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Encyclopedia > Slum
Slums in Delhi, India. About 2.6 million people live in slum designated areas across Delhi.
Slums in Delhi, India. About 2.6 million people live in slum designated areas across Delhi.[1]

The United Nations agency UN-HABITAT defines a slum as a heavily populated urban area characterised by substandard housing and squalor. The term traditionally referred to housing areas that were once respectable but which deteriorated as the original dwellers moved on to newer and better parts of the city, but has come to include the vast informal settlements found in cities in the developing world.[2] The word may come from the slang term 'Slams' (pronounced slums and short for Islams) referring to the poor and crowded Muslim suburbs of early 19th century Cape Town. (see Arabic Afrikaans).[citation needed] Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... Shanty town in Manila, Philippines. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1042x704, 592 KB) Summary Slum in Delhi on 20 Jun 1973. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1042x704, 592 KB) Summary Slum in Delhi on 20 Jun 1973. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN–HABITAT) is the United Nations agency for human settlements. ... Arabic Afrikaans was a form of Afrikaans that was written in Arabic script. ...


Although their characteristics vary between geographic regions, they are usually inhabited by the very poor or socially disadvantaged. Slum buildings vary from simple shacks to permanent and well-maintained structures. Most slums lack clean water, electricity, sanitation and other basic services [3]


Slums may be distinguished from ghettos in that ghetto refers to a neighborhood based on shared ethnicity. Other terms which are sometimes used interchangeably with slum include favela and shanty town. A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background live as a group in seclusion, voluntarily or involuntarily. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... Vidigal, a Rio de Janeiro favela A favela is the Brazilian equivalent of a shanty town, which are generally found on the edge of the city. ... Shanty town in Manila, Philippines. ...

Contents

Characteristics

Slum dwellers in Dublin, Ireland circa 1901.
Slum dwellers in Dublin, Ireland circa 1901.

The characteristics associated with slums vary from context to context. Slums are usually characterized by urban blight and by high rates of poverty and unemployment. They are commonly seen as "breeding grounds" for social problems such as crime, drug addiction, alcoholism, high rates of mental illness, and suicide. In many poor countries they exhibit high rates of disease due to unsanitary conditions, malnutrition, and lack of basic health care. A UN Expert Group has created an operational definition of a slum as an area that combines to various extents the following characteristics: inadequate access to safe water; inadequate access to sanitation and other infrastructure; poor structural quality of housing; overcrowding; and insecure residential status.[4] To these one might add the low socioeconomic status of its residents[5]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (597x853, 206 KB) Summary Black and white illustration of Dublin Slum dwellers in article entitled The Last of an Historic Dublin Slum written by Mary Costello, photograph by Mrs. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (597x853, 206 KB) Summary Black and white illustration of Dublin Slum dwellers in article entitled The Last of an Historic Dublin Slum written by Mary Costello, photograph by Mrs. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... Symptoms of urban blight: graffiti-covered abandoned and deteriorating buildings and garbage-strewn vacant lots. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... A mental illness or mental disorder refers to one of many mental health conditions characterized by distress, impaired cognitive functioning, atypical behavior, emotional dysregulation, and/or maladaptive behavior. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medical term. ...


In many slums, especially in poor countries, many live in very narrow alleys that do not allow vehicles (like ambulances and fire trucks) to pass. The lack of services such as routine garbage collection allows rubbish to accumulate in huge quantities. The lack of infrastructure is caused by the informal nature of settlement and no planning for the poor by government officials. Additionally, informal settlements often face the brunt of natural and man-made disasters, such as landslides, as well as earthquakes and tropical storms. Many slum dwellers employ themselves in the informal economy. This can include street vending, drug dealing, domestic work, and prostitution. In some slums people even recycle trash of different kinds (from household garbage to electronics) for a living - selling either the odd usable goods or stripping broken goods for parts or raw materials. An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ... A Canadian firefighter A firefighter or fireman is trained and equipped to extinguish fires. ... For other uses, see Waste (disambiguation). ...


Growth and countermeasures

Map showing the percentage of each country's urban population living in slums (according to UN-Habitat definition): <10%; 10-20%; 20-30%; 30-40%; 40-50%; 50-60%; 60-70%; 70-80%; 80-90%; >90%; N/A
Map showing the percentage of each country's urban population living in slums (according to UN-Habitat definition): <10%; 10-20%; 20-30%; 30-40%; 40-50%; 50-60%; 60-70%; 70-80%; 80-90%; >90%; N/A

Recent years have seen a dramatic growth in the number of slums as urban populations have increased in the Third World. According to a 2006 UN-HABITAT report, 327 million people live in slums in Commonwealth countries - almost one in six Commonwealth citizens. In a quarter of Commonwealth countries (11 African, 2 Asian and 1 Pacific), more than two out of three urban dwellers live in slums and many of these countries are urbanising rapidly.[6] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 32 KB, MIME type: image/png) This map was made or improved by the Wikigraphists of the Atelier graphique. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 370 pixelsFull resolution (1357 × 628 pixel, file size: 32 KB, MIME type: image/png) This map was made or improved by the Wikigraphists of the Atelier graphique. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN–HABITAT) is the United Nations agency for human settlements. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...


Many governments around the world have attempted to solve the problems of slums by clearing away old decrepit housing and replacing it with modern housing with much better sanitation. The displacement of slums is aided by the fact that many are squatter settlements whose property rights are not recognized by the state. This process is especially common in the Third World. Slum clearance often takes the form of eminent domain and urban renewal projects, and often the former residents are not welcome in the renewed housing. Moreover new projects are often on the semi-rural peripheries of cities far from opportunities for generating livlihoods as well as schools, clinics etc. At times this has resulted in large movements of inner city slum dwellers militantly opposing relocation to formal housing on the outskirts of cities. See, for example, Abahlali baseMjondolo in Durban, South Africa. Eminent domain (United States), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Republic of Ireland), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia) or expropriation (Canada, South Africa) in common law legal systems is the inherent power of the state to seize a citizens private property, expropriate property, or rights in property, without the owner... 1999 photograph looking northeast on Chicagos now demolished Cabrini-Green housing project, one of many urban renewal efforts. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Map of South Africa showing Durbans location. ...


In some countries, leaders have addressed this situation by rescuing rural property rights to support traditional sustainable agriculture, however this solution has met with open hostility from capitalists and corporations. It also tends to be relatively unpopular with the slum communities themselves, as it involves moving out of the city back into the countryside, a reverse of the rural-urban migration that originally brought many of them into the city. Rural-urban migration is the migration of people from rural areas into cities. ...


Critics argue that slum clearances tend to ignore the social problems that cause slums and simply redistribute poverty to less valuable real estate. Where communities have been moved out of slum areas to newer housing, social cohesion may be lost. If the original community is moved back into newer housing after it has been built in the same location, residents of the new housing face the same problems of poverty and powerlessness.


Income disparity

A slum in Pachuca, Mexico.
A slum in Pachuca, Mexico.

According to the UNDP 1997 Human Development Report,[7] and the 2004 United Nations Human Development (UNHDP) report,[8] Malaysia has the highest income disparity between the rich and poor in Southeast Asia, greater than that of Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam and Indonesia. The UNHDP Report shows that the richest 10% in Malaysia control 38.4% of the economic income as compared to the poorest 10% who control only 1.7%. Kuala Lumpur as the capital of Malaysia has an increasing number of squatters,[9][10] shanty towns and slums, and is also seeing an increase in criminal acts such as snatch theft,[11] robberies, and rape. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2370 × 1578 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2370 × 1578 pixel, file size: 4. ... Reloj Monumental For the female Zoot-Suiter, see Pachuco. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Human development may refer to: Human development (biology) Human development (psychology) see Developmental psychology Occasionally, it may refer to both, but because each of these is already an immense area, few if any contemporary academic discussions attempt to tackle both with any completeness. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (Malay: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - City 243. ... To squat is to occupy an unoccupied or abandoned space or building that the individual does not own, rent, or otherwise have permission to use. ... Shanty towns are units of irregular low-cost and self-constructed housing built on terrain seized and occupied illegally -- usually on lands belonging to third parties, most often located in the urban periphery of the cities. ... A slum is an overcrowded and squalid district of a city or town usually inhabited by the very poor. ... Snatch thieves in action. ...


Slums versus ghettos

Many times people use the term ghetto when they are actually referring to a slum. A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background live as a group in seclusion, voluntarily or involuntarily. ...


To qualify as a ghetto, an area must contain certain aspects:

  • There must be a majority of one group of people over the rest of a population in an area.
  • This majority group must be a racial, ethnic or religious group that is a minority compared to the major population.
  • This group must have been discriminated against, when it comes to housing, in the past and possibly currently.

A ghetto is not based on the population’s social-economic level, amount of crime or amount of unemployment. A person who lives in a ghetto chooses not to leave the ghetto because of past discrimination and/or is unable to leave because of current discrimination. The first ghetto was a Jewish ghetto located in Venice, Italy. In the United States, census tracts are used to determine if an area is a ghetto. For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


By contrast, identification of an areas as a slum is not based on the race, ethnicity or religion of the people in the area.


References

  1. ^ Slums in Delhi, India.
  2. ^ UN-HABITAT 2007 Press Release on its report, "The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003".
  3. ^ UN-HABITAT 2007 Press Release on its report, "The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003".
  4. ^ UN-HABITAT 2007 Press Release on its report, "The Challenge of Slums: Global Report on Human Settlements 2003".
  5. ^ Measure Evaluation / NIPORT (2006) Slums of urban Bangladesh: mapping and census, 2005. Centre for Urban Studies / Measure Evaluation / National Institute of Population Research and Training. Accessed 9 June 2007 [1]
  6. ^ Comhabitat: Briefing paper produced for the Commonwealth Civil Society Consultation, Marlborough House, London, Wednesday, 15 November 2006
  7. ^ Asian Analysis 1998 by Asean Focus Group, Professor Michael Leigh Director Institute of East Asian Studies University Malaysia, Sarawak.
  8. ^ Speech at the Meeting between DAPSY National and Perak State Leaders In Teluk Intan by Lim Guan Eng, If the 2004 Petronas profits of RM 35.6 billion (US$9.89 billion) were distributed to the poor, Malaysia would not have wealth distribution problems.
  9. ^ http://www.ide.go.jp/English/Publish/Apec/pdf/97fe_012.pdf
  10. ^ http://aplikasi.kpkt.gov.my/akhbar.nsf/8521d968204e8b454825697400224ca6/ddc8bbe48f9dc13748256f09000864f4?OpenDocument
  11. ^ Students slashed in robbery, Kuala Lumpur, August 1, 2006, Phang Kar Wei, 23, was repeatedly assaulted and slashed three times on his hands and neck by two men on a motorcycle at 8.45pm in Taman Melati, some 2 km from Wangsa Maju.

Petronas, short for Petroliam Nasional Berhad, is a Malaysian owned oil and gas company that was founded on August 17, 1974. ...

See also

Vidigal, a Rio de Janeiro favela A favela is the Brazilian equivalent of a shanty town, which are generally found on the edge of the city. ... A flophouse or dosshouse is a place that offers very cheap lodging, generally by providing only minimal services. ... Shanty town in Manila, Philippines. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background live as a group in seclusion, voluntarily or involuntarily. ... Symptoms of urban blight: graffiti-covered abandoned and deteriorating buildings and garbage-strewn vacant lots. ... View of Kibera Kibera in Nairobi, Kenya is the largest slum in Africa with a population of perhaps one million. ... For other uses, see squat. ... Colonias, as used along the U.S.-Mexican border, refer to rural, unincorporated settlements which often lack basic infrastructure and which are marked by poverty. ... Gombak New Village. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Slum upgrading is a concept coined by major development stakeholders in slum areas within the Kenyan cities encompasing local and international NGOs, Goverment agencies, individual developers, corporate bodies and parastatals. ... For the Beth Orton album, see Trailer Park (album). ...

Literature

  • Mike Davis (scholar):Planet of Slums London, New York 2006 ISBN 1-84467-022-8
  • Elisabeth Blum / Peter Neitzke: FavelaMetropolis. Berichte und Projekte aus Rio de Janeiro und Sao Paulo, Birkhäuser Basel, Boston, Berlin 2004 ISBN 3-7643-7063-7
  • Floris Fabrizio Puppets or people? A sociological analisys of Korogocho slum, Pauline Publication Africa, Nairobi 2007.
  • Floris Fabrizio ECCESSI DI CITTÀ: Baraccopoli, campi profughi, città psichedeliche, Paoline, Milano, ISBN 88-315-3318-3

Mike Davis (born 1946) is an American social commentator, urban theorist, historian, and political activist. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Slums
  • Children Walking Tall cares for street and slum children in Goa, India
  • http://skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=131517
  • South Africa slum dwellers' movement
  • Slums of Victorian London
  • Slums of New Delhi, India
  • Every third person will be a slum dweller within 30 years, UN agency warns; John Vidal; The Guardian; October 4, 2003.
  • Mute Magazine Vol 2#3, Naked Cities - Struggle in the Global Slums
  • Slums of Mumbai

  Results from FactBites:
 
Koven, S.: Slumming: Sexual and Social Politics in Victorian London. (607 words)
In this captivating book, Seth Koven paints a vivid portrait of the practitioners of slumming and their world: who they were, why they went, what they claimed to have found, how it changed them, and how slumming, in turn, powerfully shaped both Victorian and twentieth-century understandings of poverty and social welfare, gender relations, and sexuality.
The slums of late-Victorian London became synonymous with all that was wrong with industrial capitalist society.
Slumming allowed them to act on their irresistible "attraction of repulsion" for the poor and permitted them, with society's approval, to get dirty and express their own "dirty" desires for intimacy with slum dwellers and, sometimes, with one another.
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