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Encyclopedia > Smallpox
Smallpox
Classification and external resources
A child infected with smallpox
ICD-10 B03.
ICD-9 050
DiseasesDB 12219
MedlinePlus 001356
eMedicine emerg/885 
MeSH D012899
Variola virus (Smallpox)
Virus classification
Group: Group I (dsDNA)
Family: Poxviridae
Genus: Orthopoxvirus
Species: Variola vera

Smallpox is an infectious disease unique to humans, caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor.[1] The disease is also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera, which is a derivative of the Latin varius, meaning spotted, or varus, meaning "pimple". The term "smallpox" was first used in Europe in the 15th century to distinguish variola from the great pox (syphilis).[2] Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... Image File history File links Smallpox. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Virus classification involves naming and placing viruses into a taxonomic system. ... A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and does not use an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Genera Subfamily Chordopoxvirinae    Orthopoxvirus    Parapoxvirus    Avipoxvirus    Capripoxvirus    Leporipoxvirus    Suipoxvirus    Molluscipoxvirus    Yatapoxvirus Subfamily Entomopoxvirinae    Entomopoxvirus A    Entomopoxvirus B    Entomopoxvirus C Poxviruses (members of the family Poxviridae) can infect as a family both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. ... Orthopox viruses include many species isolated from non-human mammals. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... A common alternate meaning of virus is computer virus. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ...


Smallpox localizes in small blood vessels of the skin and in the mouth and throat. In the skin, this results in a characteristic maculopapular rash, and later, raised fluid-filled blisters. V. major produces a more serious disease and has an overall mortality rate of 30–35%. V. minor causes a milder form of disease (also known as alastrim, cottonpox, milkpox, whitepox, and Cuban itch) which kills ~1% of its victims.[3][4] Long-term complications of V. major infection include characteristic scars, commonly on the face, which occurred in 65–85% of survivors.[5] Blindness resulting from corneal ulceration and scarring, and limb deformities due to arthritis and osteomyelitis are less common complications, seen in about 2–5% of cases. f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Maculopapular is a medical term used to describe a unique type of rash. ... For the packaging type, see Blister pack. ... This article is about the visual condition. ... A corneal ulcer is an inflammatory condition of the cornea involving loss of its outer layer. ... Osteomyelitis is an infection of bone, usually caused by pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria. ...


Smallpox is believed to have emerged in human populations about 10,000 BC.[2] The disease killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans each year during the 18th century (including five reigning monarchs), and was responsible for a third of all blindness.[3] Between 20 and 60% of all those infected—and over 80% of infected children—died from the disease.[6] (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Louis XIV, king of France and Navarre (Painting by Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701). ...


During the 20th century, it is estimated that smallpox was responsible for 300–500 million deaths.[7][8] As recently as 1967, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 15 million people contracted the disease and that two million died in that year.[9] After successful vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified the eradication of smallpox in 1979.[9] To this day, smallpox is the only human infectious disease to have been completely eradicated from nature.[10] (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... WHO redirects here. ... Look up who in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Cause

Electron micrograph of smallpox.
Electron micrograph of smallpox.

Smallpox is caused by infection with variola virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus, the family Poxviridae, and subfamily chordopoxvirinae. It affects mostly babies and young children. Variola virus is a large brick-shaped virus measuring approximately 302 to 350 nanometers by 244 to 270 nm,[11] with a single linear double stranded DNA genome consisting of 186 kilobase pairs (kbp) and containing a hairpin loop at each end.[12] The two classic varieties of smallpox are variola major and variola minor. The closest viral relative is molluscum contagiosum, which like smallpox, infects only humans. However, unlike variola species, molluscum infection is benign. The lifecycle of poxviruses is complicated by having multiple infectious forms, with differing mechanisms of cell entry. Poxviruses are unique among DNA viruses in that they replicate in the cytoplasm of the cell rather than in the nucleus. In order to replicate poxviruses produce a variety of specialized proteins not produced by other DNA viruses, the most important of which is a viral-associated DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Both enveloped and nonenveloped virions are infectious. The viral envelop is made of modified Golgi membranes containing viral-specific polypeptides, including hemagglutinin.[12] Infection with either variola major and variola minor confers immunity against the other.[4] Orthopox viruses include many species isolated from non-human mammals. ... Genera Subfamily Chordopoxvirinae    Orthopoxvirus    Parapoxvirus    Avipoxvirus    Capripoxvirus    Leporipoxvirus    Suipoxvirus    Molluscipoxvirus    Yatapoxvirus Subfamily Entomopoxvirinae    Entomopoxvirus A    Entomopoxvirus B    Entomopoxvirus C Poxviruses (members of the family Poxviridae) can infect as a family both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... dsDNA is an abbreviation for double-stranded DNA ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... A kilobase, also referred to as kilobase pair, Kb, and Kbp, is literally one thousand base pairs; this is a measure of the length of a piece of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). ... Hairpin structure of RNA A hairpin loop in RNA is a sequence of nucleotides where a long segment of RNA can base-pair with each other, but a segment within that sequence can not base pair, causing a hairpin loop. ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. ... Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ... Look up nucleus in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A DNA virus is a virus belonging to either Group I or Group II of the Baltimore classification system for viruses. ... Many viruses (e. ... Golgi may refer to the physician Camillo Golgi or one of the structures named after him: Golgi apparatus (or Golgi complex) Golgi organ (or Golgi tendon organ) yes, Doughnuts, and cheese. ... Hemagglutinin, as depicted in a simplified molecular model. ...


Four orthopoxviruses cause infection in humans: variola, vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox. Variola virus infects only humans in nature, although primates and other animals have been infected in a laboratory setting. Vaccinia, cowpox, and monkeypox viruses can infect both humans and other animals in nature.[13] Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family of viruses. ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... (Cricetomys sp. ...


Transmission

Transmission of smallpox occurs through inhalation of airborne variola virus, usually droplets expressed from the oral, nasal, or pharyngeal mucosa of an infected person. It is transmitted from one person to another primarily through prolonged face-to-face contact with an infected person, usually within a distance of 6 feet, but can also be spread through direct contact with infected bodily fluids or contaminated objects (fomites) such as bedding or clothing. Rarely, smallpox has been spread by virus carried in the air in enclosed settings such as buildings, buses, and trains.[14] The virus can cross the placenta, but the incidence of congenital smallpox is relatively low.[4] Smallpox is not notably infectious in the prodromal period and viral shedding is usually delayed until the appearance of the rash, which is often accompanied by lesions in the mouth and pharynx. The virus can be transmitted throughout the course of the illness, but is most frequent during the first week of the rash, when most of the skin lesions are intact.[13] Infectivity wanes in 7 to 10 days when scabs form over the lesions, but the infected person is contagious until the last smallpox scab falls off.[15] Smallpox is highly contagious, but generally spreads more slowly and less widely than some other viral diseases, perhaps because transmission requires close contact and occurs after the onset of the rash. The overall rate of infection is also affected by the short duration of the infectious stage. In temperate areas, the number of smallpox infections were highest during the winter and spring. In tropical areas, seasonal variation was less evident and the disease was present throughout the year.[13] Age distribution of smallpox infections depends on acquired immunity. Vaccination immunity declines over time and is probably lost in all but the most recently vaccinated populations.[4] Smallpox is not known to be transmitted by insects or animals and there is no asymptomatic carrier state.[13] The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... A fomite is any inanimate object or substance supposed to be capable of absorbing, retaining, and transporting contagious or infectious organisms (from germs to parasites) from one individual to another. ... The placenta (Latin for cake, referencing its appearance in humans) is an ephemeral organ present in placental vertebrates, such as eutherial mammals and sharks during gestation (pregnancy). ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... In medicine, a prodrome is an early symptom indicating the development of a disease, or indicating that a disease attack is imminent. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... A vial of the vaccine against influenza. ... Immunity is a medical term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ... An asymptomatic carrier (or just carrier), is a person who is infected with an infectious disease or carries the abnormal gene of a recessive genetic disorder, but displays no symptoms. ...


Signs and symptoms

There are two clinical forms of smallpox. Variola major is the severe and most common form of smallpox, with a more extensive rash and higher fever. There are four types of variola major smallpox based on the Rao classification:[16] ordinary, modified, flat, and hemorrhagic. Historically, variola major has an overall fatality rate of about 30%; however, flat and hemorrhagic smallpox are usually fatal.[17] In addition, a form called variola sine eruptione (smallpox without rash) is seen generally in vaccinated persons. This form is marked by a fever that occurs after the usual incubation period and can be confirmed only by antibody studies or, rarely, by virus isolation.[13]


Variola minor is a less common presentation of smallpox, and a much less severe disease, with historical death rates of 1% or less.[14] Subclinical (asymptomatic) infections with variola virus have also been noted, but are not believed to be common.[13] In medicine, a disease is asymptomatic when it is at a stage where the patient does not experience symptoms. ...


The incubation period between contraction and the first obvious symptoms of the disease is around 12 days. Once inhaled, variola virus invades the oropharyngeal (mouth and throat) or the respiratory mucosa, migrates to regional lymph nodes, and begins to multiply. In the initial growth phase the virus seems to move from cell to cell, but around the 12th day, lysis of many infected cells occurs and the virus is found in the bloodstream in large numbers (this is called viremia), and a second wave of multiplication occurs in the spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. The initial or prodromal symptoms are similar to other viral diseases such as influenza and the common cold: fever (at least 38.5 °C (101 °F)), muscle pain, malaise, headache, prostration, and as the digestive tract is commonly involved, nausea and vomiting and backache often occur. The prodrome, or preeruptive stage, usually lasts 2–4 days. By days 12–15 the first visible lesions—small reddish spots called enanthem—appear on mucous membranes of the mouth, tongue, palate, and throat, and temperature falls to near normal. These lesions rapidly enlarge and rupture, releasing large amounts of virus into the saliva.[4] Incubation period, also called the latent period or latency period, is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, or chemical or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent. ... Respiration can refer to: Cellular respiration, which is the use of oxygen in the metabolism of organic molecules. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... This article is about the biological definition of the word Lysis. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... Viremia is a condition where viruses enter the bloodstream. ... Flu redirects here. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... For other uses of Muscle, see Muscle (disambiguation). ... Prostration can mean either: the placement of the body in a reverentially or submissively prone position (for instance, as part of religious or spiritual observance); or, physical or mental exhaustion (for instance, as part of a medical condition). ... The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and vertebrate animals. ... For the band, see Saliva (band). ...

Child showing rash due to ordinary-type smallpox (variola major)

Smallpox virus preferentially attacks skin cells, causing the characteristic pimples (called macules) associated with the disease. A rash develops on the skin 24 to 48 hours after lesions on the mucous membranes appear. Typically the macules first appear on the forehead, then rapidly spread to the whole face, proximal portions of extremities, the trunk, and lastly to distal portions of extremities. The process takes no more than 24 to 36 hours, after which no new lesions appear.[4] At this point Variola major infection can take several very different courses. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 485 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (637 × 788 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This child is showing the pan-corporeal rash due to the smallpox variola major virus. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 485 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (637 × 788 pixel, file size: 121 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This child is showing the pan-corporeal rash due to the smallpox variola major virus. ... The macule is the simplest dermatological lesion. ...


Ordinary

Ninety percent or more of smallpox cases among unvaccinated persons are of the ordinary type.[13] In this form of the disease, by the second day of the rash, the macules become raised papules. By the third or fourth day the papules fill with an opalescent fluid to become vesicles. This fluid becomes opaque and turbid within 24–48 hours, giving them the appearance of pustules; however, the so-called pustules are filled with tissue debris, not pus.[4] In cell biology, a vesicle is a relatively small and enclosed compartment, separated from the cytosol by at least one lipid bilayer. ... A substance or object that is opaque is neither transparent nor translucent. ... Turbidity standards of 10, 100, and 1000 NTU Turbidity is a cloudiness or haziness of water (or other liquid) caused by individual particles that are too small to be seen without magnification, thus being much like smoke in air. ... An abscess is a collection of pus collected in a cavity formed by the tissue on the basis of an infectious process (usually caused by bacteria or parasites) or other foreign materials (e. ...


By the sixth or seventh day, all the skin lesions have become pustules. Between 7 and 10 days the pustules mature and reach their maximum size. The pustules are sharply raised, typically round, tense, and firm to the touch. The pustules are deeply embedded in the dermis, giving them the feel of a small bead in the skin. Fluid slowly leaks from the pustules, and by the end of the second week the pustules deflate, and start to dry up, forming crusts (or scabs). By day 16-20 scabs have formed over all the lesions, which have started to flake off, leaving de-pigmented scars.[18] Natural Ultramarine pigment in powdered form. ...


Ordinary smallpox generally produces a discrete rash, in which the pustules stand out on the skin separately. The distribution of the rash is densest on the face; more dense on the extremities than on the trunk; and on the extremities, more dense on the distal parts than on the proximal. The palms of the hands and soles of the feet are involved in the majority of cases. In some cases, the blisters merge together into sheets, forming a confluent rash, which begin to detach the outer layers of skin from the underlying flesh. Patients with confluent smallpox often remain ill even after scabs have formed over all the lesions. In one case series, the case-fatality rate in confluent smallpox was 62%.[13]


Modified

Referring to the character of the eruption and the rapidity of its development, modified smallpox occurs mostly in previously vaccinated people. In this form the prodromal illness still occurs but may be less severe than in the ordinary type. There is usually no fever during evolution of the rash. The skin lesions tend to be fewer and evolve more quickly, are more superficial, and may not show the uniform characteristic of more typical smallpox.[18] Modified smallpox is rarely, if ever, fatal. This form of variola major is more easily confused with chickenpox.[13]

This man is suffering from severe hemorrhagic-type smallpox
This man is suffering from severe hemorrhagic-type smallpox

Flat

In Flat-type smallpox (also called malignant smallpox) the lesions remain almost flush with the skin at the time when raised vesicles form in ordinary-type smallpox. It is unknown why some people develop this type of disease. Historically, flat-type smallpox accounted for 5%–10% of cases, and the majority (72%) were in children.[19] Flat smallpox is accompanied by a severe prodromal phase that lasts 3–4 days, prolonged high fever, and severe symptoms of toxemia. The rash on the tongue and palate is usually extensive. The skin lesions mature very slowly and by the seventh or eighth day the lesions are flat and appear to be buried in the skin. Unlike ordinary-type smallpox, the vesicles contain very little fluid, are soft and velvety to the touch, and may contain hemorrhages. Flat-type smallpox is nearly always fatal.[13] The term symptom (from the Greek syn = con/plus and pipto = fall, together meaning co-exist) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: A symptom may loosely be said to be a physical condition which shows that one has a particular illness or disorder (see... Toxemia is another term for blood poisoning, or the presence in the bloodstream of quantities of bacteria or bacterial toxins sufficient to cause serious illness. ...


Hemorrhagic

Hemorrhagic smallpox is a severe form of smallpox that is accompanied by extensive bleeding into the skin, mucous membranes, and gastrointestinal tract. This form developed in perhaps 2% of infections and occurred mostly in adults. In hemorrhagic smallpox the skin does not blister, but remains smooth. Instead, bleeding occurs under the skin, making the skin look charred and black (this is known as black pox). Black pox is a symptom of smallpox that is caused by bleeding under the skin which makes the skin look charred or black. ...


In the early, or fulminating, form, hemorrhaging appears on the second or third day as sub-conjunctival bleeding turns the whites of the eyes deep red. Hemorrhagic smallpox also produces a dusky erythema, petechiae, and hemorrhages in the spleen, kidney, serosa, muscle, and, rarely, the epicardium, liver, testes, and bladder. Death often occurs suddenly between the fifth and seventh days of illness, when only a few insignificant skin lesions are present. A later form of the disease occurs in patients who survive for 8–10 days. The hemorrhages appear in the early eruptive period, and the rash is flat and does not progress beyond the vesicular stage.[13] Patients in the early stage of disease show a decrease in platelets, prothrombin, and globulin, and an increase in circulating antithrombin. Patients in the late stage have significant thrombocytopenia; however, deficiency of coagulation factors is less severe. Some in the late stage also show increased antithrombin.[4] This form of smallpox occurs in anywhere from 3–25% of fatal cases (depending on the virulence of the smallpox strain).[17] The conjunctiva is a membrane that covers the sclera (white part of the eye) and lines the inside of the eyelids. ... Erythema is redness of the skin caused by capillary congestion. ... Petechiae are pinpoint-sized hemorrhages of small capillaries in the skin or mucous membranes. ... A serosa is a serous membrane, Serous membranes line the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities, enclosing their contents. ... Epicardium describes the outer layer of heart tissue (from Greek; epi- outer, cardium heart). ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ... A bladder is a pouch or other flexible enclosure with waterproof or gasproof walls. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... Thrombin (activated Factor II) is a coagulation protein that has many effects in the coagulation cascade. ... Globulin is one of the two types of serum proteins, the other being albumin. ... Image:Antithrombin. ... Thrombocytopenia (or -paenia, or thrombopenia in short) is the presence of relatively few platelets in blood. ...


Diagnosis

Smallpox virus pocks on the chorioallantoic membrane of a developing chick.
Smallpox virus pocks on the chorioallantoic membrane of a developing chick.

The clinical definition of smallpox is an illness with acute onset of fever greater than 101°F (38.3°C) followed by a rash characterized by firm, deep seated vesicles or pustules in the same stage of development without other apparent cause.


Microscopically, one see's Guarnieri bodies, which are aggregates of the virus. Guarnieri bodies appear as pink blobs. The absence of Guarnieri bodies cannot be used to rule out smallpox, however.


If a clinical case is observed, smallpox is confirmed using laboratory tests. The diagnosis of an orthopoxvirus infection can be made rapidly by electron microscopic examination of pustular fluid or scabs. However, all orthopoxviruses exhibit identical brick-shaped virions by electron microscopy.[4] Definitive laboratory identification of variola virus involves growing the virus on chorioallantoic membrane (part of a chicken embryo) and examining the resulting pock lesions under defined temperature conditions.[20] Strains may be characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Serologic tests and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), which measure variola virus-specific immunoglobulin and antigen have also been developed to assist in the diagnosis of infection.[21] For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... “PCR” redirects here. ... In molecular biology, the term restriction fragment length polymorphism (or RFLP, often pronounced rif-lip) is used in two related contexts: as a characteristic of DNA molecules (arising from their differing nucleotide sequences) by which they may be distinguished and as the laboratory technique which uses this characteristic to compare... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Chickenpox was commonly confused with smallpox in the immediate post-eradication era. Chickenpox and smallpox can be distinguished by several methods. Unlike smallpox, chickenpox does not usually affect the palms and soles. Additionally, chickenpox pustules are of varying size due to variations in the timing of pustule eruption: smallpox pustules are all very nearly the same size since the viral effect progresses more uniformly. A variety of laboratory methods are available for detecting chickenpox in evaluation of suspected smallpox cases. For other uses, see Chickenpox (disambiguation). ...


Prognosis

The overall case-fatality rate for ordinary-type smallpox is about 30%, but varies by pock distribution: ordinary type-confluent is fatal about 50–75% of the time, ordinary-type semi-confluent about 25–50% of the time, in cases where the rash is discrete the case-fatality rate is less than 10%. The overall fatality rate for children younger than 1 year of age is 40%–50%. Hemorrhagic and flat types have the highest fatality rates. The fatality rate for flat-type is 90% or greater and nearly 100% is observed in cases of hemorrhagic smallpox. The case-fatality rate for variola minor is 1% or less.[18] There is no evidence of chronic or recurrent infection with variola virus.


In fatal cases of ordinary smallpox, death usually occurs between the tenth and sixteenth days of the illness. The cause of death from smallpox is not clear, but the infection is now known to involve multiple organs. Circulating immune complexes, overwhelming viremia, or an uncontrolled immune response may be contributing factors.[13] In early hemorrhagic smallpox, death occurs suddenly about six days after the fever develops. Cause of death in hemorrhagic cases involved heart failure, sometimes accompanied by pulmonary edema. In late hemorrhagic cases, high and sustained viremia, severe platelet loss and poor immune response were often cited as causes of death.[19] In flat smallpox modes of death are similar to those in burns, with loss of fluid, protein and electrolytes beyond the capacity of the body to replace or acquire, and fulminating sepsis. Immune Complex Diseases An immune complex is the combination of an epitope with an antibody directed against that epitope. ... Viremia is a condition where viruses enter the bloodstream. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. ...


Complications

Complications of smallpox arise most commonly in the respiratory system and range from simple bronchitis to fatal pneumonia. Respiratory complications tend to develop on about the eighth day of the illness and can be either viral or bacterial in origin. Secondary bacterial infection of the skin is a relatively uncommon complication of smallpox. When this occurs, the fever usually remains elevated.[13] Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi and may specifically refer to: Acute bronchitis, caused by viruses or bacteria and lasting several days or weeks Chronic bronchitis, a persistent, productive cough lasting at least three months in two consecutive years. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...


Other complications include encephalitis (1 in 500 patients), which is more common in adults and may cause temporary disability; permanent pitted scars, most notably on the face; and complications involving the eyes (2% of all cases). Pustules can form on the eyelid, conjunctiva, and cornea, leading to complications such as conjunctivitis, keratitis, corneal ulcer, iritis, iridocyclitis, and optic atrophy. Blindness results in approximately 35% to 40% of eyes affected with keratitis and corneal ulcer. Hemorrhagic smallpox can cause subconjunctival and retinal hemorrhages. In 2% to 5% of young children with smallpox, virions reach the joints and bone, causing osteomyelitis variolosa. Lesions are symmetrical, most common in the elbows, tibia, and fibula, and characteristically cause separation of an epiphysis and marked periosteal reactions. Swollen joints limit movement, and arthritis may lead to limb deformities, ankylosis, malformed bones, flail joints, and stubby fingers.[4] Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... Image of a human eye clearly showing the blood vessels of the conjuntiva. ... The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber, providing most of an eyes optical power [1]. Together with the lens, the cornea refracts light and, as a result, helps the eye to focus. ... A corneal ulcer is an inflammatory condition of the cornea involving loss of its outer layer. ... Iritis is a form of anterior uveitis and refers to the inflammation of the iris of the eye. ... Iridocyclitis, also known as anterior uveitis, is a condition in which the uvea of the eye suffers inflammation. ... Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body. ... This article is about the visual condition. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... Osteomyelitis is an infection of bone, usually caused by pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria. ... This article is about the vertebrate bone. ... For other uses see fibula (disambiguation) The fibula or calf bone is a bone placed on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. ... For other uses of the word bone, see bone (disambiguation). ... The periosteum is an envelope of fibrous connective tissue that is wrapped around the bone in all places except at joints (which are protected by cartilage). ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Ankylosis, or Anchylosis is a stiffness of a joint, the result of injury or disease. ...


Treatment

Smallpox vaccination within three days of exposure will prevent or significantly lessen the severity of smallpox symptoms in the vast majority of people. Vaccination four to seven days after exposure likely offers some protection from disease or may modify the severity of disease.[22] Other than vaccination, treatment of smallpox is primarily supportive, such as wound care and infection control, fluid therapy, and possible ventilator assistance. Flat and hemorrhagic types of smallpox are treated with the same therapies used to treat shock, such as fluid resuscitation. Patients with semi-confluent and confluent types of may have therapeutic issues similar to patients with extensive skin burns. A medical ventilator is a device designed to provide mechanical ventilation to a patient. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... Look up burn, burning, burned in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


No drug is currently approved for the treatment of smallpox. However, antiviral treatments have improved since the last large smallpox epidemics, and studies suggest that the antiviral drug cidofovir might be useful as a therapeutic agent. The drug must be administered intravenously, however, and may cause serious renal toxicity.[23] Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Cidofovir is an injectable antiviral medication for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with AIDS. It suppresses CMV replication by selective inhibition of viral DNA synthesis. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ...


Prevention

Main articles: Inoculation and Smallpox vaccine
Smallpox inoculation sign, 1801
Smallpox inoculation sign, 1801

The first attempts to prevent smallpox were practiced in India as early as 1000 BC,[24] and involved either nasal insufflation of powdered smallpox scabs, or scratching material from a smallpox lesion into the skin. This procedure was known as variolation and, if successful, produced lasting immunity to smallpox. However, because the person was infected with variola virus, a severe infection could result, and the person could transmit smallpox to others. Variolation had a 0.5–2% mortality rate; considerably less than the 20–30% mortality rate of the disease itself. Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... Smallpox vaccine being administered. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 550 pixel Image in higher resolution (1200 × 825 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Smallpox inoculation sign, 1801. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 550 pixel Image in higher resolution (1200 × 825 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Smallpox inoculation sign, 1801. ... Obsolete: inoculation against smallpox using material from a vesicle or lesion of a person with smallpox. ... Immunity is a medical term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ...


An account from letter by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu to Sarah Chiswell, dated 1 April 1717, from the Turkish Embassy describes this treatment: The Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (May 26, 1689 - August 21, 1762), was an English woman of letters. ...

.... The small-pox so fatal and so general amongst us is here entirely harmless by the invention of ingrafting (which is the term they give it). There is a set of old women who make it their business to perform the operation. Every autumn in the month of September, when the great heat is abated, people send to one another to know if any of their family has a mind to have the small-pox. They make parties for this purpose, and when they are met (commonly fifteen or sixteen together) the old woman comes with a nutshell full of the matter of the best sort of small-pox and asks what veins you please to have opened. She immediately rips open that you offer to her with a large needle (which gives you no more pain than a common scratch) and puts into the vein as much venom as can lye upon the head of her needle, and after binds up the little wound with a hollow bit of shell, and in this manner opens four or five veins. . . . The children or young patients play together all the rest of the day and are in perfect health till the eighth. Then the fever begins to seize them and they keep their beds two days, very seldom three. They have very rarely above twenty or thirty in their faces, which never mark, and in eight days time they are as well as before the illness. . . . There is no example of any one that has died in it, and you may believe I am very well satisfied of the safety of the experiment since I intend to try it on my dear little son. I am patriot enough to take pains to bring this useful invention into fashion in England, and I should not fail to write to some of our doctors very particularly about it if I knew any one of them that I thought had virtue enough to destroy such a considerable branch of their revenue for the good of mankind, but that distemper is too beneficial to them not to expose to all their resentment the hardy wight that should undertake to put an end to it. Perhaps if I live to return I may, however, have courage to war with them. ... [2]

In March 1718 she had the embassy surgeon, Charles Maitland, inoculate her five-year-old son. Upon her return to England in 1721, Lady Montegu had her four-year-old daughter inoculated and invited friends to see the child, including Sir Hans Sloane, the King's physician. Despite a great deal of initial prejudice from physicians and the public, this method of controlled infection was used in England, parts of Europe, and the British colonies in the New World during most of the 18th century.


In 1796 Edward Jenner, a doctor in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, rural England, discovered that immunity to smallpox could be produced by inoculating a person with material from a cowpox lesion. Cowpox is a poxvirus in the same family as variola. Jenner called the material used for inoculation vaccine, from the root word vacca, which is Latin for cow. The procedure was much safer than variolation, and did not involve a risk of smallpox transmission. Vaccination to prevent smallpox was soon practiced all over the world. During the 19th century, the cowpox virus used for smallpox vaccination was replaced by vaccinia virus. Vaccinia is in the same family as cowpox and variola but is genetically distinct from both. The origin of vaccinia virus and how it came to be in the vaccine are not known.[13] Edward Jenner, FRS, (May 17, 1749 – January 26, 1823) was an English scientist who studied his natural surroundings in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. ... Berkeley (pronounced ) is a town between the south bank of the River Severn and the M5 motorway in Gloucestershire, England, at grid reference ST685992. ... Gloucestershire (pronounced ; GLOSS-ter-sher) is a county in South West England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Vaccinia is the condition resulting from infection with the Vaccinia virus. ... Look up Genetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Vaccination during the Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control Program in Niger, February, 1969.
Vaccination during the Smallpox Eradication and Measles Control Program in Niger, February, 1969.

The current formulation of smallpox vaccine is a live virus preparation of infectious vaccinia virus. The vaccine is given using a bifurcated (two-pronged) needle that is dipped into the vaccine solution. The needle is used to prick the skin (usually the upper arm) a number of times in a few seconds. If successful, a red and itchy bump develops at the vaccine site in three or four days. In the first week, the bump becomes a large blister (called a “Jennerian vesicle”) which fills with pus, and begins to drain. During the second week, the blister begins to dry up and a scab forms. The scab falls off in the third week, leaving a small scar. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 906 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 906 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A bifurcation (from latin bifurcare) can be river bifurcation - the (infrequently observed) forking of a river into distributaries a period-doubling phenomenon known from chaos theory, see: bifurcation diagram the partial or total splitting of a human penis for pleasurable or decorative reasons. ...


The antibodies induced by vaccinia vaccine are cross-protective for other orthopoxviruses (such as monkeypox, cowpox, and variola (smallpox) viruses). Neutralizing antibodies are detectable 10 days after first-time vaccination, and seven days after revaccination. Historically, the vaccine has been effective in preventing smallpox infection in 95% of those vaccinated.[22] Smallpox vaccination provides a high level of immunity for three to five years and decreasing immunity thereafter. If a person is vaccinated again later, immunity lasts even longer. Studies of smallpox cases in Europe in the 1950s and 1960s demonstrated that the fatality rate among persons vaccinated less than 10 years before exposure was 1.3%; it was 7% among those vaccinated 11 to 20 years prior, and 11% among those vaccinated 20 or more years prior to infection. By contrast, 52% of unvaccinated persons died.[25] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


There are side effects and risks associated with the smallpox vaccine. In the past, about 1,000 people for every 1 million people vaccinated for the first time experienced serious, but non-life-threatening, reactions including toxic or allergic reaction at the site of the vaccination (erythema multiforme), spread of the vaccinia virus to other parts of the body, and to other individuals. Potentially life-threatening reactions occurred in 14 to 52 people out of every 1 million people vaccinated for the first time. Based on past experience, it is estimated that 1 or 2 people in 1 million who receive the vaccine may die as a result, most often the result of postvaccinial encephalitis or severe necrosis in the area of vaccination (called progressive vaccinia).[22] Pancreatitus can be caused by an Allergic Reaction to a food. ... Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a severe and potentially life-threatening (15% of cases) disease, it is a hypersensitivity complex affecting the skin and the mucous membranes, a severe expression of erythema multiforme (EM) (and so SJS is also called erythema multiforme major). ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ...


Routine childhood smallpox vaccination was discontinued in the United States in 1972. Routine vaccination of healthcare workers was discontinued in 1976, and among military recruits in 1990, though military members deploying to the Middle East have been known to receive it to this day. It is now primarily recommended for laboratory workers at risk for occupational exposure.[13] Mass smallpox vaccination was abandoned in most European countries in the early 1970s.[26] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Eradication

Since Jenner demonstrated the effectiveness of cowpox to protect humans from smallpox in 1796, various attempts were made to eliminate smallpox on a regional scale. As early as 1803, the Spanish Crown organized a mission (the Balmis expedition) to transport the vaccine to the Spanish colonies in the Americas and the Philippines, and establish mass vaccination programs there. [27] In 1842, England banned inoculation, later progressing to mandatory vaccination. The British government introduced compulsory smallpox vaccination by an Act of Parliament in 1853.[28] In the United States, from 1843 to 1855 first Massachusetts, and then other states required smallpox vaccination. Although some disliked these measures,[29] coordinated efforts against smallpox went on, and the disease continued to diminish in the wealthy countries. By 1897, smallpox had largely been eliminated from the United States.[30] In Northern Europe a number of countries had eliminated smallpox by 1900, and by 1914, the incidence in most industrialized countries had decreased to comparatively low levels. Vaccination continued in industrialized countries, until the mid to late 1970s as protection against reintroduction. Australia and New Zealand are two notable exceptions, neither experienced endemic smallpox and never vaccinated widely; relying instead on protection by distance and strict quarantines.[31] Balmis Expedition was a three year mission to the Americas led by Dr Francisco de Balmis with the aim of giving thousands the smallpox vaccine. ... The UK Vaccination Acts of 1840, 1853 and 1898 reflect the continuing argument over vacination policy in the UK. They were followed by legislation in the USA and other countries. ...

This 1980 photograph, taken at the CDC, shows three former directors of the Global Smallpox Eradication Program as they read the news that smallpox had been globally eradicated.
This 1980 photograph, taken at the CDC, shows three former directors of the Global Smallpox Eradication Program as they read the news that smallpox had been globally eradicated.

The first hemisphere-wide effort to eradicate smallpox was made in 1950 by the Pan American Health Organization.[32] The campaign was successful in eliminating smallpox from all American countries except Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Ecuador.[31] In 1958 Professor Viktor Zhdanov, Deputy Minister of Health for the USSR, called on the World Health Assembly to undertake a global initiative to eradicate smallpox. The proposal (Resolution WHA11.54) was accepted in 1959.[33] At this point, 2 million people were dying every year. Overall, however, progress towards eradication was disappointing, especially in Africa and in the Indian subcontinent. In 1967, the World Health Organization intensified the global smallpox eradication by contributuing $2.4 million annually to the effort. An international team, the Smallpox Eradication unit, was formed under the leadership of an American, Donald Henderson.[34] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... The word hemisphere literally means half sphere or half ball; when used in the singular form, it refers to one of the halves of a spherical object. ... The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is an international public health agency with 100 years of experience in working to improve health and living standards of the countries of the Americas. ... Eradication is the reduction of an infectious diseases prevalence in the a human population to zero. ... Donald D.A. Ainslie Henderson, MD, is an epidemiologist at Johns Hopkins University who was vital in the international effort during the 1960s to eradicate smallpox. ...


To eradicate smallpox, each outbreak had to be stopped from spreading, by isolation of cases and vaccination of everyone who lived close by. This process is known as "ring vaccination". The key to this strategy was monitoring of cases in a community (known as surveillance) and containment. The initial problem the WHO team faced was inadequate reporting of smallpox cases, as many cases did not come to the attention of the authorities. The fact that humans are the only reservoir for smallpox infection, and that carriers did not exist, played a significant role the eradication of smallpox. The WHO established a network of consultants who assisted countries in setting up surveillance and containment activities. Early on donations of vaccine were provided primarily by the Soviet Union and the United States, but by 1973, more than 80% of all vaccine was produced in developing countries.[31] An asymptomatic carrier (or just carrier), is a person who is infected with an infectious disease or carries the abnormal gene of a recessive genetic disorder, but displays no symptoms. ...


The last major European outbreak of smallpox was in 1972 in Yugoslavia, after a pilgrim from Kosovo returned from the Middle East, where he had contracted the virus. The epidemic infected 175 people, causing 35 deaths. Authorities declared martial law, enforced quarantine, and undertook massive re-vaccination of the population, enlisting the help of the WHO. In two months, the outbreak was over. Prior to this, there had been a smallpox outbreak in May–July of 1963 in Stockholm, Sweden, brought from the Far East by a Swedish sailor; this had been dealt with by quarantine measures and vaccination of local population.[35] The 1972 outbreak of smallpox in Yugoslavia was the last major outbreak of smallpox in Europe. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Asian regions. ...


By the end of 1975, smallpox persisted only in the Horn of Africa. Conditions were very difficult in Ethiopia and Somalia, where there were few roads. Civil war, famine, and refugees made the task even more difficult. An intensive surveillance and containment and vaccination program was undertaken in the spring and summer of 1977. The last naturally occurring case of indigenous smallpox (Variola minor) was diagnosed in Ali Maow Maalin, a hospital cook in Merka, Somalia, on 26 October 1977.[13] The last naturally occurring case of the more deadly Variola major had been detected in October 1975 in a two-year-old Bangladeshi girl, Rahima Banu.[36] The Horn of Africa. ... Ali Maow Maalin was the last person in the world known to be infected with naturally occurring smallpox. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... The Peoples Republic of Bangladesh (Bangla: গনপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলােদশ) is a country in South Asia that forms the eastern part of the ancient region of Bengal. ... Rahima Banu (b. ...


The global eradication of smallpox was certified, based on intense verification activities in countries, by a commission of eminent scientists on 9 December 1979 and subsequently endorsed by the World Health Assembly on 8 May 1980[37][38] as Resolution WHA33.3. The first two sentences of the resolution read: "Having considered the development and results of the global program on smallpox eradication initiated by WHO in 1958 and intensified since 1967 … Declares solemnly that the world and its peoples have won freedom from smallpox, which was a most devastating disease sweeping in epidemic form through many countries since earliest time, leaving death, blindness and disfigurement in its wake and which only a decade ago was rampant in Africa, Asia and South America."[39] is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


Post-eradication

The last cases of smallpox in the world occurred in an outbreak of two cases (one of which was fatal) in Birmingham, England in 1978. A medical photographer, Janet Parker, died from the disease on 11 September 1978,[39] after which the scientist responsible for the unit, Professor Henry Bedson, committed suicide.[2] In light of this accident, all known stocks of smallpox were destroyed or transferred to one of two WHO reference laboratories; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States and the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR in Koltsovo, Russia where a regiment of troops guard it. In 1986, the World Health Organization recommended destruction of the virus, and later set the date of destruction to be 30 December 1993. This was postponed to 30 June 1995.[40] In 2002 the policy of the WHO changed to be against its final destruction.[41] Destroying existing stocks would reduce the risk involved with ongoing smallpox research; the stocks are not needed to respond to a smallpox outbreak.[42] However, the stocks may be useful in developing new vaccines, antiviral drugs, and diagnostic tests.[43] The Russians were later accused of secretly continuing their program of producing weaponized smallpox.(citation needed) This article is about the British city. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Janet Parker (1938/1939–September 11, 1978) was a British medical photographer, and is the last person known to have died from smallpox. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... The Vector State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology, also known as the Vector Institute, is a highly sophisticated biological research center in Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia. ... Koltsovo is a satellite town of Yekaterinburg, Russia hosting an international airport (international code SVX). ... WHO redirects here. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


In March 2004 smallpox scabs were found tucked inside an envelope in a book on Civil War medicine in Santa Fe, New Mexico.[44] The envelope was labeled as containing the scabs and listed the names of the patients they came from. Assuming the contents could be dangerous, the librarian who found them did not open the envelope. The scabs ended up with employees from the CDC who responded quickly once informed of the discovery. The discovery raised concerns that smallpox DNA could be extracted from these and other scabs and used for a biological attack. This article is about the clotting of blood. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Nickname: Location in Santa Fe County, New Mexico Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Fe Founded ca. ... Official language(s) None Spoken language(s) English 68. ...


Biological warfare

The British may have used smallpox as a biological warfare agent during the French and Indian Wars (1754–63), against France and its Native American allies (see more information at Siege of Fort Pitt). It has been alleged that smallpox was also used as a weapon during the American Revolutionary War (1775–83).[45] During World War II, scientists from the United Kingdom, United States and Japan were involved in research into producing a biological weapon from smallpox.[46] Plans of large scale production were never carried through as they considered that the weapon would not be very effective due to the wide-scale availability of a vaccine.[45] The Soviet Union established a smallpox weapons factory in 1947 in the city of Zagorsk, 75 km to the northeast of Moscow.[47] For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied the European dynastic wars. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Combatants British Empire American Indians Commanders Jeffrey Amherst, Henry Bouquet Pontiac, Guyasuta Strength ~3,000 soldiers[1] ~3,500 warriors[2] Casualties 450 soldiers killed, 2,000 civilians killed or captured, 4,000 civilians displaced ~200 warriors killed, possible additional war-related deaths from disease Pontiacs Rebellion was a... This article is about military actions only. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Sergiyev Posad (Russian: ), a Russian town in the Sergiyevo-Posadsky District of the Moscow oblast, grew up around the greatest of Russian monasteries, the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra or Trinity. The town became incorporated in 1742. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


An outbreak of weaponized smallpox may have occurred during its testing in the 1970s. General Prof. Peter Burgasov, former Chief Sanitary Physician of the Soviet Army, and a senior researcher within the Soviet program of biological weapons described the incident: This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... // 1928 - Revolutionary Military Council signed a decree about weaponization of typhus. ...

“On Vozrozhdeniya Island in the Aral Sea, the strongest recipes of smallpox were tested. Suddenly I was informed that there were mysterious cases of mortalities in Aralsk. A research ship of the Aral fleet came 15 km away from the island (it was forbidden to come any closer than 40 km). The lab technician of this ship took samples of plankton twice a day from the top deck. The smallpox formulation—400 gr. of which was exploded on the island—”got her” and she became infected. After returning home to Aralsk, she infected several people including children. All of them died. I suspected the reason for this and called the Chief of General Staff of Ministry of Defense and requested to forbid the stop of the Alma-AtaMoscow train in Aralsk. As a result, the epidemic around the country was prevented. I called Andropov, who at that time was Chief of KGB, and informed him of the exclusive recipe of smallpox obtained on Vozrazhdenie Island.”[48][49]

Others contend that the first patient may have contracted the disease while visiting Uyaly or Komsomolsk, two cities where the boat docked.[50] This article is about the island. ... The Gay Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре, Tajik/Persian: Daryocha-i Khorazm, Lake Khwarazm) is a landlocked endorheic basin in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda provinces) in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... Former harbor area in downtown Aral Aral (Kazakh: Арал, Russian: Аральск) is a small city in south-western Kazakhstan, located in the oblast of Qyzylorda. ... Almaty (Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata, also Verny, Vyernyi (Верный) in Imperial Russia) is a city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,168,000. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: , Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov) (June 15 [O.S. June 2] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death fifteen months later. ... Komsomolsk-on-Amur (Russian: Комсомо́льск-на-Аму́ре; often transliterated directly as Komsomolsk-na-Amure) is a city located in Khabarovsk Krai, Russia on the left bank of Amur River. ...


History

Eurasian epidemics

It is important to note that, although historical epidemics and pandemics are believed by some historians to have been early outbreaks of smallpox, contemporary records are not detailed enough to make a definite diagnosis at this distance.[29] In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... For other uses, see Pandemic (disambiguation). ...


The Plague of Athens devastated the city of Athens in 430 BC, killing around a third of the population, according to Thucydides. Historians have long considered this an example of bubonic plague, but more recent examination of the reported symptoms led some scholars to believe the cause may have been measles, smallpox, typhus, or a viral hemorrhagic fever (like Ebola). The city-state of Athens in ancient Greece was hit by a devastating epidemic, known as the Plague of Athens, during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 BC) when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For other uses, see Thucydides (disambiguation). ... Bubonic plague is the best-known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... Species Ivory Coast ebolavirus Reston ebolavirus Sudan ebolavirus Zaire virus Ebola hæmorrhagic fever (EHF — alternatively Ebola hemorrhagic fever; commonly referred to as simply Ebola) is a recently identified, severe, often fatal infectious disease occurring in humans and some primates caused by the Ebola virus. ...


The Antonine Plague that swept through the Roman Empire and Italy in 165–180 is also thought to be either smallpox or measles.[51][29] A second major outbreak of disease in the Empire, known as the Plague of Cyprian (251–266), was also either smallpox or measles. The Antonine Plague, 165-180 C.E., also known as the Plague of Galen, was an ancient pandemic, either of smallpox or measles brought back to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Near East. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


The next major epidemic believed to be smallpox occurred in India. The exact date is unknown. Around 400 AD, an Indian medical book recorded a disease marked by pustules and boils, saying "the pustules are red, yellow, and white and they are accompanied by burning pain … the skin seems studded with grains of rice." The Indian epidemic was thought to be punishment from a god, and the survivors created a goddess, Sitala, as the anthropomorphic personification of the disease.[52][53][54] Smallpox was thus regarded as possession by Sitala. In Hinduism the goddess Sitala both causes and cures high fever, rashes, hot flashes and pustules. All of these are symptoms of smallpox. Sitala, SÄ«tala Devi or Māri is the Goddess of Smallpox or the Goddess of Disease in popular or non-Vedic Hinduism. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ...


Smallpox did not definitively enter Western Europe until about 581 when Bishop Gregory of Tours provided an eyewitness account that describes the characteristic findings of smallpox.[29] Most of the details about the epidemic that followed are lost, probably due to the scarcity of surviving written records of early medieval society. A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


Smallpox was a leading cause of death in the 18th century. It killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans each year in the 18th century, including five reigning European monarchs.[55] Most people became infected during their lifetimes, and about 30% of people infected with smallpox died from the disease.[56] (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


The Franco-Prussian War triggered a smallpox pandemic of 1870–1875 that claimed 500,000 lives.[57][58] Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000...


Epidemics in the Americas

Documented smallpox epidemics in the New World[59]
Year Location Description
1520–1527 Mexico, Central America, South America Smallpox kills millions of native inhabitants of Mexico. Unintentionally introduced at Veracruz with the arrival of Panfilo de Narvaez on April 23, 1520[60] and was credited with the victory of Cortes over the Aztec empire at Tenochtitlan (present-day Mexico City) in 1521. Kills the Inca ruler, Huayna Capac, and 200,000 others and destroys the Incan Empire.
1617–1619 North America northern east coast Killed 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Indians
1674 Cherokee Tribe Death count unknown. Population in 1674 about 50,000. After 1729, 1738, and 1753 smallpox epidemics their population was only 25,000 when they were forced to Oklahoma on the Trail Of Tears.
1692 Boston, MA
1702–1703 St. Lawrence Valley, NY
1721 Boston, MA
1736 Pennsylvania
1738 South Carolina
1770s West Coast of North America Kills out 30% of the West Coast Native Americans
1781–1783 Great Lakes
1830s Alaska Reduced Dena'ina Athabaskan population in Cook Inlet region of southcentral Alaska by half.[61] Smallpox also devastated Yup'ik Eskimo populations in western Alaska.
1860–1861 Pennsylvania
1865–1873 Philadelphia, PA, New York, Boston, MA and New Orleans, LA Same period of time, in Washington D.C., Baltimore, MD, Memphis, TN, Cholera and a series of recurring epidemics of Typhus, Scarlet Fever and Yellow Fever
1877 Los Angeles, CA

After first contacts with Europeans and Africans, some believe that the death of 90–95% of the native population of the New World was caused by Old World diseases.[62] It is suspected that smallpox was the chief culprit and responsible for killing nearly all of the native inhabitants of the Americas. For more than 200 years, this disease affected all new world populations, mostly without intentional European transmission, from contact in the early 1500s to until possibly as late as the French and Indian Wars (1754–1767).[63] is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Huayna Capac (Quechua Wayna Qhapaq splendid youth) was the eleventh Sapa Inca (1493 - 1527) of the Inca Empire, and sixth of the Hanan dynasty. ... Dena’ina (also Tanaina) is the Athabaskan language of the Cook Inlet area of Alaska, with four dialects located: Kenai Peninsula southcentral Alaska Upper Cook Inlet north of Anchorage, Alaska Coastal west side of the Cook Inlet Inland areas of the west side of the Cook Inlet Dena’ina can... Areas in which Athabaskan languages and Eyak and Tlingit are traditionally spoken Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan or Athapaskan) is the name of a large group of distantly related Native American peoples, also known as the Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes, located in two main Southern and Northern groups in western... Cook Inlet, showing Knik and Turnagain Arms The Cook Inlet or Nuti Inlet is a large inlet of the Gulf of Alaska in south-central Alaska. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... This article is about Yupik peoples in general. ... For other uses, see Eskimo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... This article deals with the European people as an ethnic group or ethnic groups. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... For other uses, see Old World (disambiguation). ...


In 1519 Hernán Cortés landed on the shores of what is now Mexico and was then the Aztec empire. In 1520 another group of Spanish arrived in Mexico from Hispaniola, bringing with them the smallpox which had already been ravaging that island for two years. When Cortés heard about the other group, he went and defeated them. In this contact, one of Cortés's men contracted the disease. When Cortés returned to Tenochtitlan, he brought the disease with him. Hernán(do) Cortés Pizarro, 1st Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who became famous for leading the military expedition that initiated the Spanish Conquest of Mexico. ... For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... Tenochtitlan, looking east. ...


Soon, the Aztecs rose up in rebellion against Cortés and his men. Outnumbered, the Spanish were forced to flee. In the fighting, the Spanish soldier carrying smallpox died. After the battle, the Aztecs contracted the virus from the invaders' bodies.[citation needed] Cortes would not return to the capital until August 1521. In the meantime smallpox devastated the Aztec population. It killed most of the Aztec army and 25% of the overall population.[64] A Spanish priest left this description: "As the Indians did not know the remedy of the disease…they died in heaps, like bedbugs. In many places it happened that everyone in a house died and, as it was impossible to bury the great number of dead, they pulled down the houses over them so that their homes become their tombs."[citation needed] On Cortés's return, he found the Aztec army’s chain of command in ruins. The soldiers who lived were still weak from the disease. Cortés then easily defeated the Aztecs and entered Tenochtitlán.[65] The Spaniards said that they could not walk through the streets without stepping on the bodies of smallpox victims.[citation needed] IS the order you go to see people in. ...


The effects of smallpox on Tahuantinsuyu (or the Inca empire) were even more devastating. Beginning in Colombia, smallpox spread rapidly before the Spanish invaders first arrived in the empire. The spread was probably aided by the efficient Inca road system. Within months, the disease had killed the Sapa Inca Huayna Capac, his successor, and most of the other leaders. Two of his surviving sons warred for power and, after a bloody and costly war, Atahualpa become the new Sapa Inca. As Atahualpa was returning to the capital Cuzco, Francisco Pizarro arrived and through a series of deceits captured the young leader and his best general. Within a few years smallpox claimed between 60% and 90% of the Inca population,[66] with other waves of European disease weakening them further. A handful of historians argue that a disease called Bartonellosis may have been responsible for some outbreaks of illness, but this opinion is in the scholarly minority.[67] The effects of smallpox were depicted in the ceramics of the Moche people of ancient Peru.[68] For the a general view of Inca civilisation, people and culture, see Incas. ... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... Major highways of the Inca Empire Among the many roads and trails constructed in pre-Columbian South America, the Inca road system (El Camino Inca) of Peru was the most extensive. ... The ruler of the Inca Empire (quechua: Inka Qhapaq) used the title of Sapa (the only one) and Apu (divinity). ... Huayna Capac (Quechua Wayna Qhapaq splendid youth) was the eleventh Sapa Inca (1493 - 1527) of the Inca Empire, and sixth of the Hanan dynasty. ... Lifetime portrait of Atahuallpa, the last sovereign Inca emperor Atahualpa or Atawallpa (c. ... This article is the city in Peru. ... Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro González should not be confused with another Francisco Pizarro who joined Hernán Cortés to conquer the Aztecs. ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ...


Even after the two mighty empires of the Americas were defeated by the virus and disease, smallpox continued its march of death. In 1633 in Plymouth, Massachusetts, the Native Americans were struck by the virus. As it had done elsewhere, the virus wiped out entire population groups of Native Americans. It reached Mohawks in 1634,[69] the Lake Ontario in 1636, and the lands of the Iroquois by 1679. During the 1770s, smallpox killed at least 30% of the West Coast Native Americans.[70][71] Smallpox epidemic of 1780–1782 brought devastation and drastic depopulation among the Plains Indians.[72] By 1832, the federal government of the United States established a smallpox vaccination program for Native Americans.[73] Nickname: Location in Plymouth County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Plymouth Settled 1620 Incorporated (town) 1670 Government [1]  - Type Representative town meeting  - Town    Manager Mark Sylvia Area  - Total 134. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... This article is about the people known as Mohawk. For other uses, see Mohawk. ... Lake Ontario, bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south by Ontarios Niagara Peninsula and by New York State, USA, is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The three chiefs--Piegan, by Edward S. Curtis The Plains Indians are the Indians who lived on the plains and rolling hills of the Great Plains of North America. ...


A particularly virulent sequence of smallpox outbreaks took place in Boston, Massachusetts. From 1636 to 1698, Boston endured six epidemics. In 1721, the most severe epidemic occurred. The entire population fled the city, bringing the virus to the rest of the Thirteen Colonies. In the late 1770s, during the American Revolutionary War, smallpox returned once more and killed an estimated 125,000 people.[74] Peter Kalm in his Travels in North America, described how in that period, the dying Indian villages became overrun with wolves feasting on the corpses and weakened survivors.[75] Boston redirects here. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... Between 1775 and 1782, a smallpox epidemic raged across much of North America. ... Wolves may refer to: Gray Wolf Other uses of Wolf: see Wolf (disambiguation) Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C. Category: ...


Famous sufferers and survivors

Famous historical figures who contracted smallpox include Date Masamune of Japan (who lost an eye to the disease), Ramesses V,[38] the Kangxi Emperor, Shunzhi Emperor and Tongzhi Emperor of China (official history), Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria, George Washington, The Incan emperor Huayna Capac in 1527 and Peter II of Russia. Guru Har Krishan 8th Guru of the Sikhs in 1664, Peter III of Russia in 1744.[76] Joseph Stalin, who was badly scarred by the disease early in life, often had photographs retouched to make his pockmarks less apparent. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ramesses V (also written Ramses and Rameses) (reigned 1146 BC to 1142 BC) was the fourth pharaoh of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ... For other uses, see Kangxi (disambiguation) The Kangxi Emperor (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kang-hsi; May 4, 1654 – December 20, 1722) was an Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty,[1] and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1661 to 1722. ... The Shunzhi Emperor (March 15, 1638–February 5, 1661?) was the second emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper from 1644 to 1661. ... The Tong Zhi Emperor, born Zai Chun (April 27, 1856–January 12, 1875) was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty, and the eighth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1861 to 1875. ... Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Huayna Capac (Quechua Wayna Qhapaq splendid youth) was the eleventh Sapa Inca (1493 - 1527) of the Inca Empire, and sixth of the Hanan dynasty. ... Pyotr (Peter) II Alekseyevich (Russian: Пётр II Алексеевич or Pyotr II Alekseyevich) (October 23, 1715 – January 30, 1730) was Emperor of Russia from 1727 until his death. ... Guru Har Krishan (Punjabi: ) (Born in Rupnagar, Punjab, India on 7 July 1656 as – 30 March 1664, Delhi, India) was the eighth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism, and he became Guru on 7 October 1661 following in the footsteps of his father, Guru Har Rai. ... Peter III (February 21, 1728 – July 17, 1762) (Russian: ) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...


Families prominent in History the world over often had several people infected by and/or perish from the disease. For example, several relatives of Henry VIII survived the disease but were scarred by it. These include his sister Margaret, Queen of Scotland, his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, and his daughter, Elizabeth I of England in 1562 (as an adult she would often try to disguise the pockmarks with heavy makeup). A more distant relative, Mary Queen of Scots, contracted the disease as a child but had no visible scarring. Henry VIII redirects here. ... Margaret Tudor Margaret Tudor (29 November 1489 – October 1541) was the eldest of the two surviving daughters of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the elder sister of Henry VIII. In 1503 she married James IV, king of Scotland, thus becoming the mother of James V and... Anne of Cleves (22 September 1515 – 16 July 1557) was the fourth wife of Henry VIII of England from 6 January 1540 to 9 July 1540. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Mary I of Scotland; known as Mary, Queen of Scots Mary I of Scotland (Mary Stuart or Stewart) (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587), better known as Mary, Queen of Scots, was the ruler of Scotland from December 14, 1542 – July 24, 1567. ...


In Europe, deaths from smallpox often impacted dynastic succession. Louis XV of France succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV through a series of deaths of smallpox or measles among those earlier in the succession line and he himself died of the disease in 1774. The son of Henry VIII, Edward VI, likely died from complications shortly after apparently recovering from the disease, thereby rendering all of his sire's infamous efforts to provide England with a male heir moot. (His immediate successors were all females.) William III lost his mother to the disease when he was only ten years old in 1660, and named his uncle Charles as legal guardian: her death from smallpox would indirectly spark a chain of events that would eventually lead to the permanent ousting of the Stuart line from the British throne and usher in a new age. Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Edward Tudor redirects here. ... William III (14 November 1650 – 8 March 1702) was the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King of Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scots (under the name William II) from...


See also

For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... (Cricetomys sp. ... Inca-era terraces on Taquile are used to grow traditional Andean staples, such as quinua and potatoes, alongside wheat, a European import. ... …Herd immunity describes a type of immunity that occurs when the vaccination of the a portion of the population (or herd) provides protection to un-vaccinated individuals. ... It is possible to model mathematically the progress of most infectious diseases to discover the likely outcome of an epidemic or to help manage them by vaccination. ... Natives of North America. ... Smallpox is a drama-documentary showing how a single act of bioterrorism leads to terrifying consequences. ...

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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Richard Preston (b. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... WHO redirects here. ... WHO redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Kenneth Alibek was born Kanatjan Alibekov in Kazakhstan. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Moscow News, which began publication in 1930, is Russia’s most successful independent English-language publication newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alan Boraas is a professor of anthropology at Kenai Peninsula College in Alaska. ... Native languages of Alaska, copyright © 1982 Alaska Native Language Center The Alaska Native Language Center was established by State of Alaska legislation in 1972 as a center for research and documentation of the twenty Native languages of Alaska. ... The University of Alaska Fairbanks, located in Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, is the second largest campus of the University of Alaska System, and is abbreviated as UAF. UAF is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant institution, as well as participating in the sun-grant program through Oregon State University. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) are a publisher, especially of art and illustrated books, founded in 1949 by Walter and Eva Neurath. ... The Canadian Encyclopedia is the most authoritative resource on Canada. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Cappel, Constance, The Smallpox Genocide of the Odawa Tribe at L'Arbre Croche, 1763: The History of a Native American People. Edwin Mellen Press, 2007.
  • Fenner, Frank. Smallpox and Its Eradication (History of International Public Health, No. 6). Geneva: World Health Organization. ISBN 92-4-156110-6. 
  • McNeill, William Hardy (1977). Plagues and peoples. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. ISBN 0-385-12122-9. 
  • Preston, Richard (2002). The demon in the freezer: a true story. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-50856-2. 
  • Mack T (2003). "A different view of smallpox and vaccination". N. Engl. J. Med. 348 (5): 460–3. doi:10.1056/NEJMsb022994. PMID 12496354. 
  • Tucker, Jonathan B. (2001). Scourge: The Once and Future Threat of Smallpox. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3939-6. 
  • "Hugh Walker and North Carolina's 'Smallpox Currency' of 1779," R. Neil Fulghum. The Colonial Newsletter, a research journal of the American Numismatic Society, New York. December 2005, pp.2895-2934.
  • Lord Wharncliffe and W. Moy Thomas, editors. The Letters and Works of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, vol. 1, London: Henry G. Bohn, 1861.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The American Numismatic Society is a New York City-based organization dedicated to the study of coins and medals. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Smallpox
  • Smallpox Biosafety The Genetic Engineering of Smallpox: WHO’s Retreat from the Eradication of Smallpox Virus
  • Photographs of eye damage due to smallpox
  • Smallpox Images and Diagnosis Synopsis

Smallpox in history

  • Inoculation for the Small-Pox defended—1750 article from Gentleman's Magazine
  • Why Blame Smallpox? Revisionist argument regarding smallpox in sixteenth century Peru
  • History of Smallpox in South Asia
  • Small pox history in India

The Gentlemans Magazine was the first general-interest magazine, and the most influential periodical of its time. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... -1... Post-polio syndrome (PPS) is a condition that frequently affects survivors of poliomyelitis, a viral infection of the nervous system, after recovery from an initial paralytic attack of the virus. ... Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare chronic, progressive encephalitis that affects primarily children and young adults, caused by defective measles virus (which can be a result of a mutation of the virus itself). ... This article is about the viral disease. ... Encephalitis lethargica (EL) is an atypical form of encephalitis. ... Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM), is a rodent-borne viral infectious disease that presents as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis. ... Tick-borne meningoencephalitis or Tick-borne encephalitis is a tick-borne viral infection of the central nervous system affecting humans as well as most other mammals. ... Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) is an infection of the spinal cord by Human T-lymphotropic virus resulting in paraparesis or weakness of the legs. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... Dengue Fever redirects here. ... Chikungunya is a relatively rare form of viral fever caused by an alphavirus that is spread by mosquito bites from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, though recent research by the Pasteur Institute in Paris claims the virus has suffered a mutation that enables it to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus (Tiger mosquito). ... Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis (affects primarily domestic livestock, but can be passed to humans) causing fever. ... Onyongnyong virus was first isolated by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, Uganda. ... West Nile virus (or WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. ... Red areas show the distribution of Japanese Enecphalitis in Asia 1970-1998 Japanese encephalitis (Japanese: 日本脳炎, Nihon-nōen; previously known as Japanese B encephalitis to distinguish it from von Economos A encephalitis) is a disease caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. ... St. ... Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a flavivirus endemic to northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. ... Ross River virus (RRV) is an arbovirus of the genus Alphavirus. ... Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral disease, a zoonosis of domestic animals and wild animals, that may affect humans. ... Omsk hemorrhagic fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by a Flavivirus. ... Kyasanur forest disease is a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever endemic to South Asia. ... Alkhurma virus is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family (class IV) so has a positive sense single stranded RNA genome and the virus will replicate in the cytoplasm of the infected host cell. ... The Powassan virus is a tick-borne encephalitis virus related to the classic TBE flavivirus. ... Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... Menangle virus is a virus that infects pigs, humans and bats. ... Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendravirus and Nipahvirus. ... Borna disease is an infectious neurological syndrome of warm-blooded animals, which causes abnormal behaviour and fatality. ... Lassa fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever first described in 1969 in the Nigerian town of Lassa in the Yedseram River valley. ... Species Guanarito virus Venezualan hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is a zoonotic human illness, first identified in 1989, causing fever and malaise followed by hemorrhagic manifestations and convulsions. ... Species Junín virus Argentine hemorrhagic fever, known locally as mal de los rastrojos, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Argentina. ... Species Machupo virus Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), also known as black typhus or Machupo virus, is a hemorrhagic fever and zoonotic infectious disease occurring in Bolivia. ... Puumala virus is a species of hantavirus, and causes nephropathia epidemica. ... Andes virus (ANDV) is a hantavirus, which, in South America, is the major causative agent of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS or HPS). ... The Sin Nombre virus (Spanish for virus without name) (SNV) is the prototypical etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect Hill virus (PHV) Puumala virus... Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a zoonotic virus closely related to rabies virus. ... For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... Mokola virus is one of four members of the lyssavirus genome found in Africa, the others being Duvenhage virus, Lagos bat virus and classical rabies virus. ... Duvenhage virus is a member of the lyssavirus genus which also contains rabies virus. ... This article is about the organ. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... This article is about the disease. ... For other uses, see Chickenpox (disambiguation). ... Shingles redirects here, for other uses of the term, see Shingle. ... (Cricetomys sp. ... This page is for the disease. ... Cowpox is a disease of the skin caused by a virus (Cowpox virus) that is related to the Vaccinia virus. ... Vaccinia virus (VACV or VV) is a large, complex enveloped virus belonging to the poxvirus family of viruses. ... Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a viral infection of the skin or occasionally of the mucous membranes. ... species Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Exanthem subitum (meaning sudden rash), also referred to as roseola infantum (or rose rash of infants), sixth disease and (confusingly) baby measles, or three day fever, is a benign disease of children, generally under two years old, whose manifestations... Fifth disease is also referred to as erythema infectiosum (meaning infectious redness) and as slapped cheek syndrome, slap face or slapped face. ... Not to be confused with Foot-and-mouth disease. ... Not to be confused with hand, foot and mouth disease. ... Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the eighth human herpesvirus; its formal name according to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses is HHV-8. ... For the Nintendo character, see Wart (Nintendo). ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... Species Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... “HBV” redirects here. ... This page is for the disease. ... Hepatitis D is a disease caused by a small circular RNA virus (Hepatitis delta virus); this virus is replication defective and therefore cannot propagate in the absence of another virus. ... Hepatitis E is an acute viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus (HEV). ... Hepatitis G and GB virus C (GBV-C) are RNA viruses that were independently identified in 1995, and were subsequently found to be two isolates of the same virus. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Flu redirects here. ... -1... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family. ... Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, which includes common respiratory viruses such as those causing measles and mumps. ... Species Turkey rhinotracheitis virus Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC; also known as HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy and HIV-associated dementia) has become a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of brain macrophages and microglia. ... HPV redirects here. ... Genital warts (or Condyloma, Condylomata acuminata, or venereal warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). ... Cervical cancer is a malignant cancer of the cervix. ... Human T cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is believed to be the cause of several diseases, including adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), a rare cancer of the immune systems own T-cells. ... See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Norovirus, an RNA virus of the Caliciviridae taxonomic family, causes approximately 90% of epidemic non-bacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis around the world,[1][2] and is responsible for 50% of all foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the US.[3] Norovirus affects people of all ages. ... Astroviruses that infect humans have been poorly studied due to the fact that they do not grow in culture. ... Coronavirus is a genus of animal virus belonging to the family Coronaviridae. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus that causes T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases, including tropical spastic paraparesis. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, white; aima αίμα, blood) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is a virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. ... An oncolytic virus is a virus used to treat cancer due to their ability to specifically infect cancer cells, while leaving normal cells unharmed. ... Species see text Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, cell, and -mega-, large) is a viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as human herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). ... Bornholm disease or pleurodynia is a disease caused by the Coxsackie virus. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Smallpox (1431 words)
Chapter 6: Smallpox and Vaccinia by D.A. Henderson and B. Moss in Vaccines, 3rd Ed.
Smallpox: Smallpox and Vaccinia Laboratory Testing: A National Training Initiative (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1/29/2003)
Smallpox Surveillance and Case Reporting; Contact Identification, Tracing, Vaccination, and Surveillance; and Epidemiologic Investigation (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Smallpox - definition of Smallpox in Encyclopedia (3592 words)
Smallpox vaccination was discontinued in most countries in the 1970s as the risks of vaccination include death (~1 per million), among other serious side effects.
Smallpox did not enter Europe until 581 A.D. Most of the details about the epidemic that followed are lost, probably due to the scarcity of written records and the general lack of social order in the European Dark Ages.
In the meantime smallpox was devastating the Aztec population.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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