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Encyclopedia > Slug
Land slugs
various species of land slugs
various species of land slugs
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Subclass: Orthogastropoda
Superorder: Heterobranchia
Order: Pulmonata
Suborder: Eupulmonata
Infraorder: Stylommatophora
Subinfraorders, superfamilies, and families

See text Infraorders Anthobranchia Cladobranchia See text for superfamilies. ... Look up slug in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (750 × 1129 pixel, file size: 323 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions no File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia † Helcionelloida † ?Bellerophontida The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum Mollusca. ... Subclasses Eogastropoda (True Limpets and relatives) Orthogastropoda The gastropods, also previously known as gasteropods, or univalves, and more commonly known as snails and slugs, are the largest and most successful class of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 known living species. ... Infraclasses Apogastropoda Cocculiniformia Murchisoniina Neritopsina Vetigastropoda In their work, which has become a standard reference in the field, Ponder and Lindberg (1997) showed that the Orthogastropoda is one of two subclasses of the Gastropoda the class of molluscs, the other subclass being the Eogastropoda. ... Orders Heterostropha Opisthobranchia Pulmonata This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Suborders Systellommatophora Basommatophora Eupulmonata Stylommatophora The Pulmonata are an order (sometimes subclass) of snails and slugs that have developed lungs. ... Suborder Eupulmonata Haszprunar & Huber, 1990 Infraorder Acteophila Dall, 1885 (= formerly Archaeopulmonata) Superfamily Melampoidea Stimpson, 1851 Infraorder Trimusculiformes Minichev & Starobogatov, 1975 Superfamily Trimusculoidea Zilch, 1959 Infraorder Stylommatophora A. Schmidt, 1856 (land snails) Subinfraorder Orthurethra Superfamily Achatinelloidea Gulick, 1873 Superfamily Cochlicopoidea Pilsbry, 1900 Superfamily Partuloidea Pilsbry, 1900 Superfamily Pupilloidea Turton, 1831 Subinfraorder...

Slug is a common non-scientific word which is most often applied to any gastropod mollusk whatsoever which has a very reduced shell, a small internal shell, or no shell at all. A slug-like body is an adaptation which has occurred many times in various groups of snails. Subclass Subclass Eogastropoda     Patellogastropoda Subclass Orthogastropoda   Superorder Cocculiniformia   Superorder Hot Vent Taxa     Neomphaolida   Superorder Vetigastropoda   Superorder Neritaemorphi     Neritopsina   Superorder Caenogastropoda     Architaenioglossa     Sorbeoconcha   Superorder Heterobranchia     Heterostropha     Opisthobranchia     Pulmonata The gastropods, or univalves, are the largest and most successful class of mollusks, with 60,000-75,000 species, and second largest class... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora Monoplacophora Bivalvia Scaphopoda Gastropoda Cephalopoda † Rostroconchia † Helcionelloida † ?Bellerophontida The molluscs (British spelling) or mollusks (American spelling) are members of the very large and diverse phylum Mollusca. ... For other uses, see Snail (disambiguation). ...


The word "slug" is used in everyday parlance specifically to differentiate gastropods with a very reduced shell or no shell at all from gastropods which have a large and noticeable shell, which are commonly known as snails. But in reality slugs and snails are not very different at all from one another apart from the fact that snails have a functional coiled shell which they can retract into. Simply speaking, slugs are snails. For other uses, see Snail (disambiguation). ...


The common name "slug" is perhaps most often applied to land species, but the word has also been applied to many marine species. The largest group of marine shell-less gastropods or sea slugs are the nudibranchs, but there are in addition many other groups of sea slug such as the heterobranch sea butterflies, sea angels, and sea hares, as well as the only very distantly related, pelagic, caenogastropod sea slugs, which are within the superfamily Carinarioidea. In science, a common name is any name by which a species or other concept is known that is not the official scientific name. ... Infraorders Anthobranchia Cladobranchia See text for superfamilies. ... Families Limacinidae Cavoliniidae Clioidae Creseidae Cuvierinidae Praecuvierinidae Peraclididae Cymbuliidae Desmopteridae Sea butterflies, or flapping snails, are holoplanktonic mollusks (Mollusca, Gastropoda), belonging to the suborder Thecosomata (Blainville, 1824). ... Families Clionidae Cliopsidae Hermaeidae Hydromylidae Laginiopsidae Notobranchaeidae Pneumodermatidae Thliptodontidae Sea angels are small pteropod mollusks of the suborder Gymnosomata. ... Families Superfamily Akeroidea Akeridae Superfamily Aplysioidea Aplysiidae Sea hares (also called sea slugs) are small marine gastropod molluscs of the suborder Anaspidea (P. Fisher, 1883) in the subclass Orthogastropoda, class Gastropoda, phylum Mollusca. ...


The loss or reduction of the shell is a derived characteristic, and the same basic body design has independently evolved several times, making slugs a polyphyletic group. In other words, the shell-less condition has arisen many times in the evolutionary past, and because of this, the various different taxonomic families of slugs are often not at all closely related to one another despite a superfical similarity. In biology, a taxon is polyphyletic if it is descended from more than one root form (in Greek poly = many and phyletic = racial). ...


This article is primarily about land slugs.


Although pulmonate land slugs do undergo torsion (180º twisting of the internal organs) during development, their bodies are streamlined and worm-like, and so they show little external evidence of it. Suborders Systellommatophora Basommatophora Eupulmonata The Pulmonata are an order (once a subclass) of snails and slugs that have developed a pallial lung and thus can breathe air. ... Torsion is a gastropod synapomorphy which occurs in all gastropods during larval development. ...


The soft, slimy bodies of slugs are prone to desiccation, so land-living slugs are confined to moist environments. Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. ...

Contents

Morphology and behavior

Slugs macerate food using their radula, a rough, tongue-like organ with many tiny tooth-like denticles. Transverse view of the buccal cavity with the radula Radula types chart. ...


Like snails, most slugs have two pairs of 'feelers' or tentacles on their head. The upper pair—optical tentacles—are light sensors; the lower pair provides the sense of smell. Both pairs are retractable and can be regrown if lost. On top of the slug, behind the head, is the saddle-shaped mantle, and under this are the genital opening and anus. The mantle also has a hole, the pneumostome, for respiration. The slug moves by rhythmic muscular action of its foot. Not to be confused with censure, censer, or censor. ... Olfaction (also known as olfactics) refers to the sense of smell. ... The mantle is an organ found in mollusks. ... Diagram describing the different parts of a slug A black slug, , on a rock, with its pneumostome clearly visible. ...


Some species hibernate underground during the winter in temperate climates, but in other species, the adults die in the autumn.


Mucus

Slugs produce two types of mucus: one which is thin and watery, and another which is thick and sticky. Both are hygroscopic. The thin mucus is spread out from the centre of the foot to the edges. The thick mucus spreads out from front to back. Mucus is very important to slugs because it helps them move around, and contains fibres which prevent the slug from sliding down vertical surfaces. Mucus also provides protection against predators and helps retain moisture. Some species use slime cords to lower themselves on to the ground, or suspend from them during copulation. Mucus is a slippery secretion of the lining of the mucous membranes in the body. ... Hygroscopy is the ability of a substance to attract water molecules from the surrounding environment through either absorption or adsorption. ...


Reproduction

Slugs are hermaphrodites, having both female and male reproductive organs. Once a slug has located a mate they encircle each other and sperm is exchanged through their protruding genitalia. A few days later around 30 eggs are laid into a hole in the ground or under the cover of objects such as fallen logs. In zoology, a hermaphrodite is a species that contains both male and female sexual organs at some point during their lives. ...


A commonly seen practice among many slugs is apophallation, when one or both of the slugs chews off the other's penis. The penis of these species is curled like a cork-screw and often becomes entangled in their mate's genitalia in the process of exchanging sperm. Apophallation allows the slugs to separate themselves. Once the penis has been removed, the slug remains female for the rest of its life. Apophallation is a technique used by some slugs following intercourse. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ...


Various species of slug can also reproduce via tiny "darts" of sperm which they fling in the direction of their mate's genitalia[citation needed].


Ecology

Anatomy of a slug
Anatomy of a slug

Slugs play an important role in ecology by eating decomposting matter, such as leaves, fungus, and decaying vegetable material, but some are predators and most also eat carrion including dead of their own kind. They also feed on fruits and vegetables prior to harvest, making holes in the crop that makes it more vulnerable to disease. Parts of a slug File links The following pages link to this file: Slug Categories: GFDL images ... Parts of a slug File links The following pages link to this file: Slug Categories: GFDL images ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


Slugs are made up mostly of water. They must generate protective mucus to survive and thus require large amounts of water. In drought conditions they hide under rocks, plants, and planters in order to retain body moisture. Salt applied to the body of a slug is usually fatal.


Frogs, toads, snakes, hedgehogs, eastern box turtles, and also some birds and beetles are natural slug predators. Slugs, when attacked, can contract their body, making themselves harder and more compact and thus more difficult for many animals to grasp. The unpleasant taste of the mucus is also a deterrent. Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frogness babe is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). ... Families At least 9, see article. ... Families Acrochordidae Aniliidae Anomalepididae Anomochilidae Atractaspididae Boidae Bolyeriidae Colubridae Cylindrophiidae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Leptotyphlopidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Typhlopidae Uropeltidae Viperidae Xenopeltidae Snakes are cold blooded legless reptiles closely related to lizards, which share the order Squamata. ... Genera Atelerix Erinaceus Hemiechinus Mesechinus Paraechinus A hedgehog is any of the small spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae and the order Erinaceomorpha. ... Identification The Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) is a member of the Box Turtle species. ...


In certain cases humans have contracted parasite-induced meningitis from eating raw slugs [1]. Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ...


Photographs

Subinfraorders, superfamilies, and families

  • Subinfraorder Orthurethra
    • Superfamily Achatinelloidea Gulick, 1873
    • Superfamily Cochlicopoidea Pilsbry, 1900
    • Superfamily Partuloidea Pilsbry, 1900
    • Superfamily Pupilloidea Turton, 1831
  • Subinfraorder Sigmurethra
    • Superfamily Acavoidea Pilsbry, 1895
    • Superfamily Achatinoidea Swainson, 1840
    • Superfamily Aillyoidea Baker, 1960
    • Superfamily Arionoidea J.E. Gray in Turnton, 1840
    • Superfamily Athoracophoroidea
    • Superfamily Buliminoidea Clessin, 1879
    • Superfamily Camaenoidea Pilsbry, 1895
    • Superfamily Clausilioidea Mörch, 1864
    • Superfamily Dyakioidea Gude & Woodward, 1921
    • Superfamily Gastrodontoidea Tryon, 1866
    • Superfamily Helicoidea Rafinesque, 1815
    • Superfamily Helixarionoidea Bourguignat, 1877
    • Superfamily Limacoidea Rafinesque, 1815
    • Superfamily Oleacinoidea H. & A. Adams, 1855
    • Superfamily Orthalicoidea Albers-Martens, 1860
    • Superfamily Plectopylidoidea Moellendorf, 1900
    • Superfamily Polygyroidea Pilsbry, 1894
    • Superfamily Punctoidea Morse, 1864
    • Superfamily Rhytidoidea Pilsbry, 1893
    • Superfamily Sagdidoidera Pilsbry, 1895
    • Superfamily Staffordioidea Thiele, 1931
    • Superfamily Streptaxoidea J.E. Gray, 1806
    • Superfamily Strophocheiloidea Thiele, 1926
    • Superfamily Trigonochlamydoidea Hese, 1882
    • Superfamily Zonitoidea Mörch, 1864
    • Slugs - Tunbridge Wells 1.Ben 2. Broach 3. Andy 4. Kieran 5. Jay

Arionoidea is a superfamily of gastropods from infraorder Stylommatophora in ordo Pulmonata. ... John Edward Gray. ... Genera See text Athoracophoridae, or the leaf-veined slugs, are a family of land slugs in the order Pulmonata, endemic to New Zealand. ... Genera See text. ... Dyakioidea is a superfamily of gastropods from infraorder Stylommatophora in ordo Pulmonata. ... Gastrodontoidea is a superfamily of gastropods from infraorder Stylommatophora in ordo Pulmonata. ... Helicoidea is a superfamilia of gastropods from infraorder Stylommatophora in ordo Pulmonata. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... Families Ariophantidae Cystopeltidae Dyakiidae Euconulidae Helixarionidae Sesaridae[] Trochomorphidae Urocyclidae Synonyms Helicarionoidea The Helixarionoidea are a superfamily of stalk-eyed snails and slugs. ... Limacoidea is a superfamily of gastropods from infraorder Stylommatophora in ordo Pulmonata. ... C. S. Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783-September 18, 1840) was a nineteenth-century polymath who led a chaotic life. ... Families Charopidae Discidae Endodontidae Helicodiscidae Oopeltidae Oreohelicidae Otoconchidae Philiomycidae Punctidae Synonyms Endodontoidea The Punctoidea are a superfamily of stalk-eyed snails and slugs. ... Genera See text. ... Johannes Thiele (1860 - 1935) was a German zoologist specialized in malacology. ... John Edward Gray. ... Johannes Thiele (1860 - 1935) was a German zoologist specialized in malacology. ... Zonitidae is the only family of gastropods in superfamily Zonitoidea from infraorder Stylommatophora in ordo Pulmonata. ...

References

  1. ^ Health and Medicals News - Man's brain infected by eating slugs. Retrieved on 2006-03-15.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Biology of Slugs
  • Ohio State University slug fact sheet
  • Leopard Slug Info
  • [1]
  • Pancake Slug (Veronicella sloanei) Info
  • Land Slugs and Snails and Their Control (pub. 1959) hosted by the UNT Government Documents Department
Wikibooks has more information about Slugs in A Wikimanual of Gardening.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Stylommatophora

  Results from FactBites:
 
Slug - Uncyclopedia (2036 words)
Slugs are gastronomic molluscs without shells and are considered to be the "poor cousins" of snails, because they do not have their own mobile homes and are too dumb to use protection.
The soft, slimy bodies of slugs are prone to dehydration, so land-living slugs prefer to spend most of their lives in moisture replenishing environments such as bars, taverns, soda fountains, beer parlours, pubs or other establishments where considerable liquid refreshment is readily available.
Slugs masturbate using their radula, a rough, tongue-like organ with many tiny tooth-like denticles which they tend to rip off and leave under their pillows for the tooth-fairy.
Slug - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (636 words)
Among the various species of land slug are the grey field slug, Deroceras reticulatus; the garden slug Arion hortensis; the leopard slug, Limax maximus; and the banana slug, Ariolimax columbianus.
Slugs produce two types of mucus: one which is thin and watery, and another which is thick and sticky.
Slugs are hermaphroditic: having both female and male reproductive organs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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