FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
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Encyclopedia > Slovenes
Slovenians
Total population: 2,2 million (est.)
Population:
Slovenia
 1,631,363 in the year 2002 (source (http://www.stat.si/eng/index.asp)).
Italy
 100,000 (recognized national minority)
Austria
 50,000 (recognized national minority)
Hungary
 6,000 (recognized national minority)
USA
 176,691 (Source: census 2000 (http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/c2kbr-35.pdf))
Canada
 30,000 officially
Croatia
 25,000
Germany
 21,759 (31.12.2003, source  (http://www.destatis.de/basis/e/bevoe/bevoetab10.htm))
Australia
 20,000 (30. june 1999, source  (http://elecpress.monash.edu.au/pnp/free/pnpv7n4/v7n4_3price.pdf))
Argentina
 ?
France
 ?
Switzerland
 ?
Sweden
 ?
United Kingdom
?
Language Slovenian
Religion Predominantly Roman Catholic, but also protestant, Orthodox and Muslim minorities. Many people are atheists.
Related ethnic groups
Indo-Europeans
  Slavs
    South Slavs

Slovenians or Slovenes (Slovenian Slovenci, singular Slovenec, feminine Slovenka) are a South Slavic people primarily associated with Slovenia and the Slovenian language. The Republic of Slovenia ( Slovenian: Republika Slovenija) is a coastal sub-Alpine country in south central Europe bordering Italy to the west, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north. ... The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... The Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ... The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. ... Canada is a sovereign state in northern North America, the northern-most country in the world, and the second largest in total area. ... The Republic of Croatia is a crescent-shaped country in Europe bordering the Mediterranean, Central Europe and the Balkans. ... Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... Argentina is a country in southern South America, situated between the Andes in the west and the southern Atlantic Ocean in the east. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... The Swiss Confederation or Switzerland is a landlocked federal state in Europe, with neighbours Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Liechtenstein. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Republic of Slovenia ( Slovenian: Republika Slovenija) is a coastal sub-Alpine country in south central Europe bordering Italy to the west, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Most Slovenians today live within the borders of the independent Slovenia (circa 2,000,000). There are autochthonous Slovenian minorities in northeastern parts of Italy (100,000), southern Austria (15,000), Croatia (13,200) and Hungary (6,000), Russia(5,000). The Republic of Slovenia ( Slovenian: Republika Slovenija) is a coastal sub-Alpine country in south central Europe bordering Italy to the west, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, Croatia to the south and east, Hungary to the northeast, and Austria to the north. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... The Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ... The Republic of Croatia is a crescent-shaped country in Europe bordering the Mediterranean, Central Europe and the Balkans. ... The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. ... The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ...


Many Slovenian emigrants are also scattered across Europe and overseas, for example in the USA, Canada, Argentina, Australia, South Africa (300,000). World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Canada is a sovereign state in northern North America, the northern-most country in the world, and the second largest in total area. ... Argentina is a country in southern South America, situated between the Andes in the west and the southern Atlantic Ocean in the east. ... Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ...

Contents

Early Slovenians

Around 570, the Slavic tribes started to settle in the region between the Alps and the Adriatic Sea. Events First mention of the Spear of Destiny (approximate date). ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The Alps is the collective name for one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria in the east, Slovenia, Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany, through to France in the west. ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ...


From 623 to 658, the Slavic tribes between the upper Elbe River and the Karavanke mountain range were united in their first state under the leadership of king Samo (kralj Samo) in a so called King Samo's Empire. The tribal union collapsed after Samo's death, but a smaller Slavic state Caranthania (Slovenian Karantanija) (present-day Carinthia) persisted, with its center in the region of Carinthia (most of it lies in the present Austria). Events Clotaire II, king of the Franks, makes his son Dagobert I king of Austrasia Samo, reputedly a Frankish merchant, governs in Moravia, Slovakia and Lower Austria. ... Events The union of Slavic tribes falls apart after Samos death Births Deaths King Samo of the Slavs Categories: 658 ... The Elbe River (Czech Labe, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ... Karavanke is a mountain range on the border between Slovenia and Austria. ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... King Samo (? – 658) was a merchant born in the Senonian country (Senonago) (probably todays Sens in France). ... Karantania with Carniola around 597 Karantania sometimes Carantania, Carentania, Carinthia (in old Slovenian onomastics Korotan, or Karantanija) was the first stable and independent state of Slovenians and of Slavs. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ...


Slovenians during the Frankish Empire

Due to pressing danger of Avar tribes from the east, Karantanians accepted union with Bavarians in 745 and later recognized Frankish rule and accepted Christianity in the 8th century. The last Slavic state formation in the region, the principality of Prince Kocelj, lost its independence in 874. Slovenian ethnic territory subsequently shrunk due to pressing of Germans from the west and the arrival of Hungarians in the Pannonian plain, and stabilized in the present form in the 15th century. The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... Caranthanians (Latin Quarantani, Slovenian Karantanci) were the only Alpine Slavs in the early middle ages and the first ethnic name of an old Slovenian people as a separate part of the Slavs (Latin Sclavi qui dicuntur Quarantani, Slavs called Caranthanians). ... Bavarian can either when used as an adjective, refer to the German state of Bavaria; or refer to the Bavarian or Austro-Bavarian language, a group of closely related Austria and the South Tyrol. ... Events Births November 10 - Musa al-Kazim, Shia Imam (d. ... The Franks were one of several west Germanic tribes who entered the late Roman Empire from Frisia as foederati and established a lasting realm in an area that covers most of modern-day France and the region of Franconia in Germany, forming the historic kernel of both these two modern... Prince Albert of Monaco on the left represents a principality where he wields adminisitrative authority. ... Events March 13 - The bones of Saint Nicephorus are interred in the Church of the Apostles, Constantinople. ... Ethnic Germans (usually simply called Germans, in German Volksdeutsche) are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German rather than anything else but who do not live within the Federal Republic of Germany nor hold its citizenship. ... This article is about the Magyar people. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


The earliest documents written in a Slovenian dialect are the Freising manuscripts (Brižinski spomeniki, Freisinger Denkmäler), dated between 972 and 1022, found in 1803 in Freising, Germany. The first book printed in Slovenian is Cattechismus and Abecedarium, written by the Protestant reformer Primož Trubar in 1550 and printed in Tübingen, Germany. Jurij Dalmatin translated the Bible into Slovenian in 1584. In the half of the 16th century the Slovenian came known to other European languages with the multilingual dictionary, compiled by Hieronymus Megisar. The Freising Manuscripts (also Freising Monuments; Slovene Brižinski spomeniki, German Freisinger Denkmäler, Latin Monumenta Frisingensia, Slovak Frizinské pamiatky) are the first Roman-script record of any Slavic language. ... Events Otto II marries Theophanu, Byzantine princess. ... Events Several Catharist heretics are killed in Toulouse. ... Events January 30 - Monroe and Livingston sail for Paris to discuss, and possibly buy, New Orleans. ... Freising (List of European cities with alternative names) is a city in Bavaria, Germany, capital of the district Freising. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Primož Trubar (June 9, 1508 - June 28, 1586) was a Slovene Protestant reformer, the founder and the first superintendent of the Protestant Church of Slovenia, a consolidator of the Slovene language and the author of the first printed book in Slovene. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... Tübingen, Neckar front Tübingen, an old university city of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, is situated 20 miles southwest of Stuttgart, on a ridge between the River Neckar and the Ammer. ... Jurij Dalmatin was a Slovene protestant priest, writer and translator. ... The Bible (From Greek βιβλιος biblios, meaning book, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is a word applied to sacred scriptures. ... Events June 1 - With the death of the Duc dAnjou, the Huguenot Henry of Navarre becomes heir-presumptive to the throne of France. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


Slovenians between the 18th century and the Second World War

Slovenian lands were part of the Illyrian provinces, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary (in Cisleithania). Illyrian Provinces (French Provinces illyriennes) were formed in 1809 when Austria ceded with the Treaty of Schoenbrunn its lands Carinthia, Carniola, Croatia southwest of the Sava River, Gorizia and Trieste to France after the defeat at the Battle of Wagram. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire until 1867 and of the Austrian part of Austria_Hungary until 1918. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Cisleithania (German Zisleithanien) was the name of the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual monarchy which was created in 1867 and dissolved in 1918. ...


Many Slovenians emigrated to the USA at the turn of the 20th century, mostly due to economic reasons. Those that settled in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania came to be called Windish. The word Usa has more than one meaning: U.S.A. - The United States of America Usa, Oita - A city in Japan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Bethlehem is a city located in USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 71,329. ...


Following the 1st World War (1914-1918), they joined other South Slavs in the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, followed by Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and finally Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In the new system of banovinas (since 1929), Slovenians formed a majority in the "Dravska Banovina". The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba) was a short-lived state formed from the southernmost parts of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy after its dissolution at the end of the World War I by the resident population of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... Ban was a title used in some states in central and south-eastern Europe between the 9th century and the 20th century. ...


In 1920 people in the bilingual regions of Carinthia decided in a referendum that most of Carinthia should accede to Austria. Between the two world wars the westernmost areas inhabited by Slovenians were occupied by Italy. Carinthia (Kärnten in German, Koroška in Slovenian) can refer to: Carinthia - a federal state of Austria Carinthia - an informal province in Slovenia Carinthia - a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire and crownland of Austria_Hungary Karantania - the first Slovenian state This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... The Carinthian Plebiscite (Slovene Koroški plebiscit, German: Kärntner Volksabstimmung) on October 10, 1920 determined the border between Austria and the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia) after World War I. In particular it divided Carinthia, formerly a province of Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy, in two parts. ...


Slovenian volunteers also participated in the Spanish Civil War, and the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. Alternative meaning: Spanish Civil War, 1820-1823 A republican soldier seeks cover on the Plaza de Toros in Teruel, east of Madrid. ... Italian troops fortify a position in Abyssinia Lasting seven months from 1935-1936, the Second Italo-Abyssinian War is often seen as a precursor to World War II and a demonstration of the inefficiency of the League of Nations. ...


Slovenians during and after the 2nd World War

Slovenians participated in the so-called National Liberation Fight ("NOB") while Yugoslavia was occupied by Axis powers during the Second World War (1941-1945).

  • The commander of the High command of the Slovenian partisan's army Franc Rozman Stane
  • The Pohorje battalion
  • The Battle of Osankarica
  • The National heroes

There were Slovenians also in the German army. Franc Rozman Stane (March 27, 1911 - November 7, 1944), was a legendary Slovene partisan commandant. ...


In 1945, Yugoslavia liberated itself and shortly thereafter became a nominally federal Communist state, with Slovenia a socialist republic. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... A socialist republic is a republic that according to its constitution or political doctrine operates under some form of a socialist economic system. ...


The Austrian part of Carinthia remained part of Austria and estimated 25,000-40.000 Slovenians in the Austrian state of Carinthia were recognized as a minority and have enjoyed special rights following the Austrian State Treaty (Staatsvertrag) dated from 1955. The Slovenians in the Austrian state of Styria are not recognized as a minority and do not enjoy special rights, although the State Treaty of July 27, 1955 states otherwise. Carinthia (Kärnten in German, Koroška in Slovenian) can refer to: Carinthia - a federal state of Austria Carinthia - an informal province in Slovenia Carinthia - a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire and crownland of Austria_Hungary Karantania - the first Slovenian state This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other... The Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ... Carinthia ( German Kärnten, Slovenian Koroška) is a federal state or Bundesland, located in the south of Austria. ... The Austrian Independence Treaty (complete form: Treaty for the re-establishment of an independent and democratic Austria, signed in Vienna on the 15th May 1955), more commonly referred to as Austrian State Treaty ( German Staatsvertrag), was signed on the 15th May 1955 in Vienna at Schloss Belvedere between the Allied... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Styria (Steiermark in German, Štajerska in Slovenian) can refer to: Styria - a federal state of Austria Styria - an informal province in Slovenia Styria - a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire and crownland of Austria-Hungary This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ...


It would be wrong to think that the Slovenians of Carinthia are given full minority status. Many of the rights required by the 1955 State Treaty are still to be fully implemented. There is also an undercurrent of thinking amongst parts of the population that the Slovenian involvement in the partisan war against the Nazi occupation force was a bad thing, and indeed "Tito partisan" is a not an infrequent insult hurled against members of the minority. The current Governor of the Province, Jörg Haider, regularly plays the Slovenian card when his popularity starts to flag, and indeed relies on the strong anti-Slovenian attitudes in many parts of the province for his power base. Another interesting phenomenon is for some German speakers to refuse to accept the minority as Slovenians at all, referring to them as Windisch (And it is true that the Carinthian Slovenian dialect is different in many respects to standard Slovenian).


Yugoslavia acquired some territory from Italy after WWII but some 100,000 Slovenians remained behind the Italian border, notably around Trieste and Gorizia. Location within Italy Trieste ( Latin Tergeste, Slovenian and Croatian Trst, German and Friulian Triest) is a city in northeastern Italy, capital of Friuli-Venezia Giulia region and Trieste province, population 211,184 (2001). ... Gorizia ( Slovenian Gorica, German Görz, ( Friulian Gurize) is a small town (pop. ...


In 1991, Slovenia became an independent nation state after a brief ten day war.-1...


See also

Caranthanians (Latin Quarantani, Slovenian Karantanci) were the only Alpine Slavs in the early middle ages and the first ethnic name of an old Slovenian people as a separate part of the Slavs (Latin Sclavi qui dicuntur Quarantani, Slavs called Caranthanians). ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Ancient times Slovenia under the Roman Empire In the ancient times the territory of present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Celts and Illyrians. ... Some factual claims in this article need to be verified. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... This is the history of Croatia. ... The majority of Slovenias population is Slovenian (over 88%). Hungarians and Italians have the status of indigenous minorities under the Slovenian Constitution, which guarantees them seats in the National Assembly. ... Austrians are a homogeneous people; 92% are native German speakers. ... Italy is largely homogeneous linguistically and religiously but is diverse culturally, economically, and politically. ... Croatia is inhabited mostly by Croats, while minority groups include Serbs, Bosniaks, Hungarians, Italians and others. ... Population: 10,198,315 (2001) Age structure: 0-14 years: 17% (male 878,661; female 834,607) 15-64 years: 68% (male 3,407,368; female 3,535,818) 65 years and over: 15% (male 548,672; female 933,718) (2000 est. ... This is a list of Slovenians and people from Slovenia that are famous or notable. ...

External links

History

The origin of Slovenians


  Results from FactBites:
 
SLOVENES - LoveToKnow Article on SLOVENES (1022 words)
Their neighbors on the south-west are Italians, on the west and north Germans: history and placenames point to Slovenes having formerly held parts of Tirol, Salzburg and Austria Proper; and on the east they have given up south-west Hungary to the Magyars; to the south they have the kindred race of the Croats.
Slovene woke to a new life in the latter part of the 18th century.
In phonetics Slovene is remarkable for the change of the original lj dj into ~ and j (our y) respectively, of j into u, and for the coincidence of the old half vowels i and ii in a dull e.
The Slovenes - history of the nation (3266 words)
Slovene territory settled from the 6th century on reached its greatest extent in the 9th century, covering an area from the Bay of Trieste to the Danube River in the north and Lake Balaton in the east.
Slovene ethnic territory subsequently shrank due to Germanization in the west and north and the arrival of the Hungarians on the Pannonian Plain.
Slovene settlement in Austria waned as early as the 13th century: German colonization reached the Villach Basin in Carinthia, the Graz Basin in Styria, and the Sora River flood plain in Carniola, and Italian colonization dominated the Friulian lowlands.
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