FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Slow slicing

Slow slicing (Simplified Chinese: 凌迟; Traditional Chinese: 凌遲; Pinyin: língchí, alternately transliterated Ling Chi or Leng T'che), also translated as the slow process, the lingering death, or death by/of a thousand cuts, is a form of execution used in China from roughly CE 900 to its abolition in 1905. The term língchí derives from a classical description of ascending a mountain slowly; the method was officially outlawed in 1905. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


This method of execution became a fixture in the image of China among some Westerners. It appears in various romantic accounts of Chinese cruelty, such as Harold Lamb's 1930s biography of Genghis Khan. Harold Albert Lamb (1892 - 1962) was an American historian and novelist. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Description

Slow slicing was sometimes used for the torture and execution of a living person, or applied as an act of humiliation after death. It was meted out for offenses such as acts of treason, murder, or assault on one's parents. There are problems in obtaining accurate details of how the executions took place, but the executions consisted of cuts to the arms, legs, and chest, followed by decapitation or a stab to the heart. Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he... Traitor redirects here. ...


Art historian James Elkins[1] argues that extant photos of the execution make obvious that the "death by division" (as it was termed by German anthropologist R. Heindl) involved some degree of dismemberment while the subject was living. However, Elkins also argues that, contrary to the apocryphal version of "death by a thousand cuts", the actual process could not have lasted long (perhaps an hour), the condemned could likely not have remained conscious and aware (if even living) after one or two severe wounds, and the entire process could not have included more than a "few dozen" wounds. If the condemned or their family could afford a bribe, it was not uncommon for the torturer to issue the Coup de grâce more quickly, thereby reducing the condemned's suffering. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Bribery is the practice of offering a professional money or other favours in order to circumvent ethics in a variety of professions. ... Look up coup de grâce in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Western perceptions of Slow slicing vs. reality

The western perception of língchí has often differed considerably from the actual practice, and some misconceptions persist to the present. The distinction between the sensationalized Western myth and the Chinese reality was noted by Westerners as early as 1895. That year, Australian traveler G.E. Morrison wrote that "Ling Chi [was] commonly, and quite wrongly, translated as 'death by slicing into 10,000 pieces'—a truly awful description of a punishment whose cruelty has been extraordinarily misrepresented ... The mutilation is ghastly and excites our horror as an example of barbarian cruelty; but it is not cruel, and need not excite our horror, since the mutilation is done, not before death, but after." However, Australian traveller G.E. Morrison might not know the reality of such cruel punishment in details as execution took place in a confined room where executioners were only allowed to take thin slices on the flesh until the body was carved to the bone. The exact number of slices was 3,600 that took 3 days to slowly put the victims to death. The whole purpose of "lingchi" was to deter death by extended suffering, therefore the victims would not be dismembered during execution. The heavily carved bodies of the deceased were then put on a parade for a show in the public. [2] George Ernest Morrison (February 4, 1862 – May 30, 1920) was an Australian adventurer born in Scotland and qualified as a medical doctor at Edinburgh University. ...


According to apocryphal lore, língchí began when the torturer, wielding an extremely sharp knife, began by putting out the eyes, rendering the condemned incapable of seeing the remainder of the torture and, presumably, adding considerably to the psychological terror of the procedure. Successive rather minor cuts chopped off ears, nose, tongue, fingers, toes, and such before proceeding to grosser cuts that removed large collops of flesh from more sizable parts, e.g., thighs and shoulders. The exact number of cuts was 3,600. This procedure was sometimes believed to take several of days. Some victims were reportedly given doses of opium. There are strange, occasionally funny, discrepancies between descriptions and evaluations according to the authors' moral and religious background: Protestants tend to understate the physical ordeal of the condemned, while Catholics tended to exaggerate. [3] This article does not adequately cite its references. ...


Some modern writers suggest[citation needed] that língchí -- as a genuine adjunct to execution -- was exaggerated in some retellings to become the more sensationalistic "death by a thousand cuts." This apparent confusion might be due to the novelty of slicing to Western observers, or attributed to mistranslation, cultural differences, racism or other factors. This idea is perhaps supported by at least one source: J. M. Roberts, in Twentieth Century: The History of the World, 1901 to 2000 (2000), writes "the traditional punishment of death by slicing ... became part of the western stereotype of Chinese backwardness as the 'death of a thousand cuts.'" Roberts then notes that slicing "was ordered, in fact, for K'ang Yu-Wei, a man termed the 'Rousseau of China', and a major advocate of intellectual and government reform in the 1890's." (p. 60, footnote 8) Because racism carries connotations of race-based bigotry, prejudice, violence, oppression, stereotyping or discrimination, the term has varying and often hotly contested definitions. ... John Morris Roberts (April 14, 1928 - 30 May 2003) was a British historian, with significant published works, well known also as the presenter of the BBC television series The Triumph of the West (1985). ... For the 1996 Blur single, see Stereotypes (song). ... Kang Youwei (March 19, 1858–March 31, 1927) was a Chinese scholar and political reformist. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ...


Although officially outlawed by the Qing government in 1905[citation needed], língchí became a widespread Western symbol of the Chinese penal system from the 1910s on. Three sets of photographs were shot by French soldiers in 1904-1905 were the basis for later mythification and gruesome fancies. The abolition was immediately enforced, and definitely: no lingchi was ever performed in China after April 1905, the reported cases are all based on mistaken dating of the last executions.[citation needed] The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the ruling Chinese Dynasties. ...


Regarding the use of opium, as related in the introduction to Morrison's book, Sir Meyrick Hewlett insisted that "most Chinese people sentenced to death were given large quantities of opium before execution, and Morrison avers that a charitable person would be permitted to push opium into the mouth of someone dying in agony, thus hastening the moment of decease." At the very least, such tales were deemed credible to British officials in China and other Western observers.


History

Língchí is known from the Five Dynasties period (907-960) and became very widespread in the Song Dynasty (960-1279). It first appeared in a Chinese code of laws for the non-Chinese Liao Dynasty (907-1125). Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: Wǔdàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1279) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou Dynasty 960  - Battle of Yamen; the end of Song rule 1279 Population  - Peak est. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ...


The punishment remained in the Qing Dynasty code of laws for persons convicted of high treason and other serious crimes. Língchí was abolished as a result of the 1905 revision of the Chinese penal code by Shen Jiaben (沈家本, 1840-1913; [4]. The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the ruling Chinese Dynasties. ... Traitor redirects here. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Shen Jiaben (沈家本, 1840-1913). ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...


We know from Qing jurists such as Shen Jiaben that executioners' customs varied, as the regular way to perform this penalty was not specified in detail in the Penal code.


It should be pointed out that the Chinese were not alone in carrying out punishments regarded as cruel and unusual. However, as Western countries moved to abolish similar punishments, some Westerners began to focus attention on the methods of execution used in China. As early as 1866, the year after the last recorded case of Hanging, drawing, and quartering, Thomas Francis Wade, then serving with the British diplomatic mission in China, unsuccessfully urged the abolition of língchí. “Cruel And Unusual” redirects here. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Seventeenth century print of the execution, by hanging, drawing and quartering, of the members of the Gunpowder plot. ... Sir Thomas Francis Wade (August 25, 1818 - July 31, 1895) was a London-born British diplomat and Sinologist linguist who invented what was to become the Wade-Giles Romanization for Mandarin Chinese. ... - Seal on the building of German Embassies. ...


Published accounts

  • Sir Henry Norman, The People and Politics of the Far East, (1895). Norman was a widely travelled writer and photographer whose collection is now owned by the University of Cambridge. Norman claimed to have witnessed such an execution, and gave a graphic account in his book. "[The executioner] grasping handfuls from the fleshy parts of the body such as the thighs and breasts slices them away... the limbs are cut off piecemeal at the wrists and ankles, the elbows and knees, shoulders and hips. Finally the condemned is stabbed to the heart and the head is cut off". (read and see complete Norman accounts)
  • G.E. Morrison, An Australian in China, (1895) differs from some other reports in stating that most Ling Chi mutilations are in fact made post mortem. Morrison wrote his description based on an account related by a claimed eyewitness: "The prisoner is tied to a rude cross: he is invariably deeply under the influence of opium. The executioner, standing before him, with a sharp sword makes two quick incisions above the eyebrows, and draws down the portion of skin over each eye, then he makes two more quick incisions across the breast, and in the next moment he pierces the heart, and death is instantaneous. Then he cuts the body in pieces; and the degradation consists in the fragmentary shape in which the prisoner has to appear in heaven. " [6]
  • Tienstin (Tianjin), The China Year Book (1927), p 1401, contains contemporary reports from fighting in Guangzhou (Canton) between the Nanjing Government and Communist forces. Stories of various atrocities are related, including accounts of língchí. There is no mention of opium, and these cases appear to be government propaganda.
  • The Times, (December 9 1927), A Times journalist reported from the city of Canton that the communists were targeting Christians priests and that "Father Wong it was announced was to be publicly executed by the slicing process."
  • George Riley Scott, History of Torture, (1940) claims that many were executed this way by the Chinese communist insurgents; he cites claims made by the Nangking government in 1927. It is perhaps uncertain whether these claims were anti-communist propaganda. Scott also calls the it "the slicing process" and differentiates between the different types of execution in different parts of the country. There is no mention of opium. Riley's book contains a picture of a sliced corpse (with no mark to the heart) that was killed in Guangzhou (Canton) in 1927. It gives no indication of whether the slicing was done post-mortem. Scott claims it was common for the relatives of the condemned to bribe the executioner to kill the condemned before the slicing procedure began.
  • Sterling Seagrave's Dragon Lady: The Life and Legend of the Last Empress of China (1993)—a semi-fictionalised[citation needed] biography of Empress Dowager Cixi—reports that "the Death of a Thousand Cuts ... is a classic form of execution practiced by every dynasty in China's history ... it was not at all exceptional in cases of high treason." (p. 80)
  • Louise Levathes, When China Ruled the Seas: The Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne, 1405-1433 (1994): "Huang was condemned to a particularly gruesome execution for high treason known as ling chi, or 'death by one thousand cuts.' Cuts were made on his chest, abdomen, arms, legs, and back, so that he very slowly bled to death over a period of time, perhaps as long as three days." (p. 71)
  • Mark Costanzo, Just Revenge: Costs and Consequences of the Death Penalty (1997): "'Death by a thousand cuts'—where small bits of flesh were carved away over a period of days—was sometimes used in ancient China." (p. 4)
  • Academia Sinica resources website: 1. /1912-1925 (民國元年壬子──十四年乙丑)/1915──中華民國四年乙卯/七月 (略 ...) - 190 - 7,17 (六 , 六) 革 命 黨 人 鍾 明 光 炸 傷 廣 東 將 軍 龍 濟 光 (明 光 被 凌 遲 處 死)。This means that Zhong Mingguang, from the Revolutionnary Party Geming dang, would have been executed by língchí for an attempt at bombing General Long Jiguang. But on this event, the most reliable Boorman Biographical dictionaary, II, 456 (Lung Chi-kuang), reads: “Lung Chi-kuang, who had become one of Yuan’s most trusted henchmen, further enraged the Kwangtung populace when he ordered a lanter procession in Canton to celebrate Yuan’s diplomatic “success.” [acceptance of the 21 demands] When Lung went to visit his brother on 17 July, during a flood in Canton, Chung Ming-kuang, a member of the worker’s assassination group, seized the opportunity to throw a bomb at him. It killed 17 members of Lung Chi-kuang’s bodyguard and the assassin, but Long received only a foot wound”. So, Zhong Mingguang did not suffer língchí as a form of execution, for he died from his own bombing. It is not known whether he was mutilated after death.

Sir Henry Norman, Bt (September 19, 1858 –June 4, 1939) was an English politician and journalist. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... George Ernest Morrison (February 4, 1862 – May 30, 1920) was an Australian adventurer born in Scotland and qualified as a medical doctor at Edinburgh University. ... An autopsy (also known as a post-mortem examination, necropsy or obduction) is a medical procedure that consists of a thorough examination performed on a corpse after death, to evaluate disease or injury that may be present and to determine the cause and manner of a persons death. ... A Greek cross (all arms of equal length) above a saltire, a cross rotated by 45 degrees A famous Armenian khachkar at Goshavank (Notice the cross). ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: TiānjÄ«n; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... An atrocity (from the Latin atrox, atrocious, from Latin ater = matte black (as distinct from niger = shiny black)) is a term used to describe crimes ranging from an act committed against a single person to one committed against a population or ethnic group. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Bribery is the practice of offering a professional money or other favours in order to circumvent ethics in a variety of professions. ... Sterling Seagrave is best-selling author of The Soong Dynasty. ... Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tzu-Hsi Tai-hou) (November 29, 1835 – November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the West Empress Dowager (Chinese: 西太后), was from the Manchu Yehe Nara Clan. ... Below is a table of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... Traitor redirects here. ...

U.S. military accounts

One account reports that United States Marine Corps members stationed in and around Shanghai between 1927 and 1941 brought evidence of human rights abuses to the United States: "The prevalence of executions and torture is evidenced by the scrapbooks brought back from China by the Marines. There are photographs of firing squads, beheadings, disembowelments, rape and such torture as 'the death of a thousand cuts.'" The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Wu (Long-short): ZÃ¥nhae; Shanghainese (IPA): ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China and the ninth largest in the world. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Execution by firing squad is a method of capital punishment, especially in times of war. ... Beheading. ... Disembowelment is evisceration, or the removing of some or all of vital organs, usually from the abdomen. ...


As the online Marine history notes, "Apparently these photographs were commercially available [in China], because there are exact duplicates in many scrapbooks with the name of a commercial studio stamped on the backs of the photographs." It is possible that photos from the 1910s were mistakenly associated with the ongoing attrocities of China in the 1920s, and the língchí photos were sold as curios.


Photographs from this same period, including lines of beheaded corpses, non-Chinese diplomats killed by gunfire, and a língchí victim, can be found in George Ryley Scott's A History of Torture.


Photographs

1890

The first Western photographs of língchí were taken in 1890 in Guangzhou (Canton) ([7]). Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


1905

French soldiers stationed in Beijing had the opportunity to photograph three different língchí executions in 1905: Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...

  • Wang Weiqin 王維勤, a former Official who killed two families, executed on the 31 October 1904:[5]
  • Unknown, reason unknown, possibly a young deranged boy who killed his mother, and was executed in January 1905? Photographs were published by Dumas in 1934 Nouveau traité de psychologie , and again namely by Bataille, in fact by Lo Duca, who mistakenly appended abstracts of Fou-tchou-li's executions as related by Carpeaux (see below). [6]
  • Fou-tchou-li (pinyin Fúzhūli 幅株哩), a Mongol guard who killed his master, the Mongol prince of Aohan Banner, and who was executed on the 10 April 1905; as língchí was to be abolished two weeks later, this was presumably the last attested case of it in Chinese history [7]. Photographs appeared in books by Matignon (1910), and Carpeaux (1913), the latter claiming (falsely) that he was present.[citation needed] Carpeaux's narrative was mistakenly, but persistently, associated to photographs published by Dumas and Bataille. Even related to the correct set of photos, Carpeaux's narrative is highly dubious; for instance, an examination of the Chinese judicial archives show that Carpeaux bluntly invented the execution decree below:

The execution proclamation is reported to state "'The Mongolian Princes demand that the aforesaid Fou-Tchou-Le, guilty of the murder of Prince Ao-Han-Ouan, be burned alive, but the Emperor finds this torture too cruel and condemns Fou-Tchou-Li to slow death by Leng-Tch-e (cutting into pieces). Respect this!" [8]


Photographic material and other sources are available online at the Chinese Torture Database (Iconographic, Historical and Literary Approaches of an Exotic Representation) hosted by the Institut d'Asie Orientale (CNRS, France) [9] The Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) is one of the most prominent scientific research institutions in France. ...


Other uses or citations of the 1905 photographs include:

  • Georges Bataille
Adrien Borel, Georges Bataille's analyst, introduced Bataille to the photographs. Bataille became fascinated by the photographs, reportedly gazing at them daily. He included the photos in his The Tears of Eros. (1961; translated to English and published by City Lights in 1989) [10]

This book has been criticized for allegedly dubious content[11] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A fairly broad term for a person or tool with a primary function of information analysis, generally with a more limited, practical and short term set of goals than a researcher. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... City Lights Bookstore, 2007 Co-founded in 1953 by Beat poet Lawrence Ferlinghetti, City Lights Bookstore and City Lights Publishers is a landmark independent bookstore and a small press publisher that specializes in world literature, the arts, and progressive politics. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...

  • Julio Cortàzar
Julio Cortàzar in his 1963 novel Rayuela apparently refers to Língchí in chapter 14, where Oliveira is looking at a set of Chinese execution pictures owned by Wong.
  • Hannibal
The 1905 incident inspired a brief reference in Thomas Harris's novel Hannibal (2000): "...police photographs of his (Lecter's) outrages were bootlegged to collectors of hideous arcana. They were second in popularity only to the execution of Fou-Tchou-Li." [8]
  • Susan Sontag
Susan Sontag mentions the 1905 case in Regarding the Pain of Others (2003). One reviewer wrote that though Sontag includes no photographs in her book—a volume about photography—"she does tantalisingly describe a photograph that obsessed the philosopher Georges Bataille, in which a Chinese criminal, while being chopped up and slowly flayed by executioners, rolls his eyes heavenwards in transcendent bliss." [9]
  • John Zorn
Saxophonist and composer John Zorn used at least one of the 1905 photos with his 1992 Naked City album, Leng Tch'e.
  • Chen Chien-jen
Inspired by the 1905 photos, Chinese artist Chen Chien-jen created a 25-minute motion picture called Lingchi, which has generated some controversy. [10]

Rayuela (translated into English as Hopscotch) is the most famous novel by Argentine writer Julio Cortázar. ... Thomas Harris. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... Hannibal, a novel by Thomas Harris, is the source material for the film Hannibal, directed by Ridley Scott. ... Hannibal Lecter is a fictional character in a series of novels by author Thomas Harris. ... A skirmish with smugglers from Finland at the Russian border, 1853, by Vasily Hudiakov. ... Susan Sontag (January 16, 1933 – December 28, 2004) was a well-known American essayist, novelist, intellectual, filmmaker, and activist. ... Photography [fÓ™tÉ‘grÓ™fi:],[foÊŠtÉ‘grÓ™fi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or sensor. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Michelangelos Last Judgment - Saint Bartholomew holding the knife of his martyrdom and his flayed skin Flaying is the removal of skin from the body. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In philosophy, transcendental/transcendence, has three different but related primary meanings, all of them derived from the words literal meaning (from Latin), of climbing or going beyond: one that originated in Ancient philosophy, one in Medieval philosophy and one in modern philosophy. ... A saxophonist is a musician who plays the saxophone. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... John Zorn (born September 2, 1953 in Queens, USA) is a Jewish American avant-garde composer, arranger, record producer, saxophonist and multi-instrumentalist. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the band. ... Leng Tche is the fourth release from the band Naked City. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as...

Uses in fiction

In his novel The Journeyer, author Gary Jennings demonstrates the distinction between Western myth and Chinese reality by referring to the "Death of a Thousand" as a torture procedure he explains thus: One thousand pieces of paper are placed in a container, and a paper is drawn out by the Fondler (the torturer) to determine where the cut will be made. Having determined that there are 333 body parts, each of these parts is represented three times (for a total of 999 - the 1,000th paper represents immediate death). For example, the pinky finger - when the first paper is drawn denoting the pinkie finger, perhaps the digit will be removed to the first joint. The second time the pinky finger paper is drawn, another section to the next joint is amputated. The third time the pinky finger paper is drawn, the rest of the finger is amputated. Jennings also fictionalizes in the book that, in an extended form of the torture, the body parts and blood are fed to the condemned as the his only nourishment. Gary Jennings (September 20, 1928 – February 13, 1999) was a U.S. author noted for several historical fiction novels: Aztec, a story of the Aztec empire just before and during the arrival of the Spanish; Aztec Autumn, a story of the Aztecs following the Spanish conquest; and The Journeyer, an...


In the novel Flashman and the Dragon by George MacDonald Fraser, reference is made to a prisoner being bound tightly in a thin wire mesh through which nubs of flesh protrude. These are then cut off by the torturer with a sharp razor. In order to kill the prisoner, the razor is run quickly over many nubs of flesh at once. Flashman and the Dragon is a 1986 novel by George MacDonald Fraser. ... George MacDonald Fraser (born 1926 in Carlisle, England) is a writer of Scottish descent. ...


In Malcolm Bosse's novel "The Examination", Hong, the brother of Chen, is subjected to this torture, although he is not killed. Malcolm Joseph Bosse (1926–2002) was an American author of both young adult and adult novels. ...


In the film Barbarella, Jane Fonda plays the lead role who is sentenced to death by being placed in a container of Budgerigars where the multitude of cuts from the birds' claws and beaks are intended to kill her. Barbarella, also known as Barbarella, Queen of the Galaxy is a 1968 erotic science fiction film, based on the French Barbarella comic book created by Jean-Claude Forest. ... Jane Fonda (born December 21, 1937) is a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress, writer, political activist, former fashion model, and fitness guru. ... Binomial name Melopsittacus undulatus (Shaw, 1805) The Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus, nicknamed budgie), the only species in the Australian genus Melopsittacus, is a small parrot belonging to the tribe of the broad-tailed parrots (Platycercini); these are sometimes considered a subfamily (Platycercinae), which may be correct, in which the budgerigar is...


In Amy Tan's novel "The Joy Luck Club", the first story told by Lena St. Clair, "The Voice from the Wall", features the death of a thousand cuts. Amy Tan (Chinese: 譚恩美; pinyin: Tán Ēnměi; born February 19, 1952) is an American writer whose works explore mother-daughter relationships and what it means to grow up as a first generation Asian American. ... For the film, see The Joy Luck Club (film) The Joy Luck Club (1989) is a best-selling novel written by Amy Tan. ...


In Mercedes Lackey's book "The Serpent's Shadow", an evil priestess of Kali uses the "Death of a Thousand Cuts" as a method of sacrifice. The intent is to increase the amount of magical power produced by prolonging the sacrifice's pain, suffering and eventual death. Mercedes Lackey (born June 24, 1950) (also known as Misty Lackey) is a prolific American author of fantasy novels. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


In the 1966 film The Sand Pebbles, US Navy machinist's mate Jake Holman (Steve McQueen) witnesses a friend, engine room coolie Po-Han (Mako) being punished in this manner by an angry mob. He then proceeds to shoot him in the head to spare him further suffering. // Events Top grossing films North America Thunderball Dr. Zhivago Whos Afraid of Virginia Woolf? That Darn Cat! The Russians Are Coming, The Russians Are Coming Academy Awards Best Picture: A Man for All Seasons - Highland, Columbia Best Actor: Paul Scofield - A Man for All Seasons Best Actress: Elizabeth Taylor... The Sand Pebbles is a 1966 film based on the 1962 novel The Sand Pebbles by Richard McKenna. ... Steve McQueen (March 24, 1930 – November 7, 1980) was an Academy Award-nominated American movie actor, nicknamed The King of Cool.[1] He was one of the biggest box-office draws of the 1960s and 1970s due to a popular anti-hero persona. ... Mako or similar may be: Places Makó, a town in Hungary Makung, a city on the main Pescadore Island in the Taiwan Strait (alternate romanization) People Mako Akishino, Princess of Japan Makoto Iwamatsu (1933 – ), a Japanese actor Benjamin Mako Hill, a Debian developer Other Mako shark, one or more species...


Other uses of the term

The phrase "death of a thousand cuts" is often used metaphorically to describe the gradual or incremental destruction of something, such as an institution or program, by repeated minor attacks. The term is also used in business management to describe a product or idea that is damaged or destroyed by too many minor changes. Look up metaphor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Management (from Old French ménagement the art of conducting, directing, from Latin manu agere to lead by the hand) characterises the process of leading and directing all or part of an organization, often a business, through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human, financial, material, intellectual or intangible). ...


Leng Tch'e is also the name of a Belgium Grindcore supergroup. It features members of Aborted, Permanent Death and Dark Ages. Grindcore, often shortened to grind, is an evolution of crust punk, most commonly associated with death metal, a very different, though similarly extreme, style of music. ...


References

  • Bourgon, Jérôme. "Abolishing 'Cruel Punishments': A Reappraisal of the Chinese Roots and Long-Term Efficiency of the in Legal Reforms." Modern Asian Studies 37, no. 4 (2003): 851-62.
  1. ^ Elkins, James, The Object Stares Back: On the Nature of Seeing, New York: Simon and Shuster, 1996
  2. ^ http://turandot.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/Textual.php?ID=167&CF=2&Fa=2 read Morrison's original text
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ http://turandot.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/Event.php?ID=8 ; and an essay about this case see http://turandot.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/Essay.php?ID=11
  6. ^ see the complete set: http://turandot.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/Event.php?ID=10
  7. ^ See the complete set
  8. ^ [3]
  9. ^ http://turandot.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/
  10. ^ [4]
  11. ^ [5]

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m