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Encyclopedia > Smedley Butler
Smedley Butler
July 30, 1881–June 21, 1940 (aged 58)
      
Smedley D. Butler
Nickname "Old Gimlet Eye"
"The Fighting Quaker"
"Old Duckboard"
Place of birth West Chester, Pennsylvania
Place of death Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Marine Corps
Years of service 1898–1931
Rank Major General
Commands 13th Regiment
Marine Expeditionary Force, China
Battles/wars Boxer Rebellion
Banana Wars
Occupation of Veracruz (1914)
Occupation of Haiti
World War I
Awards Medal of Honor (2)
Marine Corps Brevet Medal
Army Distinguished Service Medal
Navy Distinguished Service Medal
French Order of the Black Star
Other work writer and speaker
Director of Public Safety (Philadelphia) (1924–1925)

Smedley Darlington Butler (July 30, 1881June 21, 1940), nicknamed "The Fighting Quaker" and "Old Gimlet Eye," was a Major General in the U.S. Marine Corps and, at the time of his death, the most decorated Marine in U.S. history. is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Moh_right. ... Smedley Butler Resized; original from http://hqinet001. ... Image File history File links Moh_right. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire France United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50,000-100... US Marines with the captured flag of Augusto César Sandino in Nicaragua in 1932 The Banana Wars is an unofficial term that refers to the United States military interventions into Central and South America. ... The United States Navy occupied the Mexican city of Veracruz for over six months in 1914, in response to the April 9, 1914 Tampico Affair, which involved the arrest of U.S. sailors by the regime of Mexican President Victoriano Huerta. ... The United States occupation of Haiti began on July 28, 1915 and ended in mid-August, 1934. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... The Marine Corps Brevet Medal was a military decoration of the United States Marine Corps which was created in 1921 per Marine Corps Order Number 26. ... This article concerns the United States Army Distinguished Service Medal. ... The Navy Distinguished Service Medal is a military award of the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps which was first created in 1919. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... // A nickname is a name of a person or thing other than its proper name. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... Pre-Colonial America For details, see the main Pre-Colonial America article. ...


During his 34 years of Marine Corps service, Butler was awarded numerous medals for heroism including the Marine Corps Brevet Medal (the highest Marine medal at its time for officers), and subsequently the Medal of Honor twice. Notably, he is one of only 19 people to be twice awarded the Medal of Honor, and one of only three to be awarded a Marine Corps Brevet Medal and a Medal of Honor. The Marine Corps Brevet Medal was a military decoration of the United States Marine Corps which was created in 1921 per Marine Corps Order Number 26. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ...


In addition to his military career, Smedley Butler was noted for his outspoken anti-interventionist views, and his book War Is a Racket. His book was one of the first works describing the workings of the military-industrial complex and after retiring from service, he became a popular speaker at meetings organized by veterans, pacifists and church groups in the 1930s. See: Intervention (counseling) - an orchestrated attempt by family and friends to get a family member to get help for addiction or other similar problem. ... War is a Racket (1935) is a short work by former U.S. Marine Brigadier General Smedley Darlington Butler, where Butler discusses how business interests have commercially benefited from warfare. ... President Dwight Eisenhower famously referred to the military-industrial complex in his farewell address. ... A veteran refers to a person who is experienced in a particular area, particularly referring to people in the armed forces. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... Peace churches are Christian groups in the pacifist tradition. ...


In 1934, he informed the Untited States Congress that a group of wealthy industrialists had plotted a military coup to overthrow the government of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Congress in Joint Session. ... The Business Plot, The Plot Against FDR, or The White House Putsch, was an alleged conspiracy involving several wealthy businessmen to overthrow President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... FDR redirects here. ...

Contents

Early life and family

Butler was born in West Chester, Pennsylvania,[1] the oldest in a family of three sons. His parents were Thomas Stalker Butler and Maud (Darlington) Butler,[1] both members of distinguished Quaker families. His father was a lawyer, judge, and, for 31 years, a Congressman. During his time in Congress, Thomas S. Butler was chairman of the House Naval Affairs Committee during the Harding and Coolidge administrations.[2] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Thomas Stalker Butler (November 4, 1855-May 26, 1928) was a U.S. Representative from Pennsylvania, serving from March 4, 1897 until his death, having been elected to the House sixteen times. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the twenty-ninth President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ...


Butler was educated at the West Chester Friends Graded High School and later at The Haverford School, a secondary school for sons of upper-class Quaker families near Philadelphia,[3] but he dropped out to join the Marines, 38 days before his 17th birthday. [4] Founded in 1799 by Quakers in Philadelphia, USA, who still own and operate the school, Westtown School is the oldest continuously operating co-educational boarding school in the country. ... The Haverford School is a private, non-sectarian, all-boys college preparatory day school, junior kindergarten through grade twelve. ...


Butler was married in 1905 to Ethel C. Peters, of Philadelphia. They had a daughter, Ethel Peters, and two sons, Smedley Darlington Jr. and Thomas Richard.[1] He was then posted to garrison duty in the Philippines. Even in garrison, he managed to distinguish himself, launching a resupply mission across the stormy waters of Subic Bay after his isolated outpost ran out of rations. He was eventually diagnosed with "nervous breakdown" in 1908 and he was given 9 months sick leave. He returned home and spent a successful time in the West Virginia coal mining business. Despite an offer of permanent employment from the owners, he returned to the Corps.[5] A 1902 nautical chart of Subic Bay Subic Bay is a bay on the west coast of the island of Luzon in Zambales, Philippines, about 100 kilometers northwest of Manila Bay. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ...


Military career

Despite his father's desire that he remain in school, Smedley Butler dropped out when the United States declared war against Spain in 1898. Due to his young age (he was only 16 years old) Butler lied about how old he was in order to secure a commission in the Marines as a second lieutenant.[6] Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ...


After three weeks of basic training, Second Lieutenant Butler was sent to Guantanamo, Cuba, in July 1898, Although he saw no action there because the bay was already secured. [7] Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ...


The Boxer Rebellion

Butler was twice wounded during the Boxer Rebellion once in Tientsin and once in San Tan Pating. During the Battle of Tientsin on July 13, 1900, Butler climbed out of a trench to retrieve a wounded officer for medical attention, whereupon he was shot in the thigh. Another Marine helped the wounded Butler to safety but was himself shot; Butler continued to assist the first man to the rear. Four enlisted men received the Medal of Honor for their actions in the battle. Although officers were not eligible to receive the Medal of Honor, Butler received the Marine Corps Brevet Medal and commissioned a captain by brevet, in recognition of his bravery in the incident. Butler received his promotion while in the hospital recovering, two weeks before his nineteenth birthday. In addition to wounds he recieved in Tientsin, Butler was also shot in the chest at San Tan Pating.[8] Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire France United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50,000-100... Tianjin (Chinese: 天津; pinyin: tiān jīn; Postal System Pinyin: Tientsin) is a harbour municipality in China on the Hai He River (from Beijing) and Bohai Gulf of the Yellow Sea (Pacific Ocean). ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... The Marine Corps Brevet Medal was a military decoration of the United States Marine Corps which was created in 1921 per Marine Corps Order Number 26. ... The word brevet has several meanings: In the military, brevet refers to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to temporarily hold a higher rank, without a corresponding pay increase. ...


Honduras

In 1903, Butler fought to protect the U.S. Consulate in Honduras from rebels. It was an incident during that expedition which allegedly earned him the first of several colorful nicknames, "Old Gimlet Eye," attributed to the feverish, bloodshot eyes which enhanced his habitually penetrating and bellicose stare.[6] The rule of Napoleon Bonaparte after his coup detat in France had conducted the manners of French governmant under dictatorship and in a consulate. ...


Nicaragua

From 1909 to 1912, he served in Nicaragua enforcing American policy and while there once led his battalion to the relief of the rebel besieged city of Grenada with a 104 degree fever. In December 1909, he commanded the 3d Battalion, 1st Marine Regiment on the Isthmus of Panama but on 11 August 1912 was temporarily detached to command an expeditionary battalion organized for service in Nicaragua, it was in this capacity he participated in the bombardment, assault and capture of Coyotepe from 12 October 1912 to 31 October 1912. He remained on duty in Nicaragua until November 1912, when he rejoined the Marines of 3d Battalion, 1st Marine Regiment at Camp Elliott, Panama.[9] Official force name 1st Marine Regiment Other names 1st Marines Motto No Better Friend, No Worse Enemy Branch United States Marine Corps Chain of Command 1st Marine Division Description Marine infantry regiment Readiness Capable of short notice world wide deployment. ... Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar (IATA: NKX, ICAO: KNKX, FAA LID: NKX), formerly Naval Air Station (NAS) Miramar, is an airfield of the United States military, located about 10 miles (16 km) north of downtown San Diego, California, USA, at . ...


First Medal of Honor

Smedley Butler in Vera Cruz Mexico, He is 2nd from the right.

Between the Spanish-American War and the American entry into the first World War in 1917, Butler achieved the distinction, shared with only one other Marine (Dan Daly) since that time, of being twice awarded the Medal of Honor for separate incidents of outstanding gallantry in action.[9] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and Filipino casualties... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Sergeant Major Daniel Joseph Dan Daly (11 November 1873 – 28 April 1937) was a United States Marine. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ...


The first award was for his activities in the U.S. occupation of Veracruz, Mexico in 1914. But the large number of Medals of Honor awarded during that campaign—one for the Army, nine for Marines and 46 to Navy personnel—diminished the medal's prestige. During World War I, Butler, then a major, attempted to return his Medal of Honor, explaining that he had done nothing to deserve it. It was returned with orders that not only would he keep it, but that he would wear it as well.[10] Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Frank Friday Fletcher Gustavo Mass Manuel Azueta Strength Total: 3948 Landing force: 757 N/A Casualties 22 killed 70 wounded 92 total 152-172 killed 195-250 wounded 347-422 total The United States occupation of Veracruz lasted for six months in response to the...


Citation:

For distinguished conduct in battle, engagement of Vera Cruz, 22 April 1914. Maj. Butler was eminent and conspicuous in command of his battalion. He exhibited courage and skill in leading his men through the action of the 22d and in the final occupation of the city.[11]

Second Medal of Honor, Haiti (1915)

Capture of Fort Riviere, Haiti, 1915, by D. J. Neary; illustrations of Maj Smedley Butler, Sgt Iams, and Pvt Gross (USMC art collection)

The Marines tried to secure Haiti against the "Cacos" rebels in 1915. On October 24, 1915, a patrol of forty-four mounted Marines led by Butler was ambushed by some 400 Cacos. The Marines maintained their perimeter throughout the night, and early the next morning they charged the much larger enemy force from three directions. The startled Haitians fled. Sergeant Major Dan Daly received a Medal of Honor for his gallantry in the battle.[9] Image File history File links CaptureofFtRiviere. ... Image File history File links CaptureofFtRiviere. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sergeant Major Daniel Joseph Dan Daly (11 November 1873 – 28 April 1937) was a United States Marine. ...


By mid-November 1915, most of the Cacos had been dispersed from the Haitian region. The remainder took refuge at Fort Rivière, an old French-built stronghold deep within the country. Fort Rivière sat atop Montagne Noire, the front reachable by a steep, rocky slope. The other three sides fell away so steeply that an approach from those directions was impossible. Some Marine officers argued that it should be assaulted by a regiment supported by artillery, but Butler convinced his colonel to allow him to attack with just four companies of 24 men each, plus two machine gun detachments. Butler and his men took the rebel stronghold on November 17, 1915, in which he received his second Medal of Honor, for which he also received the Haitian Medal of Honor. Major Butler recalled that his troops "hunted the Cacos like pigs." His exploits impressed Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR), then Assistant Secretary of the Navy, who awarded the medal for an engagement in which 200 Cacos were killed and no prisoners taken, while one Marine was struck by a rock and lost two teeth.[12] 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... FDR redirects here. ...


Later, as the initial organizer and commanding officer of the Haitian Gendarmerie, the native police force, Butler established a record as a capable administrator. Under his supervision, order was largely restored, and many vital public works projects were successfully completed.[6]


Citation:

As Commanding Officer of detachments from the 5th, 13th, 23d Companies and the marine and sailor detachment from the U.S.S. Connecticut, Maj. Butler led the attack on Fort Riviere, Haiti, 17 November 1915. Following a concentrated drive, several different detachments of marines gradually closed in on the old French bastion fort in an effort to cut off all avenues of retreat for the Caco bandits. Reaching the fort on the southern side where there was a small opening in the wall, Maj. Butler gave the signal to attack and marines from the 15th Company poured through the breach, engaged the Cacos in hand-to-hand combat, took the bastion and crushed the Caco resistance. Throughout this perilous action, Maj. Butler was conspicuous for his bravery and forceful leadership.[11]

World War I

Smedley Butler and three other legendery Marines. From left to right Sergeant Major John Henry Quick, Major General Wendell Cushing Neville, Lieutenant General John Archer Lejune, Major General Smedley Darlington Butler.

During World War I, Butler, much to his disappointment, was not assigned to a combat command on the Western Front. While his superiors considered him brave and brilliant, they also described him as "unreliable."[7] He was, however, promoted to the rank of brigadier general at the age of 37 and placed in command of Camp Pontanezen at Brest, France. In October 1918, a debarkation depot near Brest funneled troops of the American Expeditionary Force to the battlefields. The camp was plagued by horribly unsanitary, overcrowded and disorganized conditions. U.S. Secretary of War Newton Baker sent novelist Mary Roberts Rinehart to report on the camp. She later described how Butler began by solving the mud problem: "[T]he ground under the tents was nothing but mud, [so] he had raided the wharf at Brest of the duckboards no longer needed for the trenches, carted the first one himself up that four-mile hill to the camp, and thus provided something in the way of protection for the men to sleep on."[7] General John J. Pershing authorized a duckboard shoulder patch for the units. This won Butler another nickname, "Old Duckboard." For his services, Butler earned not only the Distinguished Service Medal of both the Army and the Navy but also the French Order of the Black Star.[9] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Brest is a city in Brittany, or the Bretagne région, north-west France, sous-préfecture of the Finistère département. ... Officers of the American Expeditionary Forces and the Baker mission The American Expeditionary Forces or AEF was the United States military force sent to Europe in World War I.(In France, AEF is a news agency specialised in Education and Formation) The AEF fought alongside allied forces against imperial German... The Secretary of War was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... 1927 Time cover featuring Baker Newton Diehl Baker (December 3, 1871–December 25, 1937) was an American politician in the Democratic Party, and a notable figure in the Progressive movement. ... Mary Roberts Rinehart (August 12, 1876-September 22, 1958) was an American author and the source of the phrase The butler did it. ... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... The Distinguished Service Medal is a high level military and civilian decoration of the United States of America which is issued for meritorious service to the government of the United States in either a senior government service position or as a senior officer of the United States armed forces. ...


Following the war, Butler became Commanding General of the Marine Barracks, Quantico, Virginia, and served in this capacity until January 1924, when he was granted leave of absence to accept the post of Director of Public Safety of the City of Philadelphia. While there he transformed the wartime training camp at Quantico, Virginia into a permanent Marine post.[9] Quantico, Virginia is in Prince William County, 23 miles north-northeast of Fredericksburg, Virginia, near Dumfries and Stafford along Highway 619. ...


Director of Public Safety

On official leave of absence from the Marine Corps from January 1924 to December 1925, Butler briefly became the Director of Public Safety in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Due to the influence of Butler's father, the congressman, the newly elected mayor of Philadelphia, W. Freeland Kendrick, asked Butler to leave the Marines to become Director of Public Safety, the official in charge of running the police and fire departments. Philadelphia's municipal government was notoriously corrupt.[9] Butler refused at first, but when Kendrick asked President Calvin Coolidge to intervene, and Coolidge contacted Butler to say that he could take the necessary leave from the Corps, Butler agreed.[9] Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ...


Within days, Butler ordered raids on more than 900 speakeasies. Butler also went after bootleggers, prostitutes, gamblers and corrupt police officers. Butler was more zealous than politic in his duties; in addition to going after gangsters and the working-class joints, Butler raided the social elites' favorite speakeasies, the Ritz-Carlton and the Union League. A week later, Kendrick fired Butler. Butler later said "cleaning up Philadelphia was worse than any battle I was ever in."[13] This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Rum Runner nightclub was opened on Broad Street in the Birmingham city centre in 1979. ...


China and stateside service

From 1927 to 1929, Butler was commander of the Marine Expeditionary Force in China. He cleverly parlayed among various nationalist generals and warlords in order to protect American lives and property, and ultimately won the public acclaim of contending Chinese leaders.[9]


When Butler returned to the United States, in 1929, he was promoted. At 48, he became the Marine Corps' youngest major general. He directed the Quantico camp's growth until it became the "showplace" of the Corps.[14] Butler also won national attention by taking thousands of his men on long field marches, many of which he led from the front, to Gettysburg and other Civil War battle sites, where they conducted large-scale re-enactments before crowds of often distinguished spectators.[14] Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ...


In 1931, Butler publicly recounted gossip about Benito Mussolini in which the dictator allegedly struck a child with his automobile in a hit-and-run accident. The Italian government protested, and President Hoover, who strongly disliked Butler, forced Secretary of the Navy Adams to court-martial Butler. Butler became the first general officer to be placed under arrest since the Civil War. Butler apologized (to Adams) and the court martial was cancelled with only a reprimand.[15] “Mussolini” redirects here. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ...


Military retirement and later years

Major General Butler at his retirement ceremony

When Major General Wendell C. Neville died in July 1930, many expected Butler to succeed him as Commandant of the Marine Corps.[14] Butler, however, had criticized too many things too often, and the recent death of his father, the congressman, had removed some of his protection from the hostility of his civilian superiors. Butler failed to receive the appointment, although he was then the senior major general on the active list. The position went instead to Major General Ben H. Fuller. At his own request, Butler retired from active duty on October 1, 1931.[14] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Wendell Cushing Neville (1870 - 1930) was a U.S. Marine Corps general. ... The Commandant of the United States Marine Corps is the highest ranking officer of the United States Marine Corps and a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, reporting to the Secretary of the Navy but not to the Chief of Naval Operations. ... Ben Hebard Fuller (27 February 1870 - 1937) was a significant U.S. Marine Corps general. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Claims of the Business Plot

Main article: Business Plot

In 1934, Butler came forward and reported to the U.S. Congress that a group of wealthy pro-Fascist industrialists had been plotting to overthrow the government of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in a military coup. Even though the congressional investigating committee corroborated most of the specifics of his testimony, no further action was taken.[1] [3] The Business Plot, The Plot Against FDR, or The White House Putsch, was an alleged conspiracy involving several wealthy businessmen to overthrow President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Business magnate. ... FDR redirects here. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... A Congressional committee in the parlance of the United States Congress and politics of the United States is a legislative sub-organization that handles a specific duty (rather than the general duties of Congress, i. ...


Speaking and writing career

Butler took up a lucrative career on the lecture circuit. He also was part of a commission established by Oregon Governor Julius L. Meier that helped form the Oregon State Police.[16]In 1932, he ran for the U.S. Senate in the Republican primary in Pennsylvania, allied with Gifford Pinchot, but was defeated by Senator James J. Davis.[17] Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Julius L. Meier (December 31, 1874 - July 14, 1937) was a prominent businessman in Portland, Oregon, and governor of Oregon. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865 – October 4, 1946) was the first Chief of the United States Forest Service (1905–1910) and the Republican Governor of Pennsylvania (1923–1927, 1931–1935). ... James J. Puddler Jim Davis (October 27, 1873-November 22, 1947), was a U.S. Republican Party politician, He was born in Tredegar, South Wales in the United Kingdom, and emigrated to the United States in 1881 at the age of eight and was apprenticed as a puddlers assistant...

Smedley Butler at one of his many speaking engagements after his retirement in the 1930's.
Smedley Butler at one of his many speaking engagements after his retirement in the 1930's.

Butler was known for his outspoken lectures against war profiteering and what he viewed as nascent fascism in the United States. During the 1930s, he gave many such speeches to pacifist groups. Between 1935 and 1937, he served as a spokesman for the American League Against War and Fascism (which some considered communist-dominated).[18] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A war profiteer is any person or organization that makes profits (rightly or wrongly) from warfare or by selling weapons and other goods to one or even both of the parties at war in their own or in foreign countries. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the needs of the state, and seeks to forge a type of national unity, usually based on, but not limited to, ethnic, cultural, or racial attributes. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... The American League Against War and Fascism was formed in 1933 by communists and pacifists united by their concern as Nazism and Fascism rose in Europe. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


In his 1935 book, War Is a Racket, Butler presented an exposé and trenchant condemnation of the profit motive behind warfare. His views on the subject are well summarized in the following passage from a 1935 issue of "the non-Marxist, socialist" magazine, Common Sense — one of Butler's most widely quoted statements: War is a Racket (1935) is a short work by former U.S. Marine Brigadier General Smedley Darlington Butler, where Butler discusses how business interests have commercially benefited from warfare. ... An exposé is an article or book intended to reveal shocking or surprising information. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subjfuck grapesect to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ...

"I spent 33 years and four months in active military service and during that period I spent most of my time as a high class muscle man for Big Business, for Wall Street and the bankers. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism. I helped make Mexico and especially Tampico safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street. I helped purify Nicaragua for the International Banking House of Brown Brothers in 1902-1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for the American sugar interests in 1916. I helped make Honduras right for the American fruit companies in 1903. In China in 1927 I helped see to it that Standard Oil went on its way unmolested. Looking back on it, I might have given Al Capone a few hints."[19]

Smedley Butler died at Naval Hospital, Philadelphia, June 21, 1940. He was buried at Oaklands Cemetery in West Chester, Pennsylvania.[20] His doctor had described his illness as an incurable condition of the upper gastro-intestinal tract, probably cancer.[21] Enforcer may refer to: A criminal who uses physical force or the threat of physical force to intimidate, injure or even murder those who do not follow the dictates of an organized crime group; a thug. ... Big Business or big business is a term used to describe large corporations, individually or collectively. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ... For other uses, see Gangster (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Mexico Strength 9 sailors Approx. ... Oil imperialism theories characterize a broad group of political science theories which assert that direct and indirect control of world petroleum reserves is a root factor in current international politics. ... Citibank is a major international bank, founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Banana republic (disambiguation). ... In banking, a merchant bank is a traditional term for an Investment Bank. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Chiquita Brands International. ... Standard Oil (Esso) was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Legacy and honors

  • USS Butler (DD-636), a Gleaves-class destroyer, was named in his honor in 1942.[2] This vessel participated in the European and Pacific theaters of operations during the second World War. It was later converted to a high speed minesweeper.[9]
  • Since Butler's death no man has earned more than one Medal of Honor.[25]

Marine Corps Base Camp Smedley D. Butler (usually Butler Marine Base in Okinawa) is a United States military Marine base located in the Japanese prefecture of Okinawa. ... “Okinawa” redirects here. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Veterans For Peace is an American organization founded in 1985. ... Butler (DD-636: dp. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... The Corporation is a 2003 Canadian documentary film critical of the modern-day corporation, considering it as a class of person and evaluating its behaviour towards society and the world at large as a psychologist might evaluate an ordinary person. ... Huey Longs My First Days in the White House was his second autobiography and was published posthumously. ... Huey Pierce Long, Jr. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Line drawing of the Department of Wars seal. ...

See also

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Smedley Butler
United States Marine Corps Portal

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links USMC_logo. ... The following is a partial list of Medal of Honor recipients. ... This is a list of military decorations, listed in order of precedence, awarded by different countries, listed in alphabetical order. ... The following is a list of the essential names in Marine Corps lore; the people who make up what the Marines call Knowledge. John Basilone — only Medal of Honor recipient to return to combat and be killed. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Smedley Butler. NNDB. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  2. ^ a b General Smedley D. Butler, Who's Who in Marine Corps History.
  3. ^ a b Archer, Jules (1973). The Plot to Seize the White House. Hawthorne Books. ASIN: B0006COVHA.  p. 38 Fully downloadable HTML (or Microsoft Word copy), Excerpts from the book.
  4. ^ Schmidt, Hans (1998). Maverick Marine: General Smedley D. Butler and the Contradictions of American Military History. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0-8131-0957-4.  p. 7. Had he not joined the marines, he almost certainly would have finished Haverford and gone on to college.; p. Notes, Chapter 2, footnote 2 SDB left Haverford before the end of his final year but was awarded a diploma, 6 June 1898, which states he completed the Scientific Course "with Credit"
  5. ^ Boot, Max. The Savage Wars of Peace. New York: Basic Books. 2003. p144.
  6. ^ a b c Major General Smedley D. Butler. Marine Corps Legacy Museum. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  7. ^ a b c Butler, Smedley Darlington and Anne Cipriano Venzon (1992). General Smedley Darlington Butler: The Letters of a Leatherneck, 1898-1931. Praeger, p. 10. ISBN 0275941418. Retrieved on 2007-10-14. 
  8. ^ Report of the Commandant of the United States Marine Corps, Marines in China: The Relief Expedition. United States Marine Corps (September 29, 1900). Retrieved on 2006-08-17.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i USMC History Division. Major General Smedley Darlington Butler, USMC. The Marine Corps Heritage Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  10. ^ Editors of the Boston Publishing Company (1985). Above and Beyond, A History of the Medal Honor from the Civil War to Vietnam, p. 113. 
  11. ^ a b Smedley Butler's Medal of Honor citations. Congressional Medal of Honor Society. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  12. ^ Chomsky, Noam (1993). Year 501: The Conquest Continues. South End Press. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  13. ^ (November 15, 2004) "Leatherneck legends; Swapping some sea stories at the birthday ball? Here are 8 of the Corps' best". Marine Corps Times: 22. 
  14. ^ a b c d e Ward, Geoffrey C.. Ollie and Old Gimlet Eye. American Heritage Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  15. ^ Schmidt, Hans (1987). "To Hell with the Admirals" (excerpt). Maverick Marine: General Smedley D. Butler and the Contradictions of American Military History. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  16. ^ Oregon State Police History. Oregon State Police, Official Oregon State website. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  17. ^ Frazier, Wade. Excerpt from. The Business of War. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  18. ^ Schmidt, p. 234; For more on the individuals which considered the organization communist: Klehr, Harvey. The Heyday of American Communism. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02946-9.  p. 110-12, 372-73. J.E. Hoover characterized the peace campaign as "the most important phase of the united front program of the Communist Party"; Hoover to Watson (secretary to the president), 6 Dec. 1940, FDRL, OF 10b, box 24.
  19. ^ Butler, Common Sense, 1935.
  20. ^ Smedley Butler at Find A Grave
  21. ^ Schmidt, Hans (1987). Excerpt from. Maverick Marine: General Smedley D. Butler and the Contradictions of American Military History. University Press of Kentucky. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  22. ^ Marutollo, Frank (1990). Organizational Behavior in the Marine Corps: Three Interpretations. Praeger/Greenwood, 140. 
  23. ^ Smedley D. Butler Brigade Chapter 9 Veterans for Peace. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  24. ^ Synopsis: DEMOCRACY LTD. The Corporation Official website. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  25. ^ Double Recipients. Full List of MOH Recipients. Congressional Medal of Honor Society. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Find A Grave is an online database of seventeen million cemeteries and burial records. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

This article incorporates text in the public domain from the United States Marine Corps.
This article includes text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
  • Butler. Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  • Butler, Smedley D. (1935; reprint, 2003). War Is a Racket. Los Angeles: Feral House. ISBN 0-922915-86-5. 
  • McFall, J. Arthur (February 2003). "After 33 years of Marine service, Smedley Butler became an outspoken critic of U.S. foreign policy". Military History 19 (6): 16. 
  • Schmidt, Hans (1987). Maverick Marine: General Smedley D. Butler and the Contradictions of American Military History. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0813116198. 
  • Valaik, J. David (February 2000). "Smedley D. Butler". American National Biography Online. 
  • Venzon, Anne Cipriano (1992). General Smedley Darlington Butler: The Letters of a Leatherneck, 1898-1931. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-94141-8. 
  • "Smedley D. Butler". Dictionary of American Biography, Supplements 1-2: To 1940. 

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Further reading

  • Archer, Jules (2007). The Plot to Seize the Whitehouse: The Shocking True Story of the Conspiracy to Overthrow FDR. Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 978-1-6023-9036-2. 
  • Thomas, Lowell (1933). Old Gimlet Eye: The adventures of Smedley D. Butler. Farrar & Rinehart. ASIN: B00085MY0Q.  "While still interesting, it is neither scholarly nor unbiased." — American National Biography Online

External links

Persondata
NAME Butler, Smedley Darlington
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION United States general and activist
DATE OF BIRTH July 30, 1881
PLACE OF BIRTH West Chester, Pennsylvania, United States
DATE OF DEATH June 21, 1940
PLACE OF DEATH Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

  Results from FactBites:
 
Smedley Butler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2431 words)
Butler was born in West Chester, Pennsylvania, the oldest in a family of three sons.
Butler was educated at the West Chester Friends Graded High School and later at the Haverford Preparatory School, an elite secondary school for sons of upper-class Quaker families near Philadelphia.
Butler was married in 1905 to Ethel C. Peters, of Philadelphia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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