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Encyclopedia > Slovaks
Slovaks
Alexander Dubček • Koloman Sokol • Móric Beňovský • Jozef Murgaš
Total population

~7 million Image File history File links Svks. ... Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ... Koloman Sokol (* 12 December 1902 in Liptovský Mikuláš; † 14 January 2003 in Tucson, Arizona) was one of the most prominent Slovak painters, graphic artists and illustrators. ... Moric Benovsky (born 1746 as Benyovszky Móritz Ágost - died May 23, 1786) was a noble in the Kingdom of Hungary, with Slovak and Hungarian ancestors, also an adventurer, globetrotter, explorer, colonizer, writer, chess player, a King of Madagascar, a French colonel, Polish military commander, and Austrian soldier. ... Jozef Murgaš Jozef Murgaš (17 February 1864, Tajov in the Kingdom of Hungary, present-day Slovakia – 11 May 1929, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania) was a Slovak inventor, architect, botanist, painter, patriot, and Roman Catholic priest. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Slovakia Slovakia:   4,614,8542001 Slovak census

Flag of the United States United States:    1,200,000[1]
Flag of the Czech Republic Czech Republic:    375,000[2]
Flag of Hungary Hungary:    110,000 [3]
Flag of Canada Canada:    100,000[4]
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom:    90,000[5]
Flag of Serbia Serbia:    56,600[6]
Flag of Ireland Ireland:    30,000[7]
Flag of Austria Austria:    25,000[8]
Flag of Germany Germany:    20,200[9]
Latin America:    300,000 (est.)[citation needed]
Other:    120,000 (est.)[citation needed] Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The Other or constitutive other (also referred to as othering) is a key concept in continental philosophy, opposed to the Same. ...

Language(s)
Slovak
Religion(s)
Roman Catholic 68.9%, Byzantine Rite Catholic 4.1%, Protestant 10.8%, Eastern Orthodox, other or unspecified 3.2%, no denomination, agnostic or non-religious 13% (2001 census within Slovakia, extrapolated to outside Slovaks)
Related ethnic groups
other West Slavs

The Slovaks are a western Slavic people that primarily inhabit Slovakia and speak the Slovak language, which is closely related to the Czech language. Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Slovak Greek Catholic Church, or Slovak Byzantine Catholic Church, is a Byzantine Rite church of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... Countries inhabited by West Slavs (in light green) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language Map showing an approximation location of Polish tribes West Slavs in 9th/10th century The West Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking West Slavic languages. ... Countries inhabited by West Slavs (in light green) Distribution of Slavic peoples by language Map showing an approximation location of Polish tribes West Slavs in 9th/10th century The West Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking West Slavic languages. ... The Slovak language (slovenčina, slovenský jazyk), sometimes referred to as Slovakian, is an Indo-European language belonging to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, Cashubian and Sorbian). ... Czech (čeÅ¡tina []) is one of the West Slavic languages, along with Slovak, Polish, Pomeranian (Kashubian), and Lusatian Sorbian. ...


Most Slovaks today live within the borders of the independent Slovakia (circa 5,000,000). There are autochthonous Slovak minorities in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Serbia and sizable populations of immigrants and their descendants in the U.S. and in Canada. In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Contents

History

Early Slovaks

The people of Slovakia are descended from the Slavic settlers of the Danube river basin around 500 A.D. The first known Slavic state on the territory of present-day Slovakia was the Empire of Samo. The first known state of the Proto-Slovaks was the Principality of Nitra founded sometime in the 8th century. Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... This biography does not cite any references or sources. ... The Principality of Nitra or Nitrian Principality (Slovak: Nitrianske kniežatstvo, Nitriansko, Nitrava) was a principality in what is today Slovakia and some adjacent territories in present-day Hungary in the Middle Ages. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ...


Great Moravia

Great Moravia (833 - ?907) was ancestral state of the present-day Moravians and Slovaks in the 9th and early 10th century A.D. Its formation and rich cultural heritage attract somewhat more note today due to Slovakia's newfound independence. Important developments took place at this time, including the mission of Cyril and Methodius, the development of the Glagolitic alphabet, an early form of the Cyrillic alphabet, and the use of Old Church Slavonic as the official and literary language. Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... Events End of the reign of caliph Al-Mamun Nimmyo succeeds Junna as emperor of Japan Creation of Great Moravia Births Deaths October 10 - al-Mamun, Abbasid caliph of Baghdad Categories: 833 ... A Moravian can be: an ethnic group a Christian denomination This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Cyril and Methodius were two Eastern Orthodox missionaries; for the separate articles, see: Saint Cyril Saint Methodius This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Tablet inscribed with the Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavonic alphabet. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... Old Church Slavonic (pol. ...


The original territory inhabited by the (proto-)Slovaks included present-day Slovakia, parts of present-day south-eastern Moravia and approximately the entire northern half of present-day Hungary.


Kingdom of Hungary

Slovakia came under Hungarian rule gradually from 907 to the early 14th century (major part by 1100) and remained a part of the Kingdom of Hungary (see also Upper Hungary or Uhorsko) until the formation of Czechoslovakia in 1918. Politically, Slovakia formed (again) the separate entity called Nitra Frontier Duchy, this time within the Kingdom of Hungary. This duchy was abolished in 1107. The territory inhabited by the Slovaks in present-day Hungary was gradually reduced, but in the 14th century, there were still many Slovak settlements in northern eastern present-day Hungary. Events Oleg leads Kievan Rus in a campaign against Constantinople Yelü Abaoji establishes Liao (Khitan) dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 907 ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The northern part of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... This article focuses on the Kingdom of Hungary as a political entity, for other details, see: Kingdom of Hungary in the Middle Ages (896/1000 - 1526) Eastern Hungarian Kingdom (1526-1571) ; Royal Hungary (c. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Principality of Nitra or Nitrian Principality (Slovak: Nitrianske kniežatstvo, Nitriansko, Nitrava) was a principality in what is today Slovakia and some adjacent territories in present-day Hungary in the Middle Ages. ... Events William Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter. ...


When present-day Hungary was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1541, Slovakia became the core of the "reduced" kingdom, officially called Royal Hungary. Many Magyars (Hungarians) fleeing from present-day Hungary to the north settled in large parts of present-day southern Slovakia, thereby creating the considerable Magyar minority in southern Slovakia today. Some Croats settled around and in present-day Bratislava for similar reasons. Also, many Germans settled in Slovakia, especially in the towns, as work-seeking colonists and mining experts from the 13th to the 15th century. German settlers outnumbered the native populace in almost all towns in the Kingdom of Hungary, but their numbers began to stagnate in the 16th century and to decrease later. Jews and Gypsies also formed significant populations within the territory. Ottoman redirects here. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... Consequences of the Battle of Mohács, and the conquest of Buda in 1541 by the Ottomans: the Kingdom is partitioned. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Nickname: Location of Bratislava within Slovakia Coordinates: , Country Region Districts Bratislava I-V City subdivisions 17 city boroughs Cadastral areas 20 cadastral areas First mentioned 907 Government  - Type City council  - Mayor (Primátor) Andrej ÄŽurkovský  - Headquarters Primates Palace Area [1]  - City 367. ...


After the Ottoman Empire was forced to retreat from present-day Hungary around 1700, hundreds of thousands of Slovaks were gradually settled in depopulated parts of the restored Kingdom of Hungary (present-day Hungary, Romania, Serbia, and Croatia), and that is how present-day Slovak enclaves in these countries arose. Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


Slovakia was the most advanced part of the Kingdom of Hungary for centuries (the most urbanized part, intense mining of gold and silver), but in the 19th century, when Buda/Pest became the new capital of the kingdom, many Slovaks were relegated to the peasant class. As a result, hundreds of thousands of Slovaks emigrated to North America, especially in the late 19th century and early 20th century (before WWI). Many Slovaks lived in today's Hungary but has given in hungarization. Buda (German: Ofen, Croatian: Budim, Slovak: Budín, Serbian: Будим or Budim, Turkish: Budin) is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the right bank of the Danube. ... Pest (in Slovak Pešť, pron. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


Slovakia exhibits a very rich folk culture. A part of Slovak customs and social convention are common with those of other nations of the former Habsburg monarchy (the Kingdom of Hungary was part of the Habsburg monarchy from 1526 to 1918). The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... January 14 - Treaty of Madrid. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Czechoslovakia

People of Slovakia spent most part of the 20th century within the framework of Czechoslovakia, a new state formed after World War I. Significant reforms and post-World War II industrialization took place during this time. The Slovak language has been strongly influenced by the Czech language during this period. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Czech (čeština []) is one of the West Slavic languages, along with Slovak, Polish, Pomeranian (Kashubian), and Lusatian Sorbian. ...


Contemporary Slovaks

The political transformations of 1989, 1993 and the accession to the EU in 2004 brought new liberties, which have considerably improved the outlook and prospects of all Slovaks. Non-violent protesters face armoured policemen The Velvet Revolution (Czech: , Slovak: ) (November 16 – December 29, 1989) refers to a non-violent revolution in Czechoslovakia that saw the overthrow of the communist government there. ... The dissolution of Czechoslovakia refers to the dissolution of the former country of Czechoslovakia into the nations of the Czech Republic and Slovakia, which took effect on January 1, 1993. ...


Contemporary Slovak society organically combines elements of both folk traditions and Western lifestyle.


Name and ethnogenesis

The Slovaks and Slovenes are the only current Slavic nations that have preserved the old name of the Slavs (singular: slověn) in their name - the adjective "Slovak" is still slovenský and the feminine noun "Slovak" is still Slovenka in the Slovak language, only the masculine noun "Slovak" changed to Slovenin probably in the High Middle Ages and finally (under Czech and Polish influence) to Slovák around 1400. The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... Look up feminine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... The word masculine can refer to: the property of being biologically male masculinity, a traditionally male gender role the masculine grammatical gender This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of...


According to Nestor and modern Slavic linguists, the above mentioned word slověn probably was the original name of all Slavs, but most Slavs (Czechs, Poles, Croats etc.) have taken other names in the Early Middle Ages. Although the Slovaks themselves seem to have had a slightly different word for "Slavs" (Slovan), they were called by Latin texts "Slavs" approximately up to the High Middle Ages. Thus, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish when Slavs in general and when Slovaks are meant. A good proof of the use of "Slavs" in the sense of "Slovaks" are documents of the Kingdom of Hungary which mention Bohemians (Czechs), Poles, Croats "and Slavs" (not: and "other Slavs"), implying that the "Slavs" are Slovaks. The word may have one of the following meanings. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ...


Since this is a very difficult topic, some Slovak "extreme" scholars derive from the above that all references to Slavs in the territory of present-day Slovakia are references to Slovaks (e.g. as early as in the 7th century), while on the other hand, some uninformed scholars from Hungary or Czechia derive from the above, that all references to Slovaks are just references to Slavs. The current position of the most prominent Slovak ethnographers and linguists is that the Slavs in the territory of Slovakia have to be called "Slovaks" not later than from 955 or 1000 onwards (when the Magyars settled in Hungary) and that this Slovak ethnogenesis (i.e. separation from the other Slavs) started approximately in the 8th century. Considering, however, that the Slavs that came to present-day Slovakia around 500 are the direct predecessors of present-day Slovaks (they have never been "replaced" by "other" Slavs) and that it is usual today to call the Slovenes, Poles and other nations by their later names well before 1000 (although the ethnic situation is not different from that of the Slovaks at that time), the 1000 limit is rather arbitrary and it is not completely wrong to call the Slavs in this territory "Proto-Slovaks" or "Old Slovaks" or even "Slovaks" even before 1000 in certain contexts. The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Events August 10 - Otto I the Great defeats Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld Edwy becomes King of England. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ethnogenesis is the process by which a group of human beings comes to be understood or to understand themselves as ethnically distinct from the wider social landscape from which their grouping emerges. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Events Possible date for the Battle of Mons Badonicus: Romano-British and Celts defeat an Anglo-Saxon army that may have been led by the bretwalda Aelle of Sussex (approximate date; suggested dates range from 490 to 510) Note: This battle may have influenced the legend of King Arthur. ...


Quotes from important chronicles

This is how Nestor in his Primary Chronicle (historically correctly) describes the Slovaks: Slavs that were settled along the Danube, which have been occupied by the Hungarians, the Czechs, the Lachs, and Poles that are now known as the Rus. Nestor calls these Slavs "Slavs of Hungary" in another place of the text, and mentions them in the first place in a list of Slavic nations (besides Moravians, Bohemians, Poles, Russians, etc.), because he considers the Carpathian Basin (including what is today Slovakia) the original Slavic territory. The word may have one of the following meanings. ... The Russian Primary Chronicle (Old-Slavonic: Повсть времяньныхъ лтъ; Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let; Ukrainian: Повість времмених літ, Povist vremennykh lit; often translated into English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the Kievan Rus from around 850 to 1110 originally compiled in Kiev about 1113. ... The Pannonian plain is a large plain in central/south-eastern Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ...


Anonymus, in his Gesta Hungarorum, calls the Slovaks (around 1200 with respect to past developments) Sclavi , i.e. Slavs (as opposed to "Boemy" - the Bohemians, and "Polony" - the Poles) or in another place Nytriensis Sclavi, i.e. Nitrian Slavs. There are two works with the name Gesta Hungarorum. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... The Principality of Nitra or Nitrian Principality (Slovak: Nitrianske kniežatstvo, Nitriansko, Nitrava) was a principality in what is today Slovakia and some adjacent territories in present-day Hungary in the Middle Ages. ...


And this is how Slovaks were called in various very precise sources approximately from 1200 to about 1400: Slovyenyn, Slowyenyny; Sclavus, Sclavi, Slavus, Slavi; Tóth; Winde, Wende, Wenden.


Culture

See also List of Slovaks
Ľudovít Štúr - epitome of the Slovak Revival - politician, poet, journalist, publisher, teacher, philosopher and linguist.
Ľudovít Štúr - epitome of the Slovak Revival - politician, poet, journalist, publisher, teacher, philosopher and linguist.

Slovaks have a very rich, old and diverse folk culture (songs, fairy tales, dances), literature, music and art. This is a list of Slovaks. ... Portrait of Ľudovít Štúr by an unknown mid 19th century artist. ... Portrait of Ľudovít Štúr by an unknown mid 19th century artist. ...


The art of Slovakia can be traced back to the Middle Ages, when some of the greatest masterpieces of the country's history were created. Significant figures from this period included the many Masters, among them the Master Paul of Levoča and Master MS. More contemporary art can be seen in the shadows of Koloman Sokol, Albín Brunovský, Martin Benka, Mikuláš Galanda, and Ľudovít Fulla. The most important Slovak composers have been Eugen Suchoň, Ján Cikker, and Alexander Moyzes. Master Paul of Levoča (Majster Pavol z Levoče in Slovak) was a medieval Slovak carver and sculptor of the 15th and 16th century. ... Master MS (in Slovak: Majster MS) (lived around 1500) is the artificial name of one of the greatest Gothic painters and sculptors of Slovakia (at that time part of the Kingdom of Hungary). ... Koloman Sokol (* 12 December 1902 in Liptovský Mikuláš; † 14 January 2003 in Tucson, Arizona) was one of the most prominent Slovak painters, graphic artists and illustrators. ... Albín Brunovský (25 December 1935, Zohor - 20 January 1997, Bratislava) was a painter, graphic artist, lithographer, illustrator and pedagogue, considered one of the greatest Slovak painters of the 20th century. ... Martin Benka Martin Benka (1888-1971) was a Slovak painter and illustrator. ... Mikulas Galanda Mikuláš Galanda (* March 4th 1895, Turčianske Teplice – † June 5th 1938, Bratislava) was a renowned painter, illustrator, and one of the most important pioneers and propagators of Slovak modern art. ... Ludovit Fulla Ludovit Fulla - Madona v cervenom Ľudovít Fulla (February 27, 1902 – April 21, 1980) was a Slovak painter, graphic artist, illustrator, stage designer and art teacher. ... Eugen Suchon, Portrait, 1941 Eugen Suchoň (September 25, 1908, Pezinok – August 5, 1993, Bratislava) was one of the greatest Slovak composers of the 20th century. ... Ján Cikker Ján Cikker (29 July 1911, Banská Bystrica – 21 December 1989, Bratislava) was a Slovak composer, the main representative of modern Slovak classical music. ... Alexander Moyzes Alexander Moyzes (* September 4th 1906, Kláštor pod Znievom - † November 20th 1984, Bratislava) was a renowned 20th century Romantic composer of Slovak origin. ...


The most famous Slovak names can indubitably be attributed to invention and technology. Such people include Jozef Murgaš, the inventor of wireless telegraphy; Ján Bahýľ, the inventor of the motor-driven helicopter; Anyos Štefan Jedlík, one of the inventors of the first electric motor; Jozef Maximilián Petzval, inventor of the camera zoom and lens; Jozef Karol Hell, inventor of the industrial water pump; Štefan Banič, inventor of the modern parachute; Aurel Stodola, inventor of the bionic arm and pioneer in thermodynamics; and, more recently, John Dopyera, father of modern acoustic string instruments. Jozef MurgaÅ¡ Jozef MurgaÅ¡ (17 February 1864, Tajov in the Kingdom of Hungary, present-day Slovakia – 11 May 1929, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania) was a Slovak inventor, architect, botanist, painter, patriot, and Roman Catholic priest. ... Ján Bahýľ (25 May 1845, Zvolenská Slatina (in Hungarian: Nagyszalatna) (Kingdom of Hungary, today Slovakia) - 13 March 1916, Pressburg (Hungarian: Pozsony, today:Bratislava)) was a Slovak inventor mainly of flying machines. ... Anyos Jedlik (Slovak Anton Å tefan Jedlík, Hungarian Ányos István Jedlik) (1800-1895) was a Hungarian inventor, engineer, physicist, and Roman Catholic Priest of Slovak origin. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jozef Karol Hell (German: Joseph Karl Hell) (1713-1789) – was a Slovak mining engineer and inventor who, in 1755, invented the water-pillar, the worlds first water pump machine. ... A monument erected to Å tefan Banič in Slovakia. ... Aurel Stodola (1859-1942) was a Slovak engineer, physicist, and inventor. ... John Dopyera holding one of his hand-constructed violins John Dopyera (1893-1988) was a Slovak-American inventor and entrepreneur, considered by many to be the provider of the crucial bridge between the world of acoustic instruments and that of electric instruments. ...


Slovakia is also known for its polyhistors, of whom include Pavol Jozef Šafárik, Matej Bel, Ján Kollár, and its political revolutionaries, such Milan Rastislav Štefánik and Alexander Dubček. Pavel Jozef Å afárik (Safáry / Schaffáry/ Schafary/ Saf(f)arik / Å afarík/ Szafarzik, Czech Pavel Josef Å afařík, modern Slovak Pavol Jozef Å afárik, German Paul Joseph Schaffarik, Latin Paulus Josephus Schaffarik, Hungarian Pál József Saf(f)arik) (13 May 1795 in Kobeliarovo, Slovakia (at that... Matej Bel z Očovej (Hungarian Bél Mátyás, German Matthias Bél) (March 22, 1684, Očová – August 29, 1749, Pressburg - todays Bratislava) was a polymath, encyclopedist, philosopher, historian, Lutheran pastor and one of the greatest Slovak scholars of the eighteenth century. ... Ján Kollár (1793 - 1852) was a Slovak writer (mainly poet), archaelogist, scientist and politician. ... Milan Rastislav Å tefánik Å tefániks statue on Pragues Petřín Milan Rastislav Å tefánik (born July 21, 1880 in KoÅ¡ariská - died May 4, 1919 in Ivánka pri Dunaji) was a Slovak politician, diplomat, and astronomer. ... Alexander Dubček (November 27, 1921 – November 7, 1992) was a Slovak politician and briefly leader of Czechoslovakia (1968-1969), famous for his attempt to reform the Communist regime (Prague Spring). ...


There were two leading persons who codified the Slovak language. The first one was Anton Bernolák whose concept was based on the dialect of western Slovakia (1787). It was the enactment of the first national literary language of Slovaks ever. The second notable man was Ľudovít Štúr. His formation of the Slovak language had principles in the dialect of central Slovakia (1843). Anton Bernolák (1762-1813) was the author of the first Slovak language standard (in the 1780s), which he based off western Slovak dialects. ... Ľudovít Å túr Ľudovít Å túr, known in his era as Ludevít Velislav Å túr, (October 29, 1815 - January 12, 1856) was the leader of the Slovak national revival in the 19th century, the author of the Slovak language standard eventually leading to the contemporary Slovak literary...


The best known Slovak hero was Juraj Jánošík (the Slovak equivalent of Robin Hood). A prominent Slovak explorer was Móric Beňovský. Janosik, wood engraving by WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Skoczylas Juraj Jánošík (modern pronunciation: ), or Jur, Juro, Jurko Jánošík (1688-1713), Polish: Jerzy Janosik (modern pronunciation: ), Hungarian: Juraj Jánosik[1] was a famous Slovak outlaw, often described as the Slovak Robin Hood. ... For other uses, see Robin Hood (disambiguation). ... Moric Benovsky (born 1746 as Benyovszky Móritz Ágost - died May 23, 1786) was a noble in the Kingdom of Hungary, with Slovak and Hungarian ancestors, also an adventurer, globetrotter, explorer, colonizer, writer, chess player, a King of Madagascar, a French colonel, Polish military commander, and Austrian soldier. ...


In terms of sports, the Slovaks are probably best known (in North America) for their hockey personalities, especially Stan Mikita, Peter Šťastný and Peter Bondra. For a list see List of Slovaks. Stanislav Stan Mikita (born May 20, 1940) was a Slovak-Canadian professional ice hockey player, generally regarded as the best center of the 1960s. ... Peter Šťastný (born September 18, 1956 in Bratislava, Slovakia) is a Slovak ice hockey player who played in the National Hockey League (NHL) from 1980 to 1995. ... Peter Bondra, #12 (#10 while with the Ottawa Senators in the 2003-2004 NHL season) was born on February 7, 1968 in Luck in the U.S.S.R., now in Ukraine. ... This is a list of Slovaks. ...


For a list of the most notable Slovak writers and poets, see List of Slovak authors. The following is a list of the most important authors of Slovak prose and drama, for a list of Slovak poets see Slovak poetry: Middle Ages (800 – 1500) Constantine (827-869) – born in Thessaloniki Saint Methodius (815-885) - born in Thessaloniki Gorazd (late 9th century) Clement of Ohrid...


Statistics

There are approximately 4.6 million autochthonous Slovaks in Slovakia. Further Slovaks live in the following countries (the list shows estimates of embassies etc. and of associations of Slovaks abroad in the first place, and official data of the countries as of 2000/2001 in the second place).

Slovaks wearing traditional dress in Serbia

The list stems from Claude Baláž, a Canadian Slovak, the current plenipotentiary of the Government of the Slovak Republic for Slovaks abroad (see e.g.: 6)  : Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x679, 126 KB)This picture is public domain from web site of Serbian Government. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x679, 126 KB)This picture is public domain from web site of Serbian Government. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...

  • USA (1 200 000 / 821 325*) [*(1)there were, however, 1 882 915 Slovaks in the US according to the 1990 census, (2) there are some 400 000 "Czechoslovaks" in the US, a large part of which are Slovaks] - 19th - 21st century emigrants; see also [10]
  • Czech Republic (350 000 / 183 749*) [*there were, however, 314 877 Slovaks in the Czech Republic according to the 1991 census] - due to the existence of former Czechoslovakia
  • Hungary (110 000 / 39 266)
  • Canada (100 000 / 50 860) - 19th - 21st century migrants
  • Serbia (60 000 / 59 021*) [especially in Vojvodina;*excl. the Rusins] - 18th & 19th century settlers
  • Poland(2002) (47 000 / 2 000*) [* The Central Census Commission has accepted the objection of the Association of Slovaks in Poland with respect to this number ]- ancient minority and due to border shifts during the 20th century
  • Romania (18 000 / 17 199) - ancient minority
  • Ukraine (17 000 / 6 397) [especially in Carpathian Ruthenia] - ancient minority and due to the existence of former Czechoslovakia
  • France (13 000/ n.a.)
  • Australia (12 000 / n.a.) - 20th - 21st century migrants
  • Austria (10 234 / 10 234) - 20th - 21st century migrants
  • UKGB&NI (10 000 / n.a.)
  • Croatia (5 000 / 4 712) - 18th & 19th century settlers
  • other countries

The number of Slovaks living outside Slovakia in line with the above data was estimated at max. 2 016 000 in 2001 (2 660 000 in 1991), implying that, in sum, there were max. some 6 630 854 Slovaks in 2001 (7 180 000 in 1991) in the world. Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Rusins (meaning literally Rusyns, Ruthenians) is the name of a Slavic minority in Serbia and Croatia. ... // Carpathian Ruthenia, aka Transcarpathian Ruthenia, Subcarpathian Rus, Subcarpathia (Ukrainian: Karpats’ka Rus’; Slovak and Czech: Podkarpatská Rus; Hungarian: Kárpátalja; Romanian: Transcarpatia) is a small region of Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraines Zakarpattia Oblast (Ukrainian: Zakarpats’ka oblast’) and easternmost Slovakia (largely in PreÅ¡ov kraj... For an explanation of terms such as Great Britain, British, United Kingdom, England, Scotland and Wales, see British Isles (terminology). ...


The estimate according to the right-hand site chart yields an approximate number of Slovaks living outside Slovakia of 1.5 million.


Other (much higher) estimates stemmig from the Dom zahraničných Slovákov (House of Foreign Slovaks) can be found here(in Slovak).


References

  1. Slovaks in the US PDF
  2. Slovaks in Czech Republic
  3. Slovaks in Serbia
  4. Slovaks in Canada
  5. Slovaks in Hungary
  6. Baláž, Claude: Slovenská republika a zahraniční Slováci. 2004, Martin
  7. Baláž, Claude: (a series of articles in:) Dilemma. 01/1999 - 05/2003

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Map of the dominant self-identified ethnic origins of ancestors per census division. ...

See also

This is a list of Slovaks. ... List of Slovak Americans: Eugene Cernan (Slovak mother) Jim Caviezel[1](Slovak grandmother) Pete Latzo Stan Mikita Michael Novak Lizabeth Scott Joseph Gaydos Louis Joseph Luzbetak Soma Weiss Michal Bosak Jaroslav Pelikan Viktor Mamatey Jan Slezak Stefan Banic Tom Selleck[2](Slovak mother) Michael Strank Scott Stevens Jan Stastny Peter... Slovaks in Vojvodina according to the 2002 census Slovaks in Vojvodina Slovaks are the third largest ethnic group in the Vojvodina province of Serbia. ... Detail of an eagle sculpture at Orlov most (Eagles Bridge), Sofia, built by Czech architects Czechs (Bulgarian: , chehi) and Slovaks (Bulgarian: , slovatsi) are a minority ethnic group in Bulgaria (Czech and Slovak: ). According to the 2001 census, Czechs number only 316 and the number of Slovaks is even smaller,[1... This is a tabular history of the Slovak language. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Slovaks - LoveToKnow 1911 (772 words)
The Magyars have always treated the Slovaks as an inferior race and have succeeded in assimilating many districts where the prefix Tot in place-names shows the former presence of Slovaks: those who take the Magyar language and attitude are called Magyarones.
The Magyars, in pursuance of this policy, do their best to suppress the Slovak nationality in every way, even to the extent of taking away Slovak children to be brought up as Magyars, and denying them the right to use their language in church and school.
A new start was made in the 'forties by L'udevit Stur, Josef Hurban and M. Hodza who adopted the central dialect, united the Catholic and Protestant Slovaks in its use and successfully opposed the attempts to keep the Slovaks to the use of tech.
Slovaks (823 words)
Czechs outnumbered Slovaks in Czechoslovakia as well as in Chicago, and Chicago's Slovaks feared that their distinctive culture would be eclipsed.
Slovak community leaders wanted the country to be called Czecho-slovakia, believing that the hyphen signified the equality of the Czech and Slovak portions of the nation.
The Dunaj Savings and Loan, the most important Slovak financial institution in Chicago, was a casualty of the Depression, and the Osadné Hlasy, the Catholic Slovak weekly newspaper, repeatedly begged readers to continue to patronize the Slovak businesses that advertised in the newspaper and whose prosperity was necessary for the paper's survival.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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