, 2006
  2. ^ a b c http://nationalzoo.si.edu/AboutUs/default.cfm retrieved October 22, 2006

[www.villageclinic.eu] October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 22 is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 70 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Smithsonian National Zoological Park
  • http://nationalzoo.si.edu
  • Pandas Unlimited
  • American Zoo and Aquarium Association site
 v  d  e 
Zoos, Aquaria, and Aviaries

Conservation biology | List of zoos | List of zoo associations | Zoological Garden | Menagerie | Tourist attraction | Wildlife Conservation | Endangered species  Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo Zoo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Aquarium (disambiguation). ... An aviary is a large enclosure for confining birds. ... Conservation biology is the protection and management of biodiversity that uses principles and experiences from the biological sciences, from natural resource management, and from the social sciences, including economics. ... The following is a partial list of zoological gardens (zoos): // Giza Zoo National Zoo, Pretoria Johannesburg Zoo East London Please Note the Johannesburg Zoo web site is jhbzoo. ... This is a partial list of zoo and aquaria associations: World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) Asociación Mesoamericana y del Caribe de Zoológico i Acuarios (AMACZOOA) American Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Australasian Regional Association of Zoological Parks and Aquaria (ARAZPA) African Association of Zoos and... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo Zoo redirects here. ... Menagerie is the term for a historical form of keeping wild and exotic animals in human captivity and therefore a predecessor of the modern zoological garden. ... A tourist attraction is a place where tourists, foreign and domestic, normally visit. ... Conservation biology is the protection and management of biodiversity that uses principles and experiences from the biological sciences, from natural resource management, and from the social sciences, including economics. ... The critically endangered Amur Tiger, a rare subspecies of tiger. ...


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m