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Encyclopedia > Smartcard
Smartcard used for health related payments.
Smartcard used for health related payments.

A smart card, or integrated circuit(s) card (ICC), is defined as any integrated circuitry embedded into a flat, plastic body. Although there are a diverse range of applications, there are two broad categories of ICCs. Memory cards contain only non-volatile memory storage components, and perhaps some specific security logic. Microprocessor cards contain memory and microprocessor components. Download high resolution version (1001x639, 90 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1001x639, 90 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... See Smartcard ... Memory cards are solid-state electronic flash memory data storage devices used with digital cameras, handheld and laptop computers, phones, music players, video game consoles and other electronics. ...


The standard perception of a "smart card" is a microprocessor card of credit-card shaped dimensions (or less, e.g. the GSM SIM card) with various tamper-resistant properties (e.g. a secure cryptoprocessor, secure file system, human-readable features) and is capable of providing security services (e.g. confidentiality of information in the memory). Not to be confused with Get Some Mates The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. ... The word Sim can refer to the following topics: Sim (Pencil Game), a pencil game an abbreviation of the word simulation The Sims, a household simulation computer game by Maxis Dave Sim, author of the comic book Cerebus Sim Wong Hoo, founder of the world-leading entertainment manufacturing company, Creative... A secure cryptoprocessor is a dedicated computer for carrying out cryptographic operations, embedded in a packaging with multiple physical security measures, which give it a degree of tamper resistance. ...

Contents


History

Smart cards were invented and patented in the 1970s. There are some disputes regarding the actual "inventor"; claimants include Juergen Dethloff of Germany, Arimura of Japan, and Moreno of France. Their first mass usage was payment in the French payphones starting from 1983 (Télécarte). The second one was the integration of a microchip into all French debit cards (Carte Bleue). This article provides extensive lists of events and significant personalities of the 1970s. ... A payphone or pay phone is a public telephone, with payment by inserting money (usually coins) or a debit card (a special telephone card or a multi-purpose card) or credit card before a call is made. ... 1983 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Telephone card with chip (1987) A telephone card, or phone card for short, is a small card, usually resembling a credit card, used to pay for telephone services. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Carte Bleue (or Blue Card in English) is a major debit card payment scheme operating in France. ...


Smartcard-based electronic purse systems (where value is stored on the card chip, not a bank account) were tried throughout Europe from the mid 1990s, most notably in Germany (Geldkarte), Belgium (Proton), the Netherlands (Chipknip and Chipper), Switzerland ("Cash"), Sweden ("Cash"), UK ("Mondex") and Denmark ("Danmont"). None of these programs attracted any notable public interest, and usage levels remained low to non-existent.


The major boom in smartcard chipmodules came with the introduction of a smartcard-based GSM chip for mobile phones in Europe in the 1990s.


The international payment brands, MasterCard, Visa, and Europay published a smart card payment interoperability standard in 1996 and then revised it in 2000. The EMV standard is gradually being introduced world wide,and some hope it will replace existing magnetic stripe based credit and debit schemes. Currently, EMV specs are costly to implement, with the only benefit being a reduction in fraud. As this reduction is far less than the cost of implementing EMV, many believe that the industry will opt to wait out the current EMV life cycle in order to implement new, contactless-based technology. However, the standard has been rolled out in the UK under the brand name Chip and PIN and from early 2005 has mostly replaced signature/swipe verification. France has deployed a similar but incompatible system which reduced fraud by around 80%. EMV is a standard for interoperation of IC cards (Chip cards) and IC capable POS terminals, for authenticating credit and debit card payments. ... Chip and PIN is the name of a government-backed initiative in the United Kingdom to implement the EMV standard for secure payments. ...


Smart cards with contactless interfaces are becoming increasingly popular for payment and ticketing applications such as for mass transit, leisure and others. Interoperable ticketing standards have been published in the UK [1] and Europe IOPTA.


Smart cards are also being introduced into ID and entitlement schemes at regional, national and international levels. Citizen cards, driver's licences and patient card schemes are becoming more prevelent, and contactless smartcards are being integrated into passports ICAO to enhance security for international travel. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, develops the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ...


Contact smartcard

The ISO/IEC 7816 and ISO/IEC 7810 series of standards define:

  • the physical shape of the smart card
  • the positions and shapes of its electrical connectors
  • the communications protocols and power voltages to be applied to those connectors
  • the functionality
  • the format of the commands sent to the card and the response returned by the card
  • robustness of the card

The cards do not contain a battery; power is supplied by the card reader. This article concerns communication between pairs of electronic devices. ... Four double-A (AA) batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ...


The smart cards are designed to withstand physical stress, temperature fluctuations, ultraviolet and X-Ray radiation as well as electromagnetic susceptibility. Furthermore, the card should be flexible to a degree, which puts constraints on the chip size and its placement. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength shorter than that of the visible region, but longer than that of soft X-rays. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Radiation has a variety of different meanings. ...


In a contact-type smart card, the chip can be recognised by an area of gold-plated contacts about 1 cm² close to the short side of the card. Normally the contact communication is relatively slow (9.6-115.2 kbit/s). There is currently a trend towards implementing USB (up to 10 Mbit/s) or MMC (up to 100 Mbit/s) protocols on these contacts, but there is not yet a final standard. Type A USB connector Dual images of the two Type B USB connectors, mini and full size, side and front view, compared with a U.S. 5¢ piece (nickel) in both images for scale. ...


ISO 7816:5 defines numbering for ISO 7816 smart cards. An application identifier (AID) consists of an Registered Application Provider Identifier (RID), identifying the vendor, then a Proprietary Application Identifier Extension (PIX), identifying the application offered by the vendor. A RID can be either assigned by the ISO/IEC 7816-5 Registration Authority (TDC Services A/S), or be an ISO 7812 IIN followed by the FF hexadecimal. ISO 7812 is the international standard governing magnetic-stripe identification cards, such as door entry cards, ATM cards, credit cards. ...


Contactless smartcard

Obverse side of a standard adult Octopus card, a contactless smartcard.
Obverse side of a standard adult Octopus card, a contactless smartcard.

A second type is the non-contact type called contactless smart card, where the chip communicates with the card reader through wireless self-powered induction technology (106-848 kbit/s). Download high resolution version (992x671, 95 KB)New picture of front of Octopus card. ... Download high resolution version (992x671, 95 KB)New picture of front of Octopus card. ... Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a method of remotely storing and retrieving data using devices called RFID tags. ...


The standards for the contactless protocol for smart cards are ISO/IEC 14443 (type A and B) from the year 2001, which allows communication distances up to 10 cm. There have been proposals for ISO 14443 type C, D, E and F that have yet to be accepted by the ISO standards committee. An alternative standard for contactless smartcard is ISO 15693, which allows communication distances up to 50 cm.


An example of a widely used contactless smartcard is Hong Kong's Octopus card, which predates the ISO/IEC 14443 standard. The following table lists other smartcards for public transportation. The Octopus card(八達通卡) is a rechargeable contactless stored value smart card used for electronic payment in on-line or off-line systems in Hong Kong. ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ...

Place Card Provider Introduction
Malaysia Touch 'n Go Teras Technologi Sdn Bhd 1997
Washington DC SmarTrip Cubic Transporation Systems 1999
Taipei EasyCard Taipei Smart Card Corporation March 2000
Singapore EZ-Link 2001
Paris Calypso card October 2001
Tokyo Suica Card JR East November 2001
Chicago Chicago Card Chicago Transit Authority 2002
Nagasaki Nagasaki Smart Card January 2002
London Oyster card Transport for London January 2004
Dublin Luas Connex March 2005
Minneapolis-St. Paul Go-To card Metro Transit (Minnesota)
Boston Charlie Card Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority 2006
Melbourne 2007
Toronto GTA Farecard GO Transit 2007
Guernsey Multi Journey Smartcard Island Coachways Unknown

A related contactless technology is RFID (radio frequency identification) that in certain cases can be used for similar applications to contactless smartcard such as for electronic toll collection. RFID generally do not include writeable memory or microcontroller processing capability as contactless smartcard do. The Touch n Go smart card is used by Malaysian toll highway operators as the sole electronic payment system. ... 1997 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... D.C. Metro SmarTrip card The SmarTrip card is a plastic contactless smartcard used for payment within the Washington Metro system of Washington, DC. Unlike the traditional paper farecards, it is designed to be permanent and rechargeable, and as of 2004 can be used for bus fares and parking fees... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday Anno Domini (or the Current Era), and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... City nickname: the City of Azaleas Capital District Xinyi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 16 of 25 271. ... EasyCard (traditional Chinese: 悠遊卡) is a contactless smartcard system operated by Taipei Smart Card Corporation for use on the Taipei Rapid Transit System and on buses and other public transport services in Taipei. ... 2000 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December This is a timeline for events in March, 2000. ... A standard adult EZ-Link card. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... 2001 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Events: October 2 - Bankruptcy of Swissair. ... The modern skyline of Tokyo is highly decentralized. ... The Suica (Japanese: スイカ) card is a rechargeable contactless smart card used on the (JR) East network, Tokyo Monorail, and Rinkai Line in Japan. ... Yamanote Line, Tokyo JR Yamanote Line train in Tokyo, Japan Above Yurakucho in Tokyo East Japan Railway Company (東日本旅客鉄道 Higashi-Nihon Ryokyaku Tetsudo or JR東日本; JR Higashi-Nihon) is a Japanese private railroad company, one of the seven JR companies. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... Chicago, colloquially known as the Second City and the Windy City, is the third-largest city in population in the United States and the largest inland city in the country. ... Quincy L Station serving the Brown Line, Purple Line and Orange Line The Chicago Transit Authority (CTA), founded on October 1, 1947, provides bus and rail mass transit services to the citizens of Chicago and several of the citys inner suburbs. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nagasaki at night, 2003 Megane-bashi (Spectacles Bridge) Nagasaki   listen? (長崎市; -shi, literally long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located on the south-western coast of Kyushu, the southernmost of the four mainland islands of Japan. ... Nagasaki Smart Card is a contactless smart card system used in Nagasaki, Japan. ... 2002 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for January, 2002. ... The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster, which contains Big Ben London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... Front and back of an Oyster card. ... Transport for London (TfL) is a government body responsible for the transport system in the City of London, the capital city of the United Kingdom. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → January 31, 2004 The United States defence budget is set to exceed US$400 billion next year—an almost 7% increase—according to budget proposals inadvertently posted on the Pentagons website. ... Dublin (Irish: Baile Átha Cliath),is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland, located near the midpoint of Irelands east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey and at the centre of the Dublin region. ... Luas (from the Irish for speed), also promoted in the development stage as the Dublin Light Rail System, currently encompasses two unconnected on-street light rail lines in Dublin, Ireland. ... Connex is the brand name of the transport services division of the French-based multinational company Veolia Environnement. ... ← - 2005 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December- → Deaths in March • 31 – Terri Schiavo • 30 – Mitch Hedberg • 29 – Johnnie Cochran • 27 – Wilfred Bigelow • 26 – Paul Hester • 26 – James Callaghan • 21 – Jeff Weise • 21 – Bobby Short • 19 – John De Lorean • 18 – Gary Bertini • 17 – George F... The Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. ... The Go-To card is a contactless smart card meant to be used to pay fares for bus and light rail lines operated by Metro Transit and other transit agencies in the Twin Cities area of Minnesota. ... Metro Transit is the largest operator of bus service in the seven-county region surrounding Minneapolis and St. ... Alternative meanings: Boston (disambiguation) The 18th-century Old State House in Boston is surrounded by tall buildings of the 19th and 20th centuries. ... New Easy Way MBTA fare gates, in testing at Aquarium Station The Charlie Card is a contactless, stored value smart card that passengers will carry as part of an automated fare collection system which the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) expects to introduce in 2006. ... The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) is a quasi-governmental organization formed in 1964 that controls most bus, subway, commuter rail and ferry systems in the greater Boston, Massachusetts, USA area. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The City of Melbournes coat of arms Melbourne is the capital and largest city of the state of Victoria, and the second largest city in Australia (after Sydney), with a population of 3,600,650 in the Melbourne metropolitan area (June 2004) and 61,670 in the City of... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... }|135px|City of Toronto, Ontario Official Flag]]|Coat Image=[[Image:{{{Coat Image}}}|135px|City of Toronto, Ontario Coat of Arms]]}} {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Diversity Our Strength {{Canadian City/Location Image is:{{{Location Image Type}}}|[[Image:{{{Location Image}}}|thumbnail|center|250px|City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada... GTA Farecard is a planned smartcard-based fare payment system to be introduced in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada, in 2007. ... GO Transit, officially known as the Greater Toronto Transit Authority (GTTA), is Canadas first, and Ontarios only, interregional public transit system, established to link Toronto with the surrounding regions of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term Unknown is used in a number of contexts: To indicate the lack of knowledge To refer to anonymity Unknown is the title of a fantasy magazine published from 1939-1943. ... An EPC RFID tag used for Wal-Mart An RFID tag used for electronic toll collection Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) is a method of storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. ... Many ETC systems use transponders like this one to electronically debit the accounts of registered cars without their stopping Electronic toll collection (ETC), an adaptation of aircraft identification friend or foe technology, aims to eliminate the delay on toll roads. ...


There are dual-interface cards that implement contactless and contact interfaces on a single card with some shared storage and processing. An example is Malaysia's multi application smartcard identification called MyKad that uses both contact Proton and contactless Mifare (ISO 14443A) chips. Mykad is the multi-purpose smart identity card introduced by Malaysia. ... Proton E-Purse is an electronic wallet introduced in Belgium by Banksys in 1995. ... Mifare is reputedly the most widely installed contactless smartcard technology in the world with 250 million smart card chips and 1. ...


Applications

The applications of smartcards include their use as credit or ATM cards, SIMs for mobile phones, authorization cards for pay television, high security identification and access control cards, public transport tickets, etc. Outdoor ATMs may be free-standing, like this kiosk, or built into the side of banks or other buildings For other uses of ATM, see ATM. An automatic teller machine or automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic device that allows a banks customers to make cash withdrawals and... SIM re-directs here; for alternate uses see Sim (disambiguation) A SIM card taken from a GSM mobile phone A subscriber identity module (SIM) is a smartcard securely storing the key identifying a mobile subscriber. ... Skytrain Bangkok. ...


Smart cards may also be used as electronic wallets. The smart card chip can be loaded with electronic money, which can be used to pay parking meters, vending machines, and merchants. Cryptographic protocols protect the exchange of money between the smart card and the accepting machine. Examples for this are Proton, GeldKarte, Moneo and Quick. A cryptographic protocol is an abstract or concrete protocol that performs a security-related function and applies cryptographic methods. ... Proton E-Purse is an electronic wallet introduced in Belgium by Banksys in 1995. ...


A large growing application is smart ID cards. In this application the cards are used for authentication of identity. Examples include the US Department of Defense Common Access Card (CAC), and their use by many governments as ID cards for their citizens. When combined with biometrics smartcards can provide two or three factor authentication. Smart cards are a privacy enhancing technology and when used in conjunction with appropriate security and privacy policies can form a highly effective identity authentication technology. In computer security, authentication (Greek: αυθεντικός, from authentes=author) is the process by which a computer, computer program, or another user attempts to confirm that the computer, computer program, or user from whom the second party has received some communication is, or is not, the claimed first party. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ...


Smartcards have been advertised as suitable for these tasks, because they are engineered to be tamper resistant. The embedded chip of a smart card normally implements some cryptographic algorithm. Information about the inner workings of this algorithm can be obtained if the precise time and electrical current required for certain encryption or decryption operations is measured. A number of research projects have now demonstrated the feasibility of this line of attack. Counter measures have been proposed. In the field of computer security, system hardware is said to be tamper-resistant if it is difficult to modify or subvert, even for an assailant who has physical access to the system. ... Cryptography has had a long and colourful history. ... In electricity, current is the rate of flow of charges, usually through a metal wire or some other electrical conductor. ...


Another problem of smart cards may be the failure rate. The plastic card in which the chip is embedded is fairly flexible, and the larger the chip, the higher the probability of it breaking. Smart cards are often carried in wallets or pockets, which is a fairly harsh environment for a chip. However, for large banking systems, the failure management cost is more than compensated by the fraud cost reduction.


See also

Java Card refers to a technology that allows small Java-based applications (applets) to be run securely on smart cards and similar devices. ... Electronic money (or digital money) refers to cash and associated transactions implemented using electronic means. ... Telephone card with chip (1987) A telephone card, or phone card for short, is a small card, usually resembling a credit card, used to pay for telephone services. ... EMV is a standard for interoperation of IC cards (Chip cards) and IC capable POS terminals, for authenticating credit and debit card payments. ...

External links

  • Smart Card Tutorial
  • Introduction to Smart Cards
  • Smart Card Alliance.

Patents

  • U.S. Patent 3971916 -- Methods of data storage and data storage systems
  • U.S. Patent 4007355 -- Data-transfer system
  • U.S. Patent 4092524 -- Systems for storing and transferring data
  • U.S. Patent 4102493 -- Systems for storing and transferring data

More information, research, and news on smart cards

  • Secure ID News
  • Contactless News

Smart card manufacturers

  • Ask
  • Axalto
  • CardLogix
  • Gemplus
  • Giesecke & Devrient
  • IBM
  • ID TECH
  • I'M Technologies
  • InSeal Contactless
  • MaskTech
  • Oberthur Card Systems
  • ORGA Kartensysteme GmbH
  • On Track Innovations Ltd (OTI)
  • Setec
  • Sharp
  • Siemens
  • Smart Card Integrators
  • Telesec
  • CircleSmartCard
  • Zetes
  • PRISM

Smart card chip manufacturers

  • Atmel
  • Infineon
  • Philips/Mifare
  • Renesas
  • STMicroelectonics
  • Inside Contactless (Dedicated to contactless smart cards)

Smart card applications

  • PC/SC Specifications

  Results from FactBites:
 
Smart card - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1147 words)
The major boom in smartcard chipmodules came with the introduction of a smartcard-based GSM chips for mobile phones in Europe in the 1990s.
The applications of smartcards include their use as credit or ATM cards, SIMs for mobile phones, authorization cards for pay television, high security identification and access control cards, public transport tickets, etc.
Smartcards have been advertised as suitable for these tasks, because they are engineered to be tamper resistant.
:: Ecebs - Smartcards :: (1275 words)
The major components of a typical Smartcard are the CPU (the 'brain' of the chip), the memory (for data storage) and the interface pads (providing access to and control of the chip).
Smartcards have also been an integral part of the GSM mobile telephone for several years, where they are used as Subscriber Identity Modules or SIM Cards.
Smartcard technology allows effective card holder profiling giving the ability to furnish consumers with new products and features which best suit their lifestyle, while providing the business and/or card issuer with valuable information on customer habits.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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